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82

CHÆRONEA

CHAFFINCH

foundation of later legislation on the subject. He Chætopods (Gr., bristle-footed'), a class of served on commissions as to the employment of worms including familiar types like the Earthchildren in factories, on preventable diseases, and worm, the Fisherman's Lobworm, and the Seaon education. On a change being made in the mouse. They are often included under the title of Board of Health in 1854, Chadwick retired with a Annelids or ringed worms. The body consists of pension. He afterwards took great interest in numerous more or less similar joints; and the promoting competitive examinations for govern- locomotor organs are furnished with or represented ment offices, and indeed in almost all questions of by bristles. The class is split into two main social economy. He was an active member of the orders of Oligochæta and Polychæta, of which Social Science Association. Some of his papers the latter is much the larger. The Oligochæta appear in the Transactions of the Statistical Society have very rudimentary locomotor structures, and of the British Association. Died July 5, 1890. which are in fact reduced to bristles; they are See Chadwick's Work and Works on Health and | fresh-water or subterranean in habit; the familiar Social Reform, by Richardson (2 vols. 1885).

earthworm (Lumbricus) and certain river and Chæronea, a town in ancient Boeotia, near the pond worms (e.g. Tubifex and Nais) are comriver Cephissus, memorable for the disastrous defeat mon representatives. The Polychæta are, with of the Athenians here by Philip of Macedon, 338 B.C. three or four exceptions, marine; the bristles, which This defeat struck a death-blow to the liberties of are numerous, are fixed in special locomotor outGreece, and broke the heart of Isocrates; it was growths; and many other characters, such as the the dishonest victory 'that killed with report that possession of antennæ, gills, &c., distinguish them old man eloquent.' A colossal marble lion, together from the earthworm order, and are in obvious assowith the bones of 260 Greeks, was dug up here in ciation with their very different habits. Many of 1880. Here also Sulla defeated the generals of

them, described as errant, lead a free life, and are Mithridates in 86 B.C. The famous Plutarch was

carnivorous in their diet. The common Nereis, or a native of Chæronea.

Alitta, and the Sea-mouse (Aphrodite) are good Chatoderma, a remarkable primitive gas

examples. A large number, however, are sedentary teropod, which in some respects serves as a con

in habit, vegetarian in diet, and often inhabit tubes, necting link between the worm and snail type. See

The lobworm (Arenicola), the common Serpula, CHITON.

and Terebella are characteristic types. To the two

main orders of Chætopods above mentioned, the Chætodon, a typical genus of a family of bony

parasitic Myzostomata causing .galls' on featherfishes, known as Squamipennes. The body is

stars (Crinoids), and the primitive aberrant Saccomuch compressed sideways, and consequently high;

| cirrus must be added. the scales are more or less smooth, and cover portions

Polygordius is another of the dorsal and anal fins in such a fashion that

common marine worm which, along with a few

others, is usually regarded as a survival of the the boundary between fins and body is indistinct.

ancestral Chætopods or Annelids. See EARTHWORM, LOBWORM, SEA-MOUSE, WORMS, &c.

Chafer, a common name for beetles or coleopterous insects, especially for those which, either in the perfect or larval state, are destructive of plants, particularly of the wood, bark, or roots of trees. The word is seldom used alone, but generally as part of a name, with some prefix ; thus, we have Cock-chafer, Rose-chafer, Bark-chafer, &c. Käfer is the German word for beetle.'

Chaffinch (Fringilla cælebs), one of the commonest British birds, a species of Finch (9.v.), and probably that to which the name Finch, now so extended in its signification, originally belonged.

