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Cerinthus, a heretic who lived at the close of forests. Area, 5735 sq. m. ; pop. (1894) 36,000, the apostolic age, but of whom we have nothing chietly engaged in cattle-raising. Capital, Cerro better than uncertain and confused accounts. He Largo or Melo; pop. 5000. is said to have been a native of Alexandria. He Certaldo, a town of Central Italy, 19 miles passed from Egypt into Asia Minor, and lived in SW. of Florence (37 by rail). It is noteworthy Ephesus contemporaneously (according to the as the residence of Boccaccio, who was born and belief of the church) with the aged apostle John. | died here. His house is still standing, much as it It is related by Irenæus, on the authority of

| was in the poet's time. Pop. 2500. Polycarp, that John held the heretic in such

Certhiidæ, a family of birds, generally placed detestation that, on a certain occasion, when he

in the great order Insessores or Passeres. They are encountered Cerinthus in the baths of Ephesus, he

best known by their most typical representative immediately left the baths, saying to those about

the Creeper (q.v.), They are widely distributed him : 'Let us fly, lest the bath fall on us, since

birds, absent however from the Ethiopian and Cerinthus is within, the enemy of the truth.' It is

neo-tropical regions, and the family includes twelve also said by Irenæus that the Gospel by St John

genera and about fifty species. They are expert was written in direct opposition to the tenets of

climbers, and feed on insects. Cerinthus. He held that the world was not made by the highest God, but by some angel or power far

Certificate, in the law of England and of the

United States, is a written statement by a person removed from and ignorant of the Supreme Being.

having a public or official status concerning some He is also said to have held coarse and sensual millenarian views, to have believed the Jewish

matter within his knowledge and authority. There ceremonial law to be in part binding upon

are a great many classes of such certificates-e.g. Christians, and to have taught that the Divine

certificate of charge upon land ; certificate of the Spirit was first united with the man Jesus in his

chief-clerk in Chancery proceedings, which is practi.

cally a report of what the clerk has done ; certificate baptism by John. Cerinthus being, so far as is known, the oldest teacher of Judaico-Gnostic prin

of discharge of a debtor in liquidation ; certificate ciples, and, according to Neander, 'the intermedi

of incorporation under the Companies Acts; certifiate link between the Judaising and Gnostic sects,'

cate of mortgage on ships under the Merchant

Shipping Acts; certificate of naturalisation. In there would naturally be a greater incongruity and want of harmony in his system than in the later

the United States, the word is commonly applied to

any formal statement made by a public servant in developments of Gnosticism (q.v.).

the execution of his duty, as by a collector of taxes, Cerithium, a genus of Prosobranchiate Gas. a postmaster, &c. See CHARACTER. teropods, and type of a large family, Cerithiadæ.

Certification, in the law of Scotland, signifies The shell is rough, naked, spiral, elongated, with

the judicial assurance given to a party of the many coils, and with an oval oblique aperture which

course to be followed by the judge in case he has a short canal in front. The species of this

disobeys the will of a summons, or other writ or family are numerous (140), most of them marine,

order of the court. Reiterated contumacy on the but many inhabiting estuaries and brackish

part of the defender was at one time punished with rather than salt water; some are found in lakes

confiscation of his property (1449, chap. 29), but and rivers. A few belong to temperate climates,

now certification nerely means that if he fails to but most of them are tropical, and in mangrove

appear in the usual manner, the judge will decern, swamps they particularly abound. The fossil species are very numerous, and almost all limited

or pronounce judgment against him. to the Tertiary formations. C. vulgatum, over six

Certiora'ri is the writ by which, since the inches in height, is often seen in Italian markets.

abolition of imprisonment for debt and the con

sequent disuse of the better known writ habeas Cerium (sym. Ce, eq. 92) is a rare metal

corpus, causes are removed from inferior courts of found in cerite and a few other minerals. It

record into the High Court of Justice. This is a is a white metal, has not been obtained in any

matter of considerable importance to the commerquantity, is not therefore employed in any manu.

