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and in order to proceed as much as possible from the test of some of the most palpable differences that known to the unknown, we begin by classifying are known to exist between the Goidelic and the their idioms. These, whether dead or still spoken, Brythonic idioms to the remains of the Gaulish belong to the Aryan or Indo-European family of language, we find at once that it is to be ranked languages, and those of them spoken in modern times with the Brythonic dialects, and not with the divide themselves into two groups—viz. Goidelic Goidelic ones, and our Brythonic group becomes and Brythonic. (1) The Goidelic group embraces what may be more exactly described as a Gallothe dialects termed Gaelic, that is to say, Irish | Brythonic one. This further suggests the question Gaelic, or Irish as it is now more frequently and whether there was no continental Celtic idiom brietly called ; Manx Gaelic, or the Gaelic dialect which partook of the characteristics of the Goidelic not yet extinct in the Isle of Man ; and Scotch branch. The probability is that there was; for Gaelic, or the Gaelic spoken in the Highlands and one finds Sulpicius Severns, an ecclesiastical writer Islands of Scotland. In ordinary Scotch and English of the 4th century, distinguishing between Celtic parlance this is what is understood by the word and Gallic or Gaulish, as if both were spoken in his Gaelic when it is used without any qualification. time. (See Dialogue i. 26, in Migne's Patr. Lat. In order to resist one of the delusions to which vol. xx. col. 201 : Tu vero, inquit Postumianus, charlatans are always leading the unwary, it is vel Celtice, aut, si mavis, Gallice loquere, dumright to say that the words Gael and Gaelic have modo jam Martinum loquaris.') And the use nothing to do with Galli. Gael is the simplified of the two names Celtæ and Galli would seem English spelling of a word which is now written to point to the same inference-viz. the existin Scotch and Irish Gaelic Gaidheal, with an ence in Gaul of two Celtic peoples, the one, evanescent dh; but the most ancient form known probably, superimposed on the other, as on a vanof it was Goidel, whence the adjective Goidelic, quished population, or driving it towards the which has been resorted to by Celtic scholars as south and west. Thus, if the Celtic language applicable equally to all three Gaelic subdivisions which Sulpicius Severus distinguished from Gaulish of the Celtic group here in question. The Celtic should be ranked with the Goidelic dialects, we languages of this group are sometimes also called should have alongside of a Gallo-Brythonic group Erse, which is a term derived from the Scotch form another which might be called Celto-Brythonic of the ailjective Irish; this was Ersch or Yrisch, were it not inconvenient to use the words Celt and the longer and shorter forms of which appear, used Celtic in two senses. For while the modern usage without any distinction, by Kennedy in his answer applies them indifferently to the whole family,

poet Dunbar, when the latter had called | Sulpicius indicates a narrower sense ; and so, in Kennedy an · Ersch bry bour baird' and an · Ersch fact, had Cæsar done centuries before, when he katherane,' in reference to his alleged extrac-wrote that one of the three peoples of Gaul was tion from the Irish Scots of Galloway and Carrick.called Celtæ in their own tongue. He states that Kennedy's reply contains the following line (see these Celtæ proper, so to say, were separated by Murray's Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scot. the Garonne from the Aquitani, and by the Seine land, 1873, pp. 43-44):

and the Marne from the Belgæ. In other words,

their country extended from the Garonne to the Thou luvis nane Erische, elf, I undirstand,

Seine and Marne, and other Roman writers give it and he goes on to add

the name of Celtica ; and Dionysius of HalicarThy fore fader maid Ersche and Erschmen thin.