Fink, the German form of the name, and pink and Chætodon setifer.

twink, still used in England as popular names,

have some resemblance in sound to the common The mouth is generally small in front of the snout, call-note of the chaffinch. The whole length of and the slender teeth are arranged in bands. The the bird is about six inches. The tail is very lower rays of the pectoral fins are branched, and slightly forked. The beak is almost equal in the hind fins are situated far forward on the thorax. breadth and height. The male, in summer, has the The Squamipennes, or as some would call them, the top of the head and nape of the neck bluish-gray; Chætodontidae, are tropical fishes, abounding near the back, chestnut; the wings almost black, with coral reefs, and well suited in the beauty of their two conspicuous white bars; the tail nearly black. colouring to such brilliant surroundings. They The lower surface is reddish. The colours of the feed on small animals, are never very large, and female are much duller than those of the male. but little used for food. Chætodon itself is a large The chaffinch is a very widely distributed species, genus, with some 70 beautiful species from the being found in almost all parts of Europe, in tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. It has one some parts of Asia, in the north of Africa, and as dorsal fin, and a moderately long snout. In Chelmo far west as the Azores. In the colder northern the snout is longer, and is used to draw animals countries it is migratory; in more southern from their crevices. It often gets false credit for regions it is stationary. Linnæus gave it the catching insects by spouting water. Heniochus is specific name cælebs, from observing that the another pretty genus with horns on its head. flocks seen during winter in Sweden consisted Holacanthus, one species of which is called the chiefly of males, the females having, as he sup

Emperor of Japan' by the Dutch, is yet more posed, sought a milder climate. A partial separabrilliantly adorned, and Pomacanthus is peculiarly tion of the sexes is observed also in the great variable in its colouring. The Atlantic species of winter-flocks in Britain, but it is only partial; Ephippus (E. faber ) is peculiar in the pathological and Yarrell thinks that the young males of the like enlargement of some of the bones at the back previous season, which resemble the females in of the head. The Archer-fish (q.v.) is an allied plumage, are associated with them, and have been genus. See Günther, Study of Fishes (1880). | mistaken for them. The flocks seen in Britain in

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CHAGNY

CHAINS

83

winter are believed to be augmented by migration made by men trained to the work, although from Scandinavia. The eggs are usually four or some of the very small sizes of common chains five in number, of pale purplish buff colour, spar. are made by women, boys, and girls. Chains ingly streaked and spotted with reddish brown. are of two generally distinct kinds-short-link The chaffinch feeds in great part on insects, and or unstudded (frequently called close-link) chain, does much service in summer by destroying aphides and stud-link or stayed chain. The former usually and caterpillars; but eats also seeds, and is some-embraces the smaller sizes of chain up to 1} inches, times persecuted, because in spring it pulls up and and the latter comprises ships' cables and other eats young turnips and radishes when in the seed heavy chains. Short-link chain is made in the leaf. It is particularly fond of the seeds of beeches following manner : The end of the bar from which and conifers. Great numbers of chaffinches are the link is to be made is heated, then cut to killed for the table in Italy. In Germany this | gange, and while still hot is bent into U-form; the bird was formerly in the highest esteem as a song. free ends are then heated to a white heat and flathird. Its notes are very clear and loud, but some tened or scarphed by a hammer, and in this state individnals greatly excel the ordinary multitude of they are brought together and welded so as to form their species. --The common Scotch name of the the other end of the link. The flattening or scarph. chatfinch is Shilfa.

ing of the two ends and the closing of them being Chagny, an important railway junction and

all done in one heat, the scarphed ends are again commercial centre in the French department of

heated to welding-point, and the link is placed in a Saône-et-Loire, on the Canal du Centre, 32 miles S. suitable recess under a hollow-faced tool, worked of Dijon. As the key of the roads to the Loire

mechanically, which strikes the roughened weld district, it has been strongly fortified. Pop. 4291.

and ultimately finishes it off as smooth as the other Chagos Islands. See DIEGO GARCIA.

end of the link. The result is the finished link, Chagres, a town of the republic of Colombia,

and when the first has been completed, another on the N. coast of the Isthmus of Panama, situated

piece of iron is bent in the same way and threaded

or rove through it, and another link formed and at the month of the Chagres River. A poor place

finished in the same manner as the first. In this at best, with a harbour for vessels drawing from

way each successive link is added until the required 10 to 12 feet of water, it was almost forsaken on

length of chain is made. the stoppage of the Panama Canal. Pop. 1000.