cial public. Such removal is either before or after facture, and forms two basic oxides and a numerous

judgment in the inferior court. Before judgment class of salts. The nitrate and oxalate of cerium

certiorari is competent as tort, in all cases have been employed in the vomiting of pregnancy, except where the sun sued for is less than $5. their action being somewhat similar to that of the

Either party can remove the cause, but, where the subnitrate of bismuth. Cerium biscuits are biscuits

sum is less than £20, the defendant must give his containing a small proportion of the oxalate, and sureties for the debt and costs. The removal niust they form a very convenient medium for the be within six weeks after appearance of defendant. administration of the salt. Cerite or Ochroite is in the superior court the plaintiff must make a the silicate of cerium, and is found as a mineral

fresh statement of claim. The certiorari is obeyed in gneiss, near Riddarhytta, in Westmanland in

by sending up the original record. L'nder the Sweden.

Judicature Acts there is a further power of removal Cerox'ylon. See Wax PalM.

when any defence or counter-claim is set up which Cerre'to, a cathedral city of South Italy, on a is beyond the jurisdiction of the inferior court. In slope of the Apennines, 14 miles NNW. of Bene the county courts, where the action on contract is vento. Pop. 5129.

above £20, or on tort above £5, the defendant has Cerro de Pasco. the capital of the Peruvian a general right to certiorari on security for costs. department of Junin, stands at an elevation of

Where the discretion of the superior conrt is 14,276 feet, 138 miles NE. of Lima. Near it are

appealed to, such considerations as the difficulty some of the richest silver-mines on the continent.

of legal points, the improbability of obtaining an The climate is cheerless and inclement. Pop. 7000,

impartial jury, are important. After judgment. mostly Indians and half-breeds.

certiorari is often applied for by the successful

plaintiff for purposes of execution, where the Cerro Gordo, a plateau in Mexico, the most

person or effects of the defendant cannot be found easterly on the route from Vera Cruz to the capital.

in the jurisdiction of the inferior court. Certiorari Here, on 18th April 1847, the Americans totally

may also be obtained as of right by the crown to defeated the Mexicans,

remove an indictment in a criminal cause to the Cerro Largo, a department in the NE. of Queen's Bench Division or the Central Criminal Uruguay, well watered, with large savannahs and Court. This writ used also to be of right to private



prosecutors, but since the institution of the Court the thick of the fight, and received three severe of Criininal Appeal it is necessary to show cause, gunshot wounds, by one of which his left hand and as in a civil case from the county courts, and to arm were permanently disabled. After having seen give security.

some further service against the Turks in Tunis, In the United States, certiorari is generally pro. he was returning to Spain in 1575 with letters vided for by statute, but where no such provision is of recommendation to the king from Don John of made, or no other mode of review of the proceedings Austria and the Viceroy of Sicily, when the galley of an inferior court has been provided by statute, he sailed in was captured by Algerine corsairs, any superior court exercising common law jurisdic- and with his brother Rodrigo and several others tion has an inlierent right to issue this writ. It is he was carried into Algiers. He remained in used in both civil and criminal cases to bring the captivity five years, during which he made four whole record of the inferior tribunal before a daring attempts to escape, and lived in almost superior court, to determine whether the former daily expectation of death or torture. It was not has proceeded within its jurisdiction, and also to for himself alone that he sought freedom. No enable substantial justice to be done whenever an nobler story of unselfish heroism has ever been inferior tribunal has failed to proceed according to told than that in the depositions of his fellow the requirements of the law. It is used as an captives at Algiers, where they testify to his selforiginal process to remove a cause, and change devotion, his dauntless spirit, and his generosity, venue, only where the superior court is satisfied and with touching earnestness strive to give exthat an impartial trial will not otherwise be had. pression to their own gratitude, love, and admira