nassus had heard of a river Celtus, from which

Celtica was supposed to derive its name. From (2) The Brythonic group embraces the following this narrower Celtica, in the sense which Roman languages : Welsh, Breton, and Cornish, which has | writers gave it, one might form the adjective been extinct now for about a century. Two of Celtican, to apply to its people, in order to avoid these belong to Great Britain, and one, the Breton the confusion which must arise from calling them or Armoric, to Little Britain on the other side Celts, whilst using that word also of the whole of the English Channel. These three might be family. collectively termed British or Britannic, but that! In order to show the philological reasons for this both these adjectives have connotations which classification, it would be necessary to go into a wonld be misleading, as they tend to confusion; variety of details ; but let one of these suffice for en here, also, a neutral form, Brythonic, is used, the present. The Gallo-Brythonic dialects used p which is derived from Brython, one of the Welsh | where the others would have qu. Take, for exwords for the Welsh and the so-called Ancient ample, the early inscriptional Irish for the genitive Britons, whence their language is sometimes called of the word for "son’; it was maqvi, corresponding Brythoneg in Welsh. This last was in Cornish to a nominative which appears as macc or mac in Brethonec, and in Breton Brézonek, meaning re the oldest manuscript Irish; and mac is still the spectively the Celtic of Cornwall and of Brittany. word for 'boy' or 'son' in all the Goidelic dialects. Brython or Britto was the national name of all Now the early Brythonic form of this genitive peoples of this branch, just as Goidel or Gael may would bave been mapi, while in the oldest manube treated as the national name of the other script Welsh we have map, and in later Welsh branch.

mâh, boy' or 'son. From this word was formed All this applies only to the neo-Celtic nations, or another, mabon, a boy' or youth;' and this in its those among whom Celtic languages are or have old form appears in Latin inscriptions as maponus been in use in modern times, and a question of in Roman inscriptions found in Britain in honour much greater difficulty presents itself when one of the Celtic god Apollo Maponus, so called in attempts to classify likewise the continental Celts reference to his youthfulness. Now from Gaul of ancient history. The reason for this is chietly we have such names as Eporedorix, Parisii, Petrothe fact that the linguistic data become more pre- corii, and many others, with the consonant p; but carious as one goes back. Thus, for example, the every now and then we have also names with language of the ruling people of ancient Gaul has qu, such as Sequana and Aquitani, together with heen left as only in a very few inscriptions, so several instances from Spain, where a people of the that our knowledge of it from that source has to same Celtic branch as those of Celtica had also be complemented by the study of Gaulish proper probably established themselves. names, of which a considerable number is extant So far, then, as one can get philological data to in Latin inscriptions and in the writings of Roman reason upon, it would seem that the west of Europe and Greek authors. Now, when we apply the | had in early times been subjected to two Celtic 58

CELTS

CEMENTS

invasions; the one is represented by the Celts under BRITTANY, CORNWALL, GAELIC, IRELAND, whose position, geographically speaking, is the WALES. See alsó ARYAN RACE AND LANGUAGES, farthest from the home of the Aryans. These ETHNOLOGY, PHILOLOGY, DRUIDISM. would be the Celticans of Gaul and Spain, as Besides the works already mentioned, the following compared with the Gallic tribes to the east of should be consulted : Müllenhoff's Deutsche Altertums. them towards the Rhine and the Alps ; the same kunde (Berlin, 1887); Windisch's article "Keltische relative position is also taken up by the Goidelic

Sprachen' in the Algemeine Encyklopædie der Wissen. Celts of the British Islands, occupying, as we find

schaften und Künste, together with the reviews on the them doing, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and the

same in the Revue Celtique, vol. vi. pp. 395-400;

Hübner's Inscriptiones Britannice Christiance (Berlin, Scotch Highlands and Islands. The other, here

