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he wrote upon the tables the words of the Covenant, the Ten Commandments *." It likeways expresseth the effect of a Covenant, which is peace: Said Eliphaz, “ for thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field, and the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee t." Said God himself, “ I will make a covenant for them with the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of Heaven, and with the creeping things of the ground f:” That is, no more harm is to be dreaded from them, than from the person with whom thou art in the strictest confederacy: Whereas, they are all in arms, in the cause of their Sovereign, against fina ners 5.


* Exod. xxxiv. 28. of Job v. 23. | Hof. ii. 18. $ Learned men have added yet another sense of the word, which deserves fome consideration. They reckon it is parallel with pn, which fignifies a STATUTE, or an ordinance. That the terms used, are fometimes synonymous, cannot be denied : But that ever 2172 fignifies. A NAKED STATUTE, can never be proved. To me it rather appears, that pot sometimes denotes COVENANT, as well as 1972: Jeremiah takes them both in the same sense. Jer. xxxiii. 20, 21. compared with Jer. xxxi. 36. In these texts, the Lord compares the Covenant he made with David with that which he made with Noah ; fhewing that the former is as certain as the latter, which he confirms by daily experience, Nor is he the only infpi



THE term which we render CoveNANT in the Old Testament, is translated, by the inspired writers of the New Testament, by a word which is sometimes rendered CoveNANT, and sometimes TESTAMENT*. The great Prophet of the Church useth it to express that transaction which obtained between the Father and himself, as well as

conveyance of his kingdom unto his people. Said he, “I APPOINT unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath APPOINTED unto me t.” The word appoint is rather too narrow to express all that is intended in the inspired original. The original word imports, not only all the certainty of an APPOINTMENT, but also, all the precifion of a FOEDERAL SETTLEMENT. It imports both a FOEDERAL SETTLEMENT and a TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITION ; both senses are contained in the text just now quoted : The Fæderal Appointment,

only, obtained between the Father and the Son ; for the Father could

and that

red writer who considers them as fynonyinous : Said the inspired hiftorian of the book of Joshua,“ fo Jofhua mnade a COVENANT with the people that day; and set them a STATUTE and an ordinance in Shechem.” Jolh. xxiv. 25. Arbúxen, and Aletrui. + Luke xxii. 29.


not die'to leave the kingdom as a legacy, by 'testament, unto the Son : Both the Føderal Settlement and the Testamentary Disposition, obtained in Christ's admini

stration toward the Church ; for, as he died to turn his Covenant into a Testament, fo he engageth himself, by covenant-promise, unto his children ; and bindeth them unto himself with the bands of a man. More particularly,

金 A

1. This term, in the New Testament, denotes a Covenant, in the

proper notion of the word : That is, a voluntary compact between two distinct parties.

By fo much was Jesus the surety of a better covenant *. I would choose to translate the

Apostle's Apostle's testimony in this manner ; for there is little or no place for a surety in a Testament ; whereas it is proper, and sometimes even necessary in a Covenant.

* Heb. ri. 22. Some authors, I grant, 'contend that Asccbýxn can never properly be rendered COVENANT, but ought always to be translated TESTAMENT. But such a Supposition must bear hard on the inspired Writers of the New Testament. The Cocceians, however, are rash enough to give into it. And Le Clerc considers Paul, as one “who delighted in the play of a Helenistical writer, when he used Alabúza to denote COVENANT." Buit his infolence and profanity have been chastised by the learned Dr Whitby : See his Paraphrafe and Cominent • on Heb. ix. 20. The Hutchinfonians likeways aver, that əither Paul's dialect was Hellenistical, if not cabalistical, or that he did not intend to express, by Alcduxr, what we


2. The Apostle useth this term, to express TestAMENT: Said he, “ For where

tall a COVENANT. The writers of the New Testament, however, may be justified for their using this term, in the sense specified, from the example of the pureft claffical writers in the Greek language, in the best times of their Republic. Though Arcebumen be more extensive in its fignification than Evvbyxo; yet the Grecians, whether orators or historians, bards or statesinen, have taken it as nearly fynonimous ; or in the same sense with the Apostle, at least. Budæus, Comment. Ling. Grac. p. 629. quotes various good claffics, using this terin in the fame fense as Eurð“xn. Nor are the best critics in that language otherways minded : Witness Stephanus, Hesychius, Phaforimus, &c. Georgius de Idioticismis Novi Testimenti immerito affiatis. Jablonski de propria fignificatione rãs Albanes. This term is better rendered COVENANT, than TESTAMENT, in Heb. viii. 6, 9. Luke i. 72. Acts iïi. 25. Rom. xi. 27and, perhaps, in all places where it occurs, except in Gal. iii. 15. and Heb. ix. 15, 16, 17. Conradus Kircher finds the Septuagint to translate nina by Asuburn, in all places wherever it occurs, except Deut. ix. 15. and 1 Kings xi. 11.: And the term is to be found above two hundred times in the Old Testament. The translation of the Septuagint could not be of great authority, how. ever, were it not confirmed, in this instance at least, by thc inspired writers of the New Testainent. Nor is there any one word in our language, fo proper for expreffing the idea conveyed in both terins, as the word Cove.



à Testament is, there must also, of necefsity, be the death of the Teftator ; for a Testament is of force after men are dead : otherways, it is of no strength at all while the Testator liveth *.” The Apostle argueth, from the nature of a testament, unto the necessity of the confirmation of the Covenant of Grace, which is a teftamentary covenant, by the death of Christ. The Hebrews were ready to stumble at the sufferings of the Messiah; but the Apostle taught them, that such a covenant rendered them absolutely necessary t. But the strength of

* Heb. ix. 16, 17.

+ “Una ergo illa circumstantia principali, videl. “ Sponsoris feu Fidejussoris pro nobis fubftitutione, prin“cipaliter continetur Differentia Veteris et Novi Fæde. “ ris, a qua Novum Füdus etiam denominatur FoEDUS “ GRATIÆ. A gratia autem illa Sponsoris, CONSUMMAN• “DA OLÍM, et NUNC CONSUMMATA in morte ipsius, Fæ“ dus illud noftri refpectu induit naturam TESTAMENTI. “ Nomen illud Teftamenti neutiquam convenit legali ori

ginali Fæderi operam. Sed characteristicum est Novo « Fæderi Gratiæ : neque fit citra magnam axuporozíce “ quod FOEDERIS et TESTAMENTI voces promiscue ufur“pant Latini Bibliorum interpretes: cum vix alius locus TESTAMENTI voce flagitare videatur, quam

unicus “ fciz. Heb. ix. 17. idque non vi vocis Albmxn, sed quia « antecedit hæreditatis adipiscendæ inentio. Alia eft er.

go, proprie et accurate loquendo differentia jam expli“ cata VETERIS et Novi FOEDERIS ; Alia VETERIS et

Novi TESTAMENTI."CLOP, Exercit. Theol. Loc. 8. Disp. do 2. Thef. 17. 18. 19.

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