Certo'sa di Pavi'a, a celebrated Carthusian tion. In 1580 he was ransomed by the charity monastery. 5 miles of Pavin was founded in of the Redemptionist Fathers and by the devo1396 by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of tion of his family which reduced itself to poverty Milan, in atonement for the murder of his uncle. / to provide the sum required ; and rejoining us The church is a splendid structure in the form of a old regiment in Portugal, he served in the expeLatin cross the cround-plan beine 232 feet lon | dition to the Azores under the Marquis of Santa by 177 feet broad. The richly sculptured façade,

Cruz. The story of a liaison with a Portuguese designed by Borgognone, was commenced in 1473. |

lady is an invention of the biographers to account The building is made up of various styles, but the for a certain Isabel de Saavedra mentioned in Pointed prevails in the interior, which is decorated

| an official document of 1605 as his natural

ano with frescoes, paintinys, &c., and contains a yor:

daughter. There is no other evidence of her geous high-altar, the mausoleum of the founder,

existence, and if this is to be relied upon she and several monuments. After the battle of Pavia

was born after his marriage, and nearly two years (1325), Francis I. was for three days a prisoner at

after his return from Portugal. At the close the Certosa, which, since the dissolution of the

of the war he retired from military life and monasteries, has been constituted a national

turned his attention to literature. His first work monument. The name certosa is a form of Car

was the Galatea, a pastoral romance of the same thusian (9.v.), and is used of other monasteries

class as the Diana of Montemayor and the Filida of the order, as that to the south of Florence.

of his friend Montalvo. It was printed at Alcalá

in 1585-not, as is commonly said, Madrid, 1584. Ceru'men is ear-wax, the yellow waxy matter | While it was passing through the press he married, which is secreted by certain glands lying in the

and for two or three years strove to gain a livelipassage that leads from the external opening of the

hood by writing for the stage. He produced between ear to the membrane of the tympanum. It lubri

twenty and thirty plays, of which two only, the cates the passage and entangles particles of dust | Numancia and the Trato de Argel, have survived ; and small insects, preventing them from getting but from his own account it is plain that, though farther in. See Ear.

not ill received, they failed to attract, and that Cervantes Saavedra, MIGUEL DE, the he was driven to seek some other employment. author of Don Quixote, was born at Alcalá de In 1587 he migrated to Seville, where he obtained Henares in 1547. His birthday is unknown, but the post of deputy-purveyor to the fleet. In 1594 he was baptised on the 9th of October. He was a he was appointed a collector of revenues for the descendant of a family that traced its origin back kingdom of Granada ; but in 1597, failing to make to the 10th century through a line of Castilian up the sum due to the treasury, he was sent to nobles, of whom one was the renowned warrior prison at Seville. He was released, however, on Nuno Alfonso, whose grandson took the surname giving security for the balance, but not reinstated ; of Cervantes from the old castle of San Servando, nor can the government be charged with undue or Cervantes, near Toledo. It was borne with harshness, for though no stain attaches to his bonour by many church dignitaries, soldiers, and integrity, it is clear that as a business-like official inagistrates of the 14th and 15th centuries, but at he was not faultless. He remained some time the birth of the man who gave it immortality it longer at Seville, but nothing is known of his had ceased to be one of the prominent names of movements from 1599 to 1603. Local tradition Spain. The name of Saavedra came into the poet's maintains that he wrote Don Quirole in prison branch of the family by marriage in the 15th at Argamasilla in La Mancha ; but it has nothing century. Of Cervantes personally we know little to support it save the fact that Argamasilla is or nothing beyond what he himself tells iis, but of Don Quixote's village. In 1603 he was living at the events of his life there is a tolerably complete Valladolid ; in September 1604 leave was granted record. The story of his having studied at Sala to print the first part of Don Quixote, and early manca is improbable; all we know of his edn. | in January 1605 the book came out at Madrid. cation is that Juan Lopez de Hoyos, a professor | It is commonly asserted that its reception was cold ; of belles-lettres at Madrid, calls him his dearly but the truth is that it leaped into popularity at beloved pupil.' The first known productions of | once. Within a month two pirated editions were his pen appeared in 1569 in a collection of pieces in the press at Lisbon ; by the autumn tive editions on the death of the queen, edited by the pro. had been published; and Don Quixote and Sancho fessor. Early in the same year he passed over into | Panza paraded the streets as familiar characters Italy in the service of Cardinal Giulio Acquaviva, in the pageants at Valladolid that spring. By a but shortly afterwarıls enlisted as a soldier under minority, however, it was not welcomed. Lope the cominand, it would appear, of Marc Antony de Vega wrote sneeringly of it and its author Colonna. At the battle of Lepanto he was in 1 months before it was printed-for it had a pre