1876); Brambach's Corpus Inscrip. Rhenanarum ; and the represented by the Brythons, must have come

volumes of the Corpus Inscrip. Latinarum, published by later and driven out the Goidels, or subdued them, I the Berlin Academy, especially those for Britain (vii.), in the rest of this island. This may be supposed, Spain (ii.), Gallia Narbonensis (xii.), Gallia Cisalpina also, to have been the case on the Continent, so (v.), and Illyricum (ii.). that we have to regard the later comers, the Galli, Cements. These may be roughly divided into as invaders and conquerors forming another Celtic three classes : (1) The stone cements, including population. In the eastern portions of Gaul they Roman and Portland cements, and ordinary mortar, may have formed the bulk of the population, but which are used in thickish layers for uniting stone in the rest of that country they probably only and brick work, and for protective coverings to constituted a ruling class of comparatively small buildings; (2) substances which form binding importance in point of numbers. Such a state of joints of much less but still appreciable thickness, things would adequately explain the great dearth such as white lead, red lead, and putty; and (3) of linguistic remains belonging to the older and cements which require to be used in extremely thin subjugated people. Roman authors and other coatings, such as glue, isinglass, and dissolved strangers would naturally speak most of the ruling caoutchouc. classes, and information about the others must Ordinary Mortar is a mixture of slaked lime reach strangers through the medium of the Gallic (calcium hydroxide) and sand, made into a paste rulers and their language, at anyrate, so far as with water. Generally one part of lime to three concerns the time before Latin became the official | or four parts of sand are used, but the proportions tongue of all Gaul. A somewhat similar conclusion vary according to the purity of the lime employed. has been arrived at by studying the burials and very pure or fat lime, such as that made by burn. megalithic monuments of France and the neigh-ing white chalk or white marble does not make bouring lands to the east of it. In Central and so good a mortar as lime obtained from less pure Western France menhirs, dolmens, and cromlechs limestones, which are by far the most abundant. prevail, while the eastern side of France shows The more thoroughly the ingredients are interthe prevalence of mounds and barrows, which are mixed, the more coniplete will be the subsequent here and there found penetrating into the other hardening of the mortar. As commonly laid in the domain, giving us a sort of rude sketch, as it were, joints of brick or stone work, mortar sets suffici. of an invasion advancing irregularly towards the ently fast to allow building operations to proceed west. See M. Bertrand's Archéologie Celtique et from day to day with occasional longer intervals, Gauloise ; also K. von Becker's Versuch einer but it takes years—perhaps in many cases cen. Lösung der Celten frage (1883), pp. 114-119.

turies—to reach its maximum hardness. The For reasons already indicated, the question of setting and subsequent slow hardening of mortar Celtic ethnology is a very difficult one, but it is are usually considered to be due, in the first inconsiderably more difficult than would appear from stance, simply to the loss of water, and afterwards what has here been mentioned ; for besides two | to the absorption by the lime of carbonic acid from Celtic sets of invaders, there are also to be taken the atmosphere, the carbonate of lime thus formed into account the non-Aryan races that previously binding together the sand and stone. It is doubt. occupied the countries to which the Celts came. ful, however, if this is an altogether satisfactory These pre-Celtic populations probably survived in explanation. The mortar used in many medieval considerable numbers, and one of the effects of a buildings is largely mixed with small pebbles. In second Celtic invasion may be supposed to have a number of cases this has proved to be of a more been to force the earlier Celtic settlers to amalga- durable nature than the stone used along with it. mate with the ancient inhabitants, and to make Puzzolana or Pozzuolana, a loosely coherent common cause with them against the later Aryan volcanic sand found at Pozzuoli, near Naples, has hordes. So it may be expected that the language | been long celebrated for its property of forming of the Goidelic Celts will prove to have absorbed a hydraulic cement when mixed with ordinary a larger non-Aryan element than that of the lime. It is composed of silica, with a little Brythons. Similarly, one might take for granted magnesia and potash or soda, alumina, lime, and that the physical type of the people speaking the oxide of iron. Goidelic dialects should prove less purely Aryan ; Roman Cement.--Certain natural mixtures of but this feature is obscured by the fact of the lime and clay are called cement-stones. The clays counter-invasions which Wales and other western of some of the newer geological formations in the portions of Britain have undergone in historical south of England, for example, contain courses of times at the hands of Ireland. Lastly, it is right septarian nodules (see SEPTARIA), which bave been to add that in so far as the people, whose language in great request for making the best kinds of is or has been Celtic, are Aryans, one might expect | Roman cement. They are concretions of impure the type to be that of tall men, with more or less calcareous matter, many of them having this light hair and blue eyes ; on the other hand, the analysis : Carbonate of lime, 66; silica, 18; alumina, smaller men, with dark hair and black eyes, which 7; and protoxide of iron, 6; or consist of these subit was the fashion till lately to regard as the stances in nearly that proportion. Cement-stones genuine and typical Celts, are probably not to be are carefully calcined in kilns, and afterwards regarded as Celts at all, but as Ivernians or ground and sifted. Good Roman cement should representatives of the pre-Celtic and non-Aryan set in about 15 minutes, and this quick-setting race, whose hunting ground the soil of the British property makes it valuable for work which requires Islands may be said to have been long before the to be executed between tides and for other purposes first Aryan set foot in them.