The foregoing illustrates the way in which The river Chagres rises about 10 miles NE. of

chains generally are made, but as a rule, links Panama, makes an immense bend round to the NE.,

2 of chains of l-inch diameter and over are welded and enters the Caribbean Sea. Though towarıls its

at the side instead of at the end, and a stud month it varies in depth from 16 to 3u feet, it is, by

or stay-pin is welded across from side to side of reason of its rapidity and its falls, of little use for

the link. The larger sizes of chains and chain. navigation. The line of the Panama Canal (see

cables are made by men, and the expert workman PANAMA) lay partly by the valley of the Chagres.

when employed making first-class chains of all Chaillu, PAUL DU. See Du CHAILLU.

descriptions gets an extra price for his skill and Chain, in Surveying (called Gunter's Chain, labour. Common (not to say inferior) chains, from its inventor, Edmund Gunter, 9.v.), is a mea. however, are too often welcomed by bargain-loving sure of 22 yards long, composed of 100 iron links, users if they can at all be made to pass the statueach of which is thus 7.92 inches long. As an tory tests. Chains which stand certain of the acre contains 4840 square yards, 10 square chains standard tests may be found totally unequal to (22 x 22 * 10 = 4840 square yards) or 100,000 meet certain others, and superior and inferior parts square links make an acre.

are often purposely mingled in one chain by dis. Chain Cable. See CABLE.

honest makers to cheapen production and defeat Chain-mail, or CHAIN-ARMOUR, much used in

the system of testing. The iron used for very Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries, and still

superior chains is selected not only for its tensile used in India

strength and welding properties, but for its ductility, Curioso and the inte

as high tensile strength is not infrequently possessed rior of the

by a hard brittle iron, liable to snap upon the appli. Asiatic conti

cation of a sudden jerk, and therefore totally unnent, consists

suited for chains. The system of testing cables of hammered

followed by Lloyd's Register Society well exemiron links, con

plifies what should be adopted in the case of all nected together

chains. Every 15-fathom length is subject to a

fair standard strain, sufficient to detect bad work. by riveted links so that

manship, by pulling asunder or opening any defec. Piece of Chain-arinour. each link em.

tive welds, yet not so severe as to injure the nature braces four

of the material by crystallising it a result invari. others, and worked into the form of a garment.

ably produced by overstraining. This standard Sach armour was much more flexible and con

test, however, not being the extreme limit of strain

which the chain ought to bear in actual use at sea, senient to the wearer than that which was formed of steel or brass plates, but was less fitted to bear

a few links are required to be cut out at random the thrust of a lance. See ARMOUR.

from any part of each 15-fathom length, and sub

mitted to a so-called breaking strain of 50 per cent. Chain-plates, on shipboard (wood vessels),

in excess of the standard test. If these trial pieces are iron plates bolted below the channels to serve are found to withstand this extra strain satisfacas attachments for the dead-eves, through which

torily, they are then assumed to represent a fair the standing rigging or shrouds and back-stays are average of the strength of that particular length to rore and secured. In most of the modern iron-steel which they belong. This operation being gone vessels rigging-screws take the place of the older through with satisfactory results in each length of dead-eyes, the chain-plates to which they are cable, the whole is then passed, and certified attached consisting simply of flat palms, having accordingly. Any unsatisfactory lengths are conan eye projection, riveted to the inside of the sheer demned, marked, and sent back to the manufac. or top strake of shell plating.

turer. Chains. Chain-making being a distinct trade In his treatise on Chain Cables and Chains, Mr of itself, thoroughly reliable chains can only be | T. W. Trail, surveyor-in-chief to the Board of 84