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vious circulation in manuscript—and he and bis the marvels of this marvellous book is its perennial brother-dramatists showed how bitterly they re- youth. After well-nigh three centuries it is as sented the criticism in chapter 48. Cervantes was | fresh and full of life as when it came from La slow in taking advantage of his popularity. In Cuesta's press. In his other works Cervantes stead of giving his readers the sequel they asked studied recognised models and consulted the tastes for, he busied himself with writing for the stage of the day ; in Don Quixote he followed the lead and composing short tales, or "exemplary novels' of his own genius alone, and wrote only as instinct as he called them. The Viage del Parnaso, a prompted him. Written in a desultory fashion, it poem of over 3000 lines in terza rima, reviewing had time to grow and ripen under his hand ; Don the poetry and poets of the day, was another of Quixote and Sancho, outlines at first, became by his productions at this time. In 1613 he published degrees flesh and blood realities to his mind, and his twelve Novelas, and promised his readers the beings that he loved ; and the book-the second part second part of Don Quixote 'shortly.' But in 1614 | especially served him as a kind of commonplacea writer, under the pseudonym of Alonso Fer book to which he turned to when he was in the nandez de Avellaneda, brought out a spurious mood, making it the depository of his thonghts second part, with an insulting preface, full of and record of the experience and observation of a coarse personal abuse of Cervantes. It was the stirring life. We need not commit the disloyalty work of a dull plagiarist, an imitator insensible of doubting his word when he says that all he to the merits of his model ; but it served as the songht was to cure his countrymen of their passion spur Cervantes needed to urge him to the com for chivalry romances. He had motive enough in pletion of the genuine second part, which was sent the magnitude of the evil, and his was only one to the press early in 1615, and published at the of scores of voices lifted up against it; nor is end of the year. It was not too soon ; his health there anything extraordinary in a champion of was already failing, and he died at Madrid on the true chivalry, as he was, resenting a mockery that 23d of April 1616. His last labours were given made it contemptible. But the genius of Certo things more important in his eyes than Don vantes was essentially discursive, and many other Quixote. While it was in the press he revised offenders and offences were comprehended in the and published his rejected comedies and inter. indictment that he brought against the romances ludes, and but a short time before his death he / of chivalry and their readers. finished his romance of Persiles and Sigismunda. The only complete edition of Cervantes' works There are few pieces of his writing more charac. is that of Rivadeneyra (in 12 vols. large 8vo, teristic of the man than the last two that ever Madrid, 1863-64). Editions of the selected works . came from his pen-written, indeed, upon his very are those of Ibarra (16 vols. small 8vo, Madrid, deathbed-the address to the reader and the dedi. 1803-5), Bossange (10 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1826), cation to the Conde de Lemos, whose generosity and vol. i. of the Biblioteca de Autores Españoles had relieved him from the pressure of poverty' ; (Madrid, 1846). Of Don Quixote in the original and, like every glimpse of himself that his pages about 150 editions are known, and more than give us, they make us wish that we knew more double that number in other languages. The first of one so full of wisdom, patience, and charity, so worthy of the book was Tonson's (Lond. 1738, 4 bright and so brave.