where the cement used must harden quickly. It is The Celtic languages and literatures will be found I at best of but medium strength. Soine natural

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cements are slow-setting, and these do not contain stance. But it is also known that objects made of more than 22 per cent. of clay. They set under unmixed Portland cement from the works of some water when half their weight consists of clay. The of the best makers will sometimes keep good for proportion of sand used with Roman cement should nearly twenty years, and then crumble to pieces not much exceed that of the cement. When em- | even when not exposed out of doors at all. Of ployed for external coatings of buildings it is apt course explanations of these failures are forthto effloresce and beconie unsightly.

coming. They are generally attributed to carelessPortland Cement. - This is considered by far the ness in the manufacture of the cement, or in the most important of the stone cements. It is an selection of the materials for it. But if they occur, artificial product, named from its resemblance to as they have done, with cements that have stood Portland Stone, but is much more largely used very well the ordinary mechanical tests, how can than Roman cement. In the manufacture of Port. any cement of this kind be entirely depended upon land cement on the banks of the Thames and the for durability? Twenty, thirty, or even fifty years Medway by the wet process, three parts of white is far too short a time to test the lasting property chalk are mixed with one part of clay or mud from of a building material of this nature. The use of the lower reaches of these rivers. The two sub. | Portland cement in pavements and for architectural stances, along with water, are placed in a wash ornaments is not attended with much risk, and mill' in which strong revolving knives or cutters for such purposes it is very suitable. The capital reduce the whole to a creamy "slurry' or slip. employed in the manufacture in Great Britain is The slurry then passes by gravitation to backs or probably near two millions sterling. For American reservoirs. There it is allowed to settle for some cements, see ROSENDALE. weeks, when the superfluous water is removed by Scott's Selenic Cement consists of burnt limestone decantation. The mixture is next dried on heated mixed with about 5 per cent. of sulphate of lime iron plates or on the floor of a heated chamber, in the form of plaster of Paris, and ground to and then burned in kilns. Finally it is ground to powder. The presence of the sulphate arrests the a fine powder. Modifications of the wet process slaking action of the lime, causes the cement to by which the large reservoirs are dispensed with set more quickly, and admits of more sand being have been introduced in recent years. In other used with it than ordinary lime does. This cement parts of the country Portland cement is manu- has been a good deal used for plastering, and to factured by the dry process from the hard lime- some extent also for mortar. stones of other formations than the chalk, along Plaster of Paris (see ALABASTER and GYPSUM). with clay or shale. These limestones are crushed -This material is used for cementing marble and small, mixed in the proper proportion with clay alabaster in much the same way as mortar is in or shale, then roughly burned, and ground to brick-work. It is also employed for uniting the powder. This powder slightly moistened is passed separately moulded pieces of any large object cast through a pug-mill, and then made into bricks, in the same material. Sometimes it is selected which are afterwards burned in kilns and reduced to | for fixing metal mounts to glass. powder.