CHAIN-SHOT

CHALEURS

Trade, says : 'Since the Act of 1871, which came cedony are sometimes found inclosing a little water into operation in the early part of 1873, until the in the interior, which gives them a very beautiful latter part of 1883, a period of about eleven years, appearance; but the water easily escapes, and to nearly 165,000 tons of chain have been certified prevent this, rings or other ornaments made of such to, in accordance with the act of parliament, as stones are kept in distilled water when not worn. having duly withstood the statutory tests, repre. | The ancients set a very high value on these en. senting about 3,199,000 fathoms of chain, and for hydrites (Gr. en, .in,' and hydor, water '). See which it is computed that from about two and a JASPER. quarter million to about two and a half million

Chalced'onyx (or, erroneously, Calcedonyx), a pounds sterling have been paid.'

name given to agates formed of cacholong, or a Chain-shot, an obsolete artillery projectile, white opaque chalcedony, alternating with a grayish consisting of two balls connected by a short chain, translucent chalcedony. formerly used to destroy the rigging of ships, &c. Chalchihaitl. the Indian name of a greenAs case-shot and shrapnel shell answer the same coloured stone, taken from a quarry near Santa Fé, purpose, its use has been discontinued.

and by some regarded as a species of turquoise, by Chalaza. The first layer of albumen deposited others identified with Jade (9.v.). It was valued upon the yolk of an egg as it descends the bird's above gold by the ancient Mexicans, who fashioned oviduct, is peculiarly viscous, and thus becomes it into beads and ornaments. twisted into two strands which keep the yolk in Chalcididæ, a small family of short-tongued the middle of the more fluid albumen. These lizards, restricted to America. Chalcides (C. cords are also called chalaza.

flavescens) occurs in tropical America. HeteroChalce'don, a city of ancient Bithynia, at the dactylus is an allied Brazilian genus. The same entrance of the Euxine, opposite to Byzantium. It title is applied to a family of insects. See CHALCIS. was founded 684 B.C. by a colony from Megara, and Chalcis, the capital of the Greek island of soon became a place of considerable trade and im Euboea, on the Euripus, a strait separating the portance. Taken by the Persians, it finally merged island from Baotia, and here only 120 feet wide. into the Roman empire, under which it was made Chalcis is a place of very great antiquity, and it a free city. Chosroes, the Persian, captured it in soon became a great trade centre, sending out 616 A.D., after which it declined, uutil it was colonies to Macedonia, where the peninsula of finally demolished by the Turks, who used its Chalcidice commemorated its name, as well as to ruins to build mosques and other edifices at Con- | Campania (Cuma), South Italy, and Sicily. Suc. stantinople. Chalcedon was the birthplace of the cessively Athenian, Macedonian, and Roman, it philosopher Xenocrates.

was a place of great military importance, nearly The council of Chalcedon was the fourth æcumeni. nine miles in circumference, and had many fine cal council, and was assembled (451 A.D.) by the temples, theatres, and other public buildings. emperor Marcian for the purpose of drawing up a Aristotle died here. In the middle ages it was form of doctrine in regard to the nature of Christ prosperous under the Venetians, who held it for which should equally avoid the errors of the Nes. | nearly three centuries, until its conquest by the torians (q.v.) and Monophysites (q.v.). Six hundred | Turks in 1470. Pop. (1879) 6877 ; (1889) 9919. bishops, almost all of the Eastern Church, were Chalcis, a typical genus of a large family of present. The doctrine declared to be orthodox

Hymenopterous insects, not unlike small wasps. was, that in Christ there were two natures, which The family (Chalcididæ or Pteromalini) has this could not be intermixed (this clause was directed

great importance that the larvæ of its members are against the Monophysites), and which also were not

parasitic in the eggs, larvæ, or pupæ of other insects, in entire separation (this was directed against the

and as some of the latter are very destructive to Nestorians), but which were so conjoined, that their plants, their parasites are animals to be thankful union destroyed neither the peculiarity of each

for. Thus forms so different as the cabbage butter. nature, nor the oneness of Christ's person.

