Parts: A Study in Ontology
Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of a host of classical philosophical concepts.
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Extensional PartWhole Theory
Survey of Extensional Mereology
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accept allows appears applies argument assumption atoms axioms body bound calculus Chapter Chisholm claim classical clear coincidence collection common complex concept concerning connected consider constant constitutes continuants defined definition deny dependence determinables discussion distinct equivalent essential example existence expression extended extensional mereology fact formal function further give given hand idea identity important independent individuals integrity interest interpretation involved kind least Leśniewski logic mass material matter means mentioned mereology modal namely natural notion objects occurrents Ontology operator organisms overlapping part-whole particular philosophical plural position possible predicate present primitive principle problem proper properties question reason reference relation relative respect sense ship similar simply single singular substance suggests suppose temporal theory things true Universe usual variables whole