Keene's Cement is made by saturating plaster of Since Portland cement is hardly ever employed Paris in small lumps with alum and recalcining in the pure or neat state, its strength is perhaps it. It then forms a hard plaster for the projecting best tested when it is mixed with an equal weight portions of halls and rooms, such as pilasters, of sand. The best cement so mixed and moulded columns, and skirtings. It is capable of taking in the state of a stiff mortar, into any convenient a high polish. shape, when tested after the lapse of seven days, | Parian or Keating's Cement somewhat resembles during six of which it is customary to keep it Keene's. In its manufacture borax as well as

d in water, exceeds in tensile strength alum is added to the plaster of Paris. 200 lb. per square inch, and in crushing strength, Martin's Cement is another kind, with plaster of tested by 11-inch cubes, 1000 lb. for the same area. Paris for its basis, but instead of borax, carbonate Its strength in the unmixed state is much greater. of potash is added, and sometimes hydrochloric Much of the Portland cement made is, however, acid as well. With the exception of Scott's, these little more than half as strong as the best kind. plaster of Paris cements are only used in plastering Roman cement of good quality mixed to the same or other internal work-not for mortars. extent with sand as the above, and tested under the Mastic Cement, consisting of a mixture of burnt same conditions, has on an average a tensile strength clay or limestone in a powdered state, with boiled of 30 lb., and a crushing strength of 200 lb, in each oil and litharge, was more in use formerly than case per square inch. Portland cement is slow in now; but though expensive, it is an excellent setting compared with most varieties of Roman material for preventing the admission of rain-water cement. Both Portland and Roman cement form at certain joints about buildings, such as where hydraulic mortars-that is, they set under water. wood and stone work come together at windows. No mortar will do this which contains less than It was also used for covering external mouldings. 10 per cent. of silica.

Rust or Iron Cement.-Joints in iron-work, such Till close on 1840 Portland cement was hardly as those for hot-water pipes, are filled up with a known, but the use of it has extended rapidly, cement of iron borings or turnings, mixed with especially in recent years. Its most important at least 2 per cent. of sal-ammoniac. Sometimes application is in the construction of docks and sulphur in powder is added. The iron oxidises harbours, many of which are partly or wholly and forms a firm joint. built of it, mixed with sand and broken stones, in Sulphur Cement. - For jointing earthenware the form of a concrete. In this state, or simply | pipes, and occasionally for fixing bars of iron mixed with sand, it is also much employed for into stone, a cement is made of sulphur, resin, and other purposes where strength and durability are brick-dust. It is a cheap but not a strong cement required. Owing to the nature of some of the where metal is concerned. extensive engineering works in which Portland Water-glass Cements. -For furnaces one kind cement is largely used, it is plainly of great con consists of burnt and unburnt fireclay made sequence that its properties should be thoroughly | plastic with silicate of soda or water-glass. understood. Numerous failures with it have taken Another cement, capable of standing a high heat, place. The chemical investigation into the case is formed of asbestos powder made into a paste of the Aberdeen docks in 1887 distinctly showed with silicate of soda. The same silicate mixed the deleterious action of sea-water upon this sub. | with ground glass makes an acid-proof cement.

ummerse

60

CEMENTS

CEMETERY

White and Red Lead Cements.-Either white in handles, is made of equal weights of resin and lead or red lead by itself, or a mixture of both, is brick-dust melted together; or, for a superior much in request as a cement for the joints of slate quality, 4 parts of resin, 1 of beeswax, and I of or glass cisterns, such as aquariums. These are also brick-dust. employed for the joints of gas-pipes, for cementing Copal varnish, mastic varnish, Canada balsam, metal mounts to glass tubes, and other chemical and gold size are each useful occasionally for and electrical purposes. White and red lead cementing substances like two pieces of glass cernents are made up with boiled linseed oil, and together. sometimes gold size is added. Mixed white and red lead make a very hard and firm cement. A