fly and the destructive Hessian fly have their attendChalced'ony (often misspelled Calcedony), a ant Pteromalini. Many of the so-called gall-wasps beautiful mineral of the quartz family, consisting (Cynipida) which cause many of the commonest of quartz with some admixture of opal. It derives galls--for instance on the oak, or the curious bunches its name from Chalcedon in Bithynia, near which it on rose and briar bushes--are preyed upon by Chal. is found in considerable abundance, and has been cididæ. Some of the hosts of these Chalcidæ are known by the same name from ancient times. It themselves parasitic, and thus we have parasites never occurs in crystals, but usually in mammillary, within parasites, or double parasitism, there being botryoidal, or stalactitic forms, lining or entirely in this case no honour among thieves. Altogether filling the cavities of rocks, and more particularly over 2000 species of Chalcididæ are known. old igneous rocks, such as the basalt-rocks of Scot Chaldæa. See BABYLONIA ; for CHALDEE, see land, the Faroe Isles, Iceland, &c. It constitutes

ARAMÆA. the whole or the principal part of many agates. It Chalder, an old Scotch dry measure, conis generally translucent, sometimes semi-trans.

taining 16 bolls. See Boll and FIARS. parent, has a somewhat waxy lustre, and is in colour generally white or bluish white, sometimes

Chaldron (Lat. caldarium, 'a vessel for warm reddish white, sometimes milk white, less frequently

water '), an old dry measure used in selling coal, gray, blue, green, yellow, brown, or even black.

and containing 36 heaped bushels (= 25 cwt.). Its fracture is even, or very slightly conchoidal.

Coal is now sold by weight. Chalcedony is much used in jewelry, for brooches, Chalet is the French-Swiss name for the wooden necklaces, and ornaments of all sorts, the largest hut of the Swiss herdsmen on the mountains ; but

ing sometimes made into little boxes, culus. is also extended to Swiss dwelling-houses generally, &c. It was much used by the ancients, and many and to picturesque and ornate villas built in imita. beautiful engraved specimens appear in antiquarian tion of them. collections. Chalcedonies with disseminated spots Chaleurs, BAY OF, an inlet of the Gulf of St of brown and red were once very highly prized, and | Lawrence, between Gaspé, a district of Quebec, were called Stigmites or St Stephen's stones. Petri. and New Brunswick, having a depth of 90 miles fied plants are sometimes found in chalcedony, in from east to west, and a width varying from 12 to which they appear to have been incased whilst it 20. It is deep and well sheltered, and much was in course of formation. Specimens of chal. I frequented for its mackerel fisheries.

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CHALFONT ST GILES

CHALLENGER EXPEDITION 85

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Chalfont St Giles, a village of Buckingham- fectly purified, is mixed with vegetable colouring shire, 16 miles SE. of Aylesbury. Milton's cottage matters, such as turmeric, litmus, saffron, and sap. (1665) was purchased by the nation in 1887. green, to form pastel colours or coloured chalks ;

Chalgrove, a village 13 miles SE. of Oxford. | but vegetable colours which contain an acid are the scene of a skirmish in the Civil War between

changed by it (see CRAYON). The Vienna white Prince Rupert's cavalry and a parliamentary force

of artists is simply purified chalk. In a perfectly under Hampden, in which that patriot received his

purified state it is administered as a medicine to death-wound, June 18, 1643.

correct acidity in the stomach. Chalk is also

extensively used as a manure. See LIME, MANURE. Chalice (Lat. calix, 'a cup'). The name has

BLACK CHALK is a mineral quite different from long been applied only to the cups used for the

common chalk, and apparently receives its name administration of the wine in the holy communion. from resembling it in meagreness to the touch, in Anciently made of glass, precious stone, horn, and

soiling the fingers, and in being used for drawing, other substances,

writing, &c. It is also called Drawing-slate. It is chalices have for

of a slaty structure, of a bluish or grayish-black many centuries

colour, easily cut and broken, and makes a perbeen formed of

fectly black mark on paper. It is used for draw. silver, or some.