vols.); other notable ones are the Academy edition It is in right of Don Quixote that the name of | (4 vols. Madrid, 1780); Bowle's (6 vols. Salisbury Cervantes has a place here; but his minor works and Lond. 1781); Pellicer's (5 vols. Madrid, 1797– entitle him to an honourable one in the history of 98); Clemencin's ( 6 vols. Madrid, 1833–39); HartSpanish literature. His novels are the best of zenbusch's, in vols, iii.-vi. of the complete works, their kind--a kind Spain excelled in ; and though and also in 4 vols. 1863, a beautiful pocket edition the Galatca is doubtless inferior to the Diana, its printed at Argamasilla, in the house called Cergreatest fault is that, like the Diana, it belongs vantes' prison ; in these last the editor has often to a radically insipid species of romance. The restored the text of the first edition, but often title of poet is commonly denied him ; but if a also recklessly tampered with it. F. Lopez good deal of his poetry is weak, there is much Fabra's (2 vols. Barcelona, 1871-74) is an addir. that only a poet could have written, and not even able reproduction by photography of the first Garcilaso had a finer sense of melody or a truer edition. The claim of Señor Ortego's edition touch in verse. It would be unjust to judge of (Palencia, 1884) to give corrections made by his dramatic powers by the comedies printed in Cervantes himself cannot be seriously maintained. 1615. They were nothing more than a desperate The reprint of the editio princeps of the first part attempt to gain a footing on the stage by a con. of Don Quixote by Mr Ormsby and Mr Fitzmauricecession to the popular taste. To found a great Kelly (Lond. 1898) is a splendid folio. There are national drama worthy of his country was the translations in fourteen languages. The oldest is ambition of his life, and the first step was to the English by Shelton, made in 1608 and printed obtain a hearing. The tragedy of Numancia, | 1612 (second part, 1620), a vigorous but rude and with all its defects the most powerful and original | inaccurate version. Other English translations are drama in the language, is a better measure of those of Phillips (1689), Motteux (1702), Jervas Cervantes as a dramatist. And if it is impossible (commonly called Jarvis, 1742), Smollett (1755), to accept his own estimate of the Persiles and A. J. Duffield (3 vols. 8vo, 1881), John Ormsby (4 Sigismunda, no reader will deny its invention and vols. 8vo, 1885), and H. E. Watts (5 vols. 4to, 1888 grace of style. His minor works all show signs et seq.). In French there are nine versions, besides of the author's care; Don Quirote, on the other abridgments: the oldest is Oudin's (printed in 1616), hand, is the most carelessly written of all great the best Viardot's (1836). In German there are no books. Cervantes, it is plain, did not look upon less than thirteen, from the earliest in 1621 to the it in that light. He was very proud of its popu latest and best by Ludwig Braunfels in 1883-84. larity; but all he ever claims for it is that it will There are as many as ten Russian versions, but amuse, and that it did the state some service in most of these are from the French, or abridgments. laughing chivalry romances out of fashion. He Franciosini's Italian version appeared as early as wrote it by fits and starts ; he neglected it for his 1622, and has been followed by two others; and other works; he sent it to the printers without there are versions in Dutch, Danish, Polish, Porturevision, and maile merry over their blunders and guese, Swedish, Hungarian, Bohemian, Servian, his own oversights. But it may be that we owe and Greek. The best Life of Cervantes is by more to this carelessness than we think. One of | Navarrete; but there is also a good one by D. CERVETRI



Geronimo Moran, in his Don Quixote (Madrid, and summary method of distributing a small estate 1863), and English Lives by Watts (1895, from among the creditors. The petition must be prehis edition), and by J. F. Kelly (1892).