Cement-stone, a somewhat argillaceous and cement of these two substances and ground plum

| ferruginous limestone, generally compact, which is bago in equal parts, mixed with oil, is said to

occasionally employed for making hydraulic mortar stand a great heat in steam-joints.

or cement. The Cement-stone Series is the name Shell-lac Cements. - An excellent cement is made

of a group of strata occurring in the Carboniferous by digesting 4 oz. of the finest shell-lac in 3 oz. of

System of Scotland. See CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. methylated spirit in a warm place. It should be Cemetery (from the Greek koimētērion, litermade into a consistency like thick syrup. This ally 'a sleeping-place') may mean any graveyard, makes a firm cement for mending pieces of glass, or other place of deposit for the dead; but it has china, ornamental stones, and ivory. It is not lately acquired a special meaning, applicable to soluble in water. A cheaper, but still very those extensive ornamental burial-grounds which serviceable cement can be formed by dissolving have recently come into use as the practice of shell-lac in wood naphtha. For some purposes burying within and around churches was gradually shell-lac itself is used as cement by simply melting | abandoned (see BURIAL). The fine burial-grounds it.

of the Turks, extending over large tracts adorned Marine Glue is a mixture of shell-lac in a solution by cedars and other trees, may have suggested the of india-rubber. It is inade into thin sheets, and plan to western Europeans. Those round Conmelted when required for use in shipbuilding, &c. stantinople are famous, and are dense forests of

Gelatin and Isinglass Cements. — Fish-glue, cypresses. A Moslem grave is never reopened, and gelatin, or Isinglass (g.v.), made up with dilute a cypress is usually planted after every interment. acetic acid and other bodies into a jelly or thick Of western cities, Paris took the lead in this reliquid, produces a cement slightly varying in its spect, and in Britain there are now no considernature, for mending china, glass, ivory, bone, and able towns near which there is not at least one other substances. Foulke's cement and liquid cemetery, and the legislation mentioned under the fish-glue are cements of this class. These can be head of BURIAL has rendered their establishment, obtained in a convenient form for use in hardware to a certain extent, a legal necessity. There was or druggists' shops. They are more or less soluble at first a natural feeling of regret at the prospect of in water, so that articles mended with them must deserting places of deposit for the dead so hallowed be quickly washed. Cement of mixed glue and by ancient use and recent associations as the glycerine, sometimes with tannin added, is occa church and the churchyard. On the other hand, sionally used for leather and cloth.

the new places of interment began to become Armenian or Diamond Cement. The following attractive in virtue of their trees and flowers, is the reputed formula for preparing the cement natural scenery, and works of monumental art. used by the Armenian jewellers for attaching The new cemeteries are in many instances cheerful diamonds, &c., without any metallic setting : open places, and in them the place of rest for the ‘Dissolve five or six bits of gum-mastic, each the dead has rather tended to improve than to undersize of a large pea, in as much rectified spirit of mine the health of the living. One of the first wine as will suffice to render it liquid ; and in and most celebrated of modern European cemeanother vessel dissolve as much isinglass, previously teries is that of Père la Chaise (q.v.), near Paris, a little softened in water--though none of the the arrangements of which have been generally water must be used-in French brandy, or good followed in the cemeteries of London and other rum, as will make a 2-ounce phial of very strong English cities. It was laid out in 1804, and is now glue, adding two very small bits of galbanum or within the enceinte of the city. The Campo Santo of ammoniacum, which must be rubbed or ground Pisa (1228-83), the pantheon of the Pisans, has been till they are dissolved. Then mix the whole with the model of many Italian cemeteries. It is an a sufficient heat. Keep the glue in a phial closely oblong court, surrounded by lofty arcades of marble, stopped, and when it is to be used, set the phial in and adorned with famous frescoes and works of art. boiling water.'