ing and as a black colour in painting. It becomes times gold, occa.

red by exposure to heat. It is essentially a kind of sionally enriched

Clay (q.v.), and derives its colour from carbon, with jewels.

which it contains. It is found associated with Their fashion has followed the art

schists, &c. in Spain, France, Italy, &c., also in the

coal formation in Scotland.-BRIANÇON CHALK and of the times,

FRENCH CHALK are popular names for Soapstone the hemispherical

(q.v.).—RED CHALK is ochry red clay-iron ore, bowl and plain

consisting of clay and much peroxide of iron. It is circular foot of

of a brownish-red colour, and a somewhat slaty Romanesque or

structure, the cross fracture earthy. The coarser Normandays

y s varieties are used chiefly by carpenters for making giving way to a

| marks on wood ; the finer, by painters. It occurs conical bowl and

in thin beds in clay-slate and graywacke-slate in hexagonal foot in the Perpendicu.

some parts of Germany. Chalice (1459) at Nettlecombe, lar period, and Chalking the Door, a mode of warning County Somerset.

these in turn to 1 tenants to remove from burghal tenements, long (From Cripps's Old English Plate) more modern known and still in use in Scotland. It is thus

shapes, seldom of described by Hunter in his work on Landlord such beauty and excellence as those of Gothic and Tenant: 'A burgh-officer, in presence of design. Before the Reformation a crucifix or witnesses, chalks the most patent 'door forty other sacred device always occupied one side of days before Whitsunday, having made out an exe. the foot. The chalice was usually accompanied cution of 'chalking,' in which his name must be by a paten, which might serve as a cover to the

inserted, and which must be subscribed by himself bowl, as well as for carrying the wafer or bread. / and two witnesses. This ceremony now proceeds In medieval times a chalice of tin or pewter, if not simply on the verbal order of the proprietor. The of silver, was placed in the coffin of ecclesiastics at execution of chalking is a warrant under which burial. The chalice is the emblem of St John the decree of removal will be pronounced by the burgh Evangelist. Old chalices are much sought after by court, in virtue of which the tenant may be ejected collectors. The glass . Luck of Edenhall,' preserved on the expiration of a charge of six days. See in the family of Musgrave, near Penrith, is EJECTMENT. apparently an old chalice. The use of the mixed

Challenger Expedition, a circumnavigatchalice, the mingling of water with the wine used | ing scientific exploration of the open sea sent out in the Lord's Supper, and in the Roman rite, has

has by the British government in 1872–76-earlier been matter of controversy in the Church of Eng. I expeditions being those of the Lightning (1868) and land. The chalice veil or corporale was a covering Porcupine (1870). In 1872 the Challenger, a corfor the chalice.

vette of 2306 tons, was completely fitted out and Chalk, a soft earthy variety of limestone or furnished with every scientific appliance for excarbonate of lime, forming great strata, and claim. amining the sea from surface to bottom-natural ing the attention of the geologist even more than of history work-room, chemical laboratory, aquarium, the mineralogist (see CRETACEOUS SYSTEM). It is &c. The ship was given in charge to à naval generally of a yellowish-white colour, but some. surveying staff under Captain Nares; and to a times snow-white. It is easily broken, and has an scientific staff, with Professor (afterwards Sir) earthy fracture, is rough and very meagre to the Wyville Thomson at their head, for the purpose of tonch, and adheres slightly to the tongue. It sounding the depths, mapping the basins, and generally contains a little silica, alumina, or mag-deterinining the physical and biological conditions nesia, sometimes all of these. Although often very of the Atlantic, the Southern and the Pacific soft and earthy, it is sometimes so compact that it Oceans. With this new commission, the Challenger can be used as a building-stone; and it is used for weighed anchor at Sheerness on the 7th December this purpose either in a rough state, or sawn into 1872, and on the evening of the 24th May 1876 she blocks of proper shape and size. It is burned into dropped anchor at Spithead, having in these three quicklime, and nearly all the houses in London are and a half years cruised over 68,900 nautical miles, cemented with mortar so procured. The siliceous and made investigations at 362 stations, at each of particles being separated by pounding and diffusing which were determined the depth of channel; the in water, it becomes whiting, of which the domestic bottom, surface, and intermediate temperatures, Ilses are familiar to every one. Carpenters and currents, and fauna ; and the atmospheric and others use it for making marks, which are easily meteorological conditions. The route was by effaced : the blackboard and piece of chalk are now | Madeira, the Canaries, the West Indies, Nova common equally in the lecture-rooms of universities Scotia, Bermudas, Azores, Cape Verd, Fernando and in the humblest village-schools. Chalk, per- / Noronha, Bahia, Tristan d'Acunha, Cape of 86