sented in the sheriff-court either by a creditor or Cervet'ri, a village 19 miles WNW. of Rome, by the notour bankrupt himself. Notice is given on the site of the great Etrurian city, Core in the Gazette, there is a meeting of creditors, the (see ETRURIA). Conquered and degraded by the debtor is publicly examined, the sheriff grants & Romans in 353 B.C., it experienced but a brief decree appointing a trustee and ordering the debtor renewal of prosperity under the empire as a water

to convey all his estate (except working tools, ing-place (the warm Bagni del Susso, still used), alinientary funds, and future acquisitions) to the and finally fell into decay in the 13th century. trustee, who then ranks the various claims on the Many Etruscan remains have been found near by. estate, subject to an appeal to the sheriff. A most

important change was introduced by the Bank. Cer'vidæ and Cervus. See DEER.

ruptcy and Cessio Act, 1881, which provides for the Cervin, MONT. See MATTERHORN.

first time that the debtor under a cessio may Cesalpino. See CÆSALPINUS.

obtain a statutory discharge, but only if he pays Cesarewitch. See CZAR.

58. per £l, or satisfies the sheriff that failure to pay

such a dividend is not due to his fault. The proCe'sari, GIUSEPPE (sometimes called ARPINO), cess of cessio must be distinguished in some of its an Italian painter, born at Arpino about 1568, effects from the English and American assignment was greatly honoured by no less than five popes,

for the benefit of creditors under insolvent statutes. and died at Rome, 3d July 1640. His works-in See BANKRUPTCY, SEQUESTRATION; Goudy on fresco and oil-display lively imagination, and | Bankruptcy (1886). great tact in execution.

Cesspool. See SEWAGE. Cesarotti, MELCHIORE, an excellent Italian poet, was born 15th May 1730, at Padua, where he

Cestoid Worms (Cestoda), an order of flat filled the Greek and Hebrew chairs. He gained

worms (Plathelminthes), of internal parasitic a reputation by his translation of Macpherson's

habit, and generally known as Tapeworms (q.v.). Ossian (1763). The versification of this work, like

The adult consists of an asexual 'head,' attached that of his free translation of the Niad, under the

by hooks or suckers or both to the host, and

budding off a long chain of flat sexual, hermaphrotitle of La Morte di Ettore, was admired by Alfieri, and Cesarotti unquestionably threw fresh life into

dite join's,' which become mature at a certain Italian literature. His Ragionamento sulla Filosofia

distance from the head,' have a measure of in. delle Lingue (8 vols. 1785) and Ragionamento sulla

dividuality and independence, and are eventually Filosofia del Gusto are his best works. He died

expelled. There is no alimentary canal nor vas30 November 1808.

cular system ; the nervous system is usually com

plex, but of a low order ; there is a well-developed Cese'na, a town of Central Italy, 12 miles SE. of excretory system of branching tubes. The reproForli by rail, with a cathedral and a trade in silk, ductive organs of the joints' are usually very wine, hemp, and sulphur. Cesena gave birth to two complex. The liberated joints' or 'proglottides' popes-Pins VI. and VII. Pop. 12,500. Here Murat break up, and set free embryos, which find their defeated the Austrians, 30th March 1815.

way into other hosts, and undergoing considerable Ces'nola, COUNT LUIGI PALMA DI, archæolo change become bladder-worms, develop a head, or gist, was born near Turin, June 29, 1832. He served in some cases heads, and only become sexual when with the Sardinian contingent in the Crimean war, their host is in turn eaten by the original species went to New York in 1860, and served as a volunteer in which the tapeworm flourished. There is thus in the civil war. Appointed American consul at an alternation of generations between the asexual Cyprus in 1865, he commenced a series of excava. bladder-worm and the sexual tapeworm. The order tions which he continued for about ten years with | includes about 25 genera and 500 species, mostly the most remarkable success. His splendid collec parasitic in vertebrates. The genus Tænia (tape. tion of statues and figures, lamps, vases, inscrip. worm ) includes more than half the known species. tions, and other antiquities, was opened in New | The Cestodes are linked to the flukes or Trematodes York in 1872 as the Cesnola Collection of Cyprian by forms like Amphilina, Caryophyllzeus, and ArchAntiquities.' Doubts expressed in 1879 as to the igetes, which have no 'joints, and a single reproanthenticity of part of the collection were proved to

ductive system; and there is a well-marked series be ytoundless. His chief work is Cyprus, its ancient from these up to the most specialised Tänia. Cities, Tombs, and Temples (1877).