In the centre is a mass of earth brought from the Elastic Cements.-One part of caoutchouc dis- | Holy Land. The Genoese Campo Santo contains solved in 3 parts of chloroform ; also, 5 parts of an enormous wealth of sculpture. One Neapoli. caoutchouc in 3 parts of chloroform, with 1 part of tan cemetery (the Campo Santo Vecchio) differs powdered gum-mastic added. Ben zole is sometimes widely from most others. It contains 366 deep used instead of chloroform as the solvent. Another pits, one of which is opened each day, and in elastic cement can be made by a mixture of gutta- | it all the interments of the day take place. At percha and caoutchouc dissolved in bisulphide of night a funeral service is performed, and the carbon. The solvents of these cements must not pit is filled with earth and lime, not to be rebe exposed to any but a gentle heat.

opened till the year after. The Sicilian catacombs Resin Cements. -- There are a great number of are also a kind of cemetery. Kensal Green Ceme. cements partly formed of ordinary resin. One tery dates from 1832 ; other well-known London kind consists of resin 4, beeswax i, and whiting cenieteries are those of Highgate and Woking 1 part. The proportions of these ingredients in (1855), near Guildford, 7000 acres in area, with a the same order for another are 15, 1, and 4. | crematory. The Dean Cemetery at Edinburgh, Another is made from resin 4, and plaster of Paris and the Necropolis of Glasgow, are notable; that 1 part. These cements are used to fix pieces.of of Glasnevin, outside of Dublin, is the most stone, glass, &c. to handles when grinding them. celebrated in Ireland. English cemeteries are Resin, pitch, beeswax, and plaster of Paris or usually divided into two portions-one consebrick-dust are made up in various proportions into crated for the burials of members of the Estabcements.

lished Church, over whose remains the funeral Cutlers' Cement, used for fixing knives and forks | service is read, and one unconsecrated, for the

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burials of dissenters. In the United States great of the smoke of the incense, which is thrown upon pains are bestowed on the adornment of cemeteries. the live charcoal. The most famous are Mount Auburn, near Boston,

Censors, the name of two Roman officers of Greenwood in Brooklyn, and Laurel Hill, near ) state of high dignity, whose duties related to the Philadelphia. See BURIAL.

official registration of the citizens (census), the Cenci, BEATRICE, 'the beautiful parricide,' was superintendence of public morals (regimen morum), the daughter of Francesco Cenci, a Roman noble- and arrangements for the collection of the public man of colossal wealth. According to Muratori revenue and the execution of public works. They (Annales, lib. x.), Francesco was twice married, were elected in the comitia centuriata, presided Beatrice being the youngest of twelve children by over by a consul. The term of office at first lasted the first wife. After his second marriage, he five years, but was shortly afterwards limited to treated the children of his first wife in a revolting eighteen months. The censorship was regarded as manner, and was even accused of hiring bandits to the highest dignity in the state, except the dictatormurder two of his sons on their return from Spain.ship. It was a sacred and irresponsible magisThe beauty of Beatrice inspired him with the tracy, whose powers were vast and undefined, and horrible and incestuous desire to possess her person; whose decisions were received with solemn rever. with mingled lust and hate he persecuted her from ence. The census or registration was taken in the day to day, until circumstances enabled him to | Campus Martius, in a building called Villa Publica, consummate his brutality. The unfortunate girl It was a complete catalogue of the citizens of besought the help of her relatives, and of Pope Rome, stating in detail the age of each, the amount Clement VIL (Aldobrandini), but did not receive of his property, and the number of his children. it; whereupon, in company with her step-mother | Next the censors drew up a list of the equites, and her brother, Giacomo, she planned the murder entitled to have a horse at the public expense, of her unnatural parent, into whose brain two and made up the roll of senators, supplying the hired assassins drove a large nail (9th September vacancies. The regimen morum was the most 1598). The crime was discovered, and both she dreaded and absolute of their powers. It grew and Giacomo were put to the torture; Giacomo | naturally out of the exercise of the previous duty, confessed, but Beatrice persisted in the declaration which compelled them to exclude unworthy persons that she was innocent. All, however, were con- from the lists of citizens. Gradually the superdemned and beheaded (10th September 1599). intendence of the censor extended from the public Such is Muratori's narrative. Others allege that to the private life of citizens. They could inflict Beatrice was the innocent victim of an infernal disgrace (ignominia) on any one whose conduct plot. The results, however, of Bertolotti's investi- did not square with their notions of rectitude or gations (Francesco Cenci e la sua famiglia, 1877), duty. For instance, if a man neglected the cul. based on original documents and contemporary tivation of his fields, or carried on a disreputable notices, go far to deprive the story of the Cenci trade, or refused to marry, or treated his family tragedy of the romantic elements on which Shelley's either too kindly or too harshly, or was extravapowerful tragedy mainly turns. Francesco, it gant, or guilty of bribery, cowardice, &c., he might wonld appear, was profligate, but no monster : be degraded, according to his rank, or otherwise Beatrice at the time she murdered her father was punished. The administration of the finances of not sixteen, but twenty-one years of age, was far the state included the regulation of the tributum from beautiful, and was probably the mother of or property-tax; of the vectigalia, such as the an illegitimate son. And Bertolotti further shows tithes paid for the public lands, salt-works, mines, that the sweet and mournful countenance which customs, &c., which were usually leased out to forms one of the treasures of the Barberini Palace speculators for five years ; the preparation of the in Rome cannot possibly be a portrait of Beatrice state budget, &c. The office of censor continued by Guido, who never painted in Rome till some to be filled by patricians till 351 B.C., when Censor nine years after Beatrice's death. See an article Marcius Rutilus, a plebeian, was elected. Twelve in the Edinburgh Review for January 1879.

