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sorts of persons whatsoever; so that whatsoever shall be done to the least of us for that causo, shall be taken as done to us all in general, and to every one of us in particular. And that we shall neither directly nor indirectly suffer ourselves to be divided or withdrawn, by whatsoeversuggestion, combination, allurement, or terror, from this blessed and loyal conjunction; nor shall cast any let or impediment that may stay or hinder any such resolution, as, by common consent, shall be found to conduce for so good ends: But, on the contrary, Mali, by all lawful means, labour to further and promove the same; and if any such dangerous and divisive motion be made to us, by word or writ, We, and every one of us, Mall either fuppress it, or, if need be, íhall incontinent make the same known, that it may be timeously obviated. Neither do we fear the foul aspersions of rebellion, combination, or what else our adversaries, from their craft and malice, would put upon us; seeing what we do is so well. warranted, and ariseth from an unfeigned desire to maintain the true worship of God, the Majesty of our King, and the peace of the kingdom, for the common happiness of ourselves and our posterity.

And because we cannot look for a blessing from God upon our proceedings, except with our profession and subscription we join such a life and conversation as befeemeth Christians who have renewed their covenant with God:


We therefore, faithfully promise, for ourselves our followers, and all others under us, both in public and in our particular families, and perfonal carriage, to endeavour to keep ourselves within the bounds of Christian liberty; and to be good examples to others of all godliness føberness, and righteousness, and of every duty we owe to God and man.

AND, that this our union and conjunction may be observed without violation, We call the LiVING GOD, THE SEARCHER OF OUR HEARTS, to witness, who knoweth this to be our sincere defire and unfeigned refolution, as we fhall anfiver to Jesus Crist in the great day, and under the pain of God's everlasting wràth, and of infamy and loss of all honour and respect in this world: Most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his Holy SPIRIT for this end, and to bless our desires and proceedings with a happy fuccess, that religion and righteousness may flourish in the land, to the glory of God the honour of our King, the peace and comfort of us all. In witness we have subscribed with our hands all the premilles."

Botu nations having entertained ideas of civil power directly opposite to King Charles I. and as he considered Episcopal government as a more proper instrument of prerogative than any other form. The Parliament, with which he differed, having called together an Affen


bly of Divines, for tlie advancement of religion, they made considerable progress in the buliness; while the Parliament promoted the cause of civil liberty. Charles had recourse to arms. His opponents meant to defend themselves : And, having called in the assistance of their brethren in Scotland, they would comply only on condition of the South Britons joining with them in an ecclesiastic union, for promoting uniformity in religion, in conformity to the best Reformed Churches. Though the measure was disagreeable to many politicians; yet, for political reasons, rather than religious motives, they complied with it. And the following Covenant, entitled THE SOLENN LEAGUE AND COVENANT, was entered into:

“ WE Noblemen, Barons, Knights, Gentlemen, Citizens, Burgesses, Ministers of the Gofpel, and Commons of all sorts, in the kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, by the providence of God living under one King, and being of one Reformed Religion, having before our eyes the glory of God, and the advancement of the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, the honour and happiness of the King's Majcfty and his posterity, and the true public liberty, fafety and peace of the kingdom, wherein every one's private condition is included : And calling to mind the treacherous and bloodly plots, conspiracies, attempts, and practices of the enemies of God against the true religion, Nnnn


and profesors thereof, in all places, especially
in these three kingdoms, ever since the Refor-
mation of Religion ; and how much their rage,
power, and presumption are of late, and this
time, increased and exercised, whereof the de-
plorable state of the Church and Kingdom of
Ireland, the distressed estate of the Church and
Kingdom of England, and the dangerous estate
of the Church and Kingdom of Scotland, are
present and public testimonies: We have now,
at last, (after other means of fupplication, re-
monstrance, protestations, and sufferings), for
the preservation of ourselves and our religion
from utter ruin and destruction, according to
the commendable practice of these kingdoms
in former times, and the example of God's
people in other nations, after mature delibera-
tion, resolved and determined to enter into a
mutual and Solemn League and Covenant,
wherein we all subscribe, and each of us for
himself, with our hands lifted up to the Most
High God, do swear,

I. That we shall sincerely, really, and conftantly, through the grace of God, endeavour, in our several places and callings, the prefervration of the Reformed Religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, worship, discipline and government, against our common enemies; the Reformation of Religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government, according to the Word of God, and the example of the beft


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Reformed Churches: And ball endeavour to bring the Churches of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form of church-government, directory for worship and catechising; that we, and our pofterity after us, may, as brethren, live in faith and love ; and the Lord may delight to dwell in the midst

of us.

II. That we Mall, in like manner, without respect of persons, endeavour the extirpation of Popery, Prelacy, (that is, church-government by archbishops, bithops, their chancellors and commiffaries, deans, deans and chapters, archdeacons, and all other ecclesiastical officers depending on that hierarchy), fuperstition, heresy, schifin, profaneness, and whatsoever shall be found to be contrary to found doctrine, and the power of godliness ; left we partake in other mens fins, and thereby be in danger to receive of their plagues; and that the Lord may be one, and his name one in the three kingdoms.

III. We Nall, with the same sincerity, reality, and constancy, in our several vocations, endeavour, with our estates and lives, mutually to preserve the rights and privileges of the Parliaments, and the liberties of the kingdoms; and to preserve and defend the King's Majefty's person and authority, in the preservation and defence of the true religion and liberties of the kingdoms ; that the world may bear Nnnn 2


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