Echineibothrium, Phyllobothrium, Anthobothrium, Ces' pedes, PABLO DE, Spanish painter, born

Acanthobothrium, Tetrarhynchus, Ligula, Bothrioat Cordova in 1536, studied at Rome unier Michael

cephalus (9.v.), are the important genera besides Angelo and Raphael, and in 1577 becanie a pre.

Tania. See TAPEWORMS ; also BLADDER-WORM, benuary at Cordova, where he established a school

PARASITIC ANIMALS, and Leuckart's Parasites of of art, and was also active as an architect,

Man. painter, and writer. He died 26th July 1608.

Cestracion, a genus of sharks, regarded as Cess (short for assess). See LAND LAWS.

constituting a distinct family, Cestraciontidae, al

though not more than four species are known as Cessio Bonorum (Lat. "cession or surrender now existing. It is characterised by having two of goods'), a process which the law of Scotland dorsal fins and one anal, the first dorsal situated borrowed from that of Rome, and which also over the space between the pectorals and ventrals; appears in most of the continental systenis. On a spine forming the front of each dorsal; a short making a surrender of estate to his creditors, the wide tail, with its upper lobe strongly notched debtor was granted a judicial protection from im beneath; the mouth at the fore end of the snout; prisonment in respect of all debts then due by him. | spiracles distinctly visible, rather behind the eyes ; As, however, imprisonment for debt was abolished and small gill-openings. The front of the mouth by the Debtors Act, 1880, except in the case of is armed with obtuse angular teeth, whilst the rates and taxes due, cessio as a process for the margins and inner surface of the jaws are covered protection or liberation from imprisonment of in with pavement-like teeth, presenting a general solvent debtors is now practically obsolete. The continuity of surface, as in skates, and disposed Act of 1850, however, introduced a new process of in rounded oblique scrolls--the former evidently cesio, resembling sequestration, and really a cheap / adapted to the seizing of food, the latter to the




crushing and bruising of it. They are of obvious neck indistinct; there is generally a median dorsal use with a diet of hard-shelled crustaceans and fin, and the tail has lateral flukes; the fore-limbs

are reduced to paddles, the hind-limbs are at most represented by slight internal traces; the skin is smooth, and, with the occasional exception of a few bristles near the mouth, hairless; there is a thick layer of fat or blubber under the skin which serves instead of hair as a heat-retainer. The eye is small, there is no external ear, the nostrils are situated vertically. The bones are spongy and oily, the neck vertebræ are compressed and often fused, there is no union to form a sacrum. The skull is peculiarly modified, the brain-case being high, and the front part prolonged into more or less of a snout. There are no collar-bones; the bones of the arm are flattened and stiff; the joints of the second and third fingers are always above the normal number; the whole arm forms a flipper; the hip-girdle and hind-leg are degenerate. In one group teeth are absent except in the fætus, and are replaced by 'whalebone' growths from the

palate; in no case is there more than one set of Upper Jaw of Port-Jackson Shark ( Cestracion philippi). teeth. The stomach has several chambers ; the

intestine is simple. The liver is less divided than molluscs. The front teeth are sharp in the young | usual, and there is no gall-bladder. The bloodforms. The egg-case has two curious spiral ridges

vessels form wonderful networks (retia mirabilia ). surrounding it. The Port-Jackson

The top of the windpipe is prolonged forwards so Shark, or Nurse' (C. philippi) of as to form, when embraced by the soft palate, a the Australian seas, and the Cat

continuous air-passage from nostrils to lungs. Shark of Japan and China (C.