years later it was enacted that one of the censors Cenis. See Mont CENIS.

(there were always two) must be a plebeian. In

131 B.C. both censors for the first time were Cenobites. See MONACHISM.

plebeians. Cenomanian, the name given by French geo.

Censorship of Press. See PRESS. logi-ts to the Lower Chalk and Upper Greensand of English geologists.

Census means the counting of the people. The

word is a Latin one, and was applied to the Cenotaph (Gr. kenotafion ; kenos, "empty,' | functions which the Roman Censors (q.v.) perand tafos, a tonb'), a monument which does not formed of periodically enumerating the people, but contain the remains of the deceased. They were no records of these enumerations remain, and indeed originally erected for those whose bones could not

we have but a few scattered notices of them. In be found, as for those who had perished at sea.

Greece a census was established by Solon at Athens Latterly the name was applied to tombs built by for the double purpose of facilitating taxation and a man during his lifetime for himself and the

classifying the citizens. Religious prejudice premeinbers of his family. The memorials in West-vented any censuses being taken during the minster Abbey to Franklin and Gordon are ceno.

middle ages, and it was not till the 18th century taphs.

| that the necessity for obtaining correct informa. Censer (Fr. encensoir, from Lat. incendo, 'I tion as to the population of European countries overburn'), a vase, or other sacred vessel, used for came this feeling. The first country to undertake buruing Incense (9.v.). Censers were used in the a census on a scientific basis was Sweden in Hebrew service of the temple. The ordinary | 1749; in France an enumeration was made in censer, called also a thurible (Lat. thuribulum, 1700, but the first reliable was not taken till fron thus, frankincense'), used in Catholic ser: 1801. In America the first census was taken vires, is a metallic vessel for holding burning char. in 1790, and in England in 1801. Censuses are coal, of brass or latten, silver, silver-plated, or now taken in Austria, Belgium, Italy, Norway eren of gold. It is shaped like a vase or cup, and Sweden, Russia, Switzerland, the United has a movable cover, usually perforated, and is States of America, India, and most of the suspended by chains (generally four in number) so British colonies, every ten years; in France as to be swung to and fro for the readier dispersion and Germany every five years; in Spain at irreg.

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