CHALLIS

CHALMERS

Good Hope, Kerguelen, Melbourne, the Chinese Chalmers, GEORGE, Scottish antiquary, was Sea, Hong Kong, Japan, Valparaiso, Magellan's born in 1742 at Fochabers in Elginshire, and was Strait, Monte Video, Vigo, and Portsmouth. educated there and at King's College, Aberdeen. Between the Admiralty Isles and Japan the Having afterwards studied law at Edinburgh, in Challenger made her deepest sounding, on the 23d 1763 he went to North America, where he practised March 1875, 4575 fathoms. See the copious Reports as a lawyer at Baltimore till the breaking out of on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. the war of independence. Then returning to Challenger, edited by Sir Wyville Thomson and Britain, he settled in London (1775), and was Sir John Murray, which mark an era in deep-sea appointed clerk to the Board of Trade in 1786. exploration. They extend in all to fifty volumes The duties of this office he continued to discharge (1880-95), the bulk of the large quartos devoted to with diligence and ability till his death on 31st Zoology, the others representing Botany (3 vols.), May 1825. Of his thirty-three works the chief is Deep-sea Deposits (1 vol.), Physics and Chemistry Caledonia; an Account, Historical and Typo. (3 vols.), and a Narrative (2 vols.). To these in graphical, of North Britain (vols. i.-iii. 1807-24). valuable reports many articles in the present work In 1888-89 it was reprinted at Paisley in 7 vols., are indebted for materials and illustrations. See comprising the matter prepared for the unpublished also the works of Sir C. Wyville Thomson, H. M. 4th vol., and furnished with a much-needed index. Moseley, Spry, Lord George Campbell, Wild ; and Among his other publications are A Collection of the articles in this work on ATLANTIC OCEAN, | Treaties between Great Britain and other Powers PACIFIC OCEAN, SOUNDING, and especially SEA. (2 vols. 1790); Lives of Defoe, Paine, Ruddiman,

Challis, JAMES, astronomer, born at Braintree and Mary, Queen of Scots; and editions of Allan in Essex, 12th December 1803, graduated senior | Rainsay and Lyndsay. wrangler and first Smith's prizeman at Cambridge Chalmers, GEORGE PAUL, R.S.A., was born at in 1825, was ordained in 1830, and in 1836 became | Montrose in 1833 (not 1836). He served as errand. professor of Astronomy at Cambridge, where he died

boy to a surgeon, and apprentice to a ship-chandler; 3d December 1882. He was also till 1861 director

but he was resolved to become an artist, and in 1853 of the Cambridge Observatory, and published a he came to Edinburgh, and studied under Scott number of works, including 12 vols. of astronomical | Lauder. His . Favourite Air,' attracted attention observations (1832-64). In August 1846, whilst in 1854, and in 1867 he was elected an A.R.S.A., carefully preparing to test Adams' results, he twice

in 1871 an R.S.A. His untimely death at Edinunconsciously noted the position of the planet burghi (28th February 1878) was due to injuries Neptune before its discovery at Berlin on 23d received some days before either from violence or September. See ADAMS (J. C.).