The brain is large. The placenta is 'non-deciduate zebra), seem to differ chiefly in the and diffuse. The teats are two in number, and patterns of colour. None exceed | lie beside the female genital aperture; the milk five feet in length. The Cestra is squeezed into the mouth of the sucking young. ciontidæ are particularly interest

The Cetacea are widely distributed in all seas ing to geologists, for the oldest and in some large rivers. They swim powerfully, fossil sharks belong in great part to and the tail works up and down, not sideways. this family. The remains are They rise to the surface to breathe, and do not found even in the Palæozoic strata ;

spout sea-water from their blowholes. The expirathey become more numerous in the

| tion is periodic and violent, and the forcibly exCarboniferous series ; they are very

pelled air being laden with water, vapour may numerous in the Lias and Chalk

condense in a pillar of fine spray, or the ascending Outside view of formations ; but there they cease

| column may carry up some surface sea-water along Egg-case of almost entirely, the strata of the with it, but it must be recognised that the process Cestracion Tertiary series containing scarcely

| is simply that of ordinary expiration in peculiar philippi. any of them.' In modern times the

conditions. They are mostly inoffensive, generally species are reduced, as we have social in babit, vary from 4 to 60 feet in length, seen, to four at most, and other types of shark and feed on jelly-fish, crustaceans, pteropods, have become more prevalent. The fossil forms

cuttlefish, fishes, and in one genus (Orca) on seals were abundant, also much larger, and the cestra

and on other whales. cions thus furnish a particularly good illustration

Two very distinct series have to be distinguished of a decadent family.

-(a) the Toothed Whales or Odontoceti, and (b) Cestui que Trust, a person for whom another the Baleen Whales or Mystacoceti. The fornier is a trustee. The term is Norman-French, and include Sperm Whales (Physeter), the Bottlenose means in English law, and also in the United (Hyperoodon), the genus Platanista and its allies, States, exactly what Beneficiary (q.v.) means in and the great family of Dolphins (9.v.). The Scots law.

latter sub-order includes the Right Whale (Balena), Cestus (Gr. kestos, embroidered'), a girdle the 'Humpbacks' (Megaptera), and the Rorquals worn by Greek and Roman women, but at what (Balænoptera). part of the body is somewhat uncertain. It was In the Eocene, Cetacea are represented by primi. worn apparently between the cingulum, which was tive, less specialised forms, known as Zeuglodons, a sash or girdle over the tunic just under the but the remains are, as one would expect, somebosom, and the zone, worn mostly by young un- what fragmentary, and the conclusions to be drawn married women lower down the body, just above from them very uncertain. In Miocene and Pliothe hips. According to Winckelmann, the cestus cene strata still more fragmentary cetacean remains was itself worn round the loins ; according to have been found, and are grouped together in the Heyne and Visconti, immediately under the bosom. genus Squalodon. The cestus of Aphrodite was covered with such There is much doubt and dispute in regard to the alluring representations of the joys of love that she origin and affinities of Cetacea. They are related who wore it was irresistible. It was borrowed by by some to Carnivores, but the researches of ProHera when she desired to win the love of Zeus. fessor Flower have made it more probable that they -CESTUS, or more correctly, CÆSTUS, the boxing have much closer affinities with Ungulates. He gauntlets worn by the ancient prize-fighters, which regards it as not unlikely that the whole group had consisted of leather thongs bound round the hands a fresh-water origin. Fuller details must be sought and wrists. They sometimes reached as high up as under the article WHALE. See Flower's article the elbows, and were armed with lead or metal Mammalia,' Ency. Brit. bosses to increase the force of the blow.

| Ceteosaurus (kētos, “whale;' sauros, ‘lizard'), Cetacea, an order of mammals, of aquatic a large dinosaurian reptile belonging to the habit and fish-like form. The head is large, the 'Jurassic System (q.v.). " According to Professor

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