by misadventure. His works are distinguished by Challoner, RICHARD, a learned Ronian Catholic | adınirable breadth, effective concentration of lightprelate, born at Lewes in Sussex, September 29, ing, freedom of handling, and rich and powerful 1691. Becoming a Roman Catholic, he was sent colouring. He executed some important portraits. in 1704 to the English College at Douay, where His landscapes, mainly of his later years, include he became a professor, and remained until 1730. 'End of the Harvest' (1873) and 'Running Water' In that year he was sent to labour in London, and (1875). He is represented in the National Gallery here he served as a missionary priest until 1741, of Scotland by The Legend,' a large unfinished when he was raised to the episcopal dignity as subject-picture, which, like Prayer (1871), has Bishop of Debra and coadjutor of Bishop Petre, been etched by Rajon. See his Memoir (1879). whom he succeeded as Vicar Apostolic of the

Chalmers, THOMAS, D.D., LL.D., was born at London district in 1758. During the “No Popery'

Anstruther, in Fife, 17th March 1780, educated riots of 1780 he was secreted near Highgate, and he

at the university of St Andrews (from 1791 ), and at died in London, January 12, 1781. Of Challoner's th

the age of nineteen licensed to preach the gospel. numerous controversial treatises, the best known

wn | In 1803 he was ordained minister of the parish is his Catholic Christian Instructed, an answer to of Kilmany, in Fifeshire, about 9 miles from St Conyers Middleton's Letters from Rome. His Garden of the Soul is still the most popular prayer

| Andrews. At this period his attention was almost

entirely absorbed by mathematics and natural book with English Catholics, and his revision of the philosophy. He carried on mathematical and Douay version of the Bible (5 vols. 1750) is sub.

chemistry classes in St Andrews during the winter stantially the Bible used by them. Of his histori.

of 1803–1804, and by his enthusiasm and lucidity of cal works the most valuable are his memoirs of

exposition obtained for himself a high reputation missionary priests and other Catholics of both

as a teacher. In 1808 he published an Inquiry into sexes who suffered death or imprisonment in Eng.

the Extent and Stability of National Resources. land on account of their religion, from the year 1577

Shortly after this, domestic calamities and severe till the end of the reign of Charles II. (2 vols.

illness rendered him keenly susceptible of re1741), and his Britannia Sancta (2 vols. 1745), a ligious impressions. Having to prepare an article collection of the lives of British and Irish saints.

on Christianity for Brewster's Edinburgh EncycloChalmers, ALEXANDER, an industrious biopædia, he commenced a thorough study of the grapher and miscellanous writer, was born at evidences, and rose from his investigations conAberdeen in 1759. After a course of study at his vinced that Christianity was the truth, and the native university, he abandoned a projected Bible the veritable ‘word of God.' Then the great medical career, and repaired to London, where he genius of the man broke forth like sunshine. soon became an active writer for the press and the He grew earnest, devout, and faithful to his busiest of booksellers' hacks. He died in London, pastoral duties. In July 1815 he was translated to 10th December 1834. His editions of Burns, the Tron Church and parish, Glasgow, where his Beattie, Fielding, Gibbon, Bolingbroke, Shake. magnificent oratory took the city by storm. His speare, Jolinson, and Boswell's Johnson are now of Astronomical Discourses (1817) and Commercial no importance ; but that of The British Essayists, Discourses (1820) had a widely extended popu. in 45 vols., is still esteemed as accurate and handy. larity. In 1817 he visited London, where his His prefaces to · Walker's' Classics (45 vols.), and preaching excited as great a sensation as at home. his enlarged edition of Johnson's Collection of the But Chalmers' energies could not be exhausted by Poets (21 vols.), contain much honest work. But mere oratory. Discovering that his parish was in a his reputation depends mainly on the General state of great ignorance and immorality, he began Biogruphical Dictionary (32 vols. 1812-14). I to devise a scheme for overtaking and checking

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