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CONTENTS.

PAGE

1. The Formation Op The Seam 1

A.—The Hand Seam ib-

B.—The various Descriptions Op Machine Seaming . . . . 5

The Formation Op The Stitch . 14

The Single-thread Chain-stitch . cir... 19

The Reciprocating Hook . 20

The Rotary Hook . . . 21

2. The Double-thread Chain-stitch 23

The Quilting-stitch 28

Machines With Travelling Shuttle ib.

Shuttles With Horizontal Rectilinear Motion 29

Shuttles for Horizontal Curvilinear Motion 34

Shuttles With Vertical Curvilinear Motion 35

Shuttles With Fixed Spools 37

II. The Mechanical Arrangements Op The Sewing Machine . . 40

The Mechanism for Communicating Motion To The Needle . . 41

The Transmission Op Motion To The Lower Mechanism . . . 46

1. The Revolving Hook 47

2. The Hook With Reciprocating Motion ib.

3. Shuttles With Curvilinear Oscillating Motion . . .49

4. Shuttles With Rectilinear Motion 54

5. Looper With Long Reciprocating Motion 55

The Mechanism for Imparting Motion To The Material . . . ib.

I.—Feeders Working from Below 56

The Feed Wheel 61

II.—Feeders Working Prom Above 64

Page

The Stitch Regulator 67

D.—The Tension Apparatus ib.

Tension By Friction Op The Thread 68

Tension By Friction On The Spool ib.

Tension By A Roller 70

The Thread Guide ib.

III.—The Sewing Machine 73

A.—The Machines With Oscillating Looper For Single-thread

Chain-stitch .77

The Single-thread Chain-stitch Machine With Rotating Book . . 84

Machines Por Double-thread Chain-stitch 86

D.—Machines for Quilting-stitch, With Moveable Shuttles . . 92

1.—Singer's System 93

2.—Hopmann's System 99

3.—Grover And Baker's System 102

Thomas's System 105

The Quilting-stitch Machine With Fixed Bobbin . . . 109

THE SEWING-MACHINE.

I. THE FORMATION OF THE SEAM.

A. THE HAND SEAM.

The seam, formed by hand, by means of a needle and thread, is generally intended to connect two pieces of material, either in a straight or curved direction. The construction of the seam itself varies according to the purpose of its application. The three principal varieties are: 1. The tacking, or chain-stitch seam. 2. The whip, or overcast-stitch seam. 3. The quilting-stitch seam. The latter description of seam (Plate II., Fig. 17) varies in appearance on each side of the material, as on the one side each stitch adjoins the other; while on the reverse, each stitch covers half of the preceding one. A variation of the quilting-stitch is the back stitch (Fig. 18), the derivation of which from the former is evident, by imagining between each two stitches a vacant space on the one side of the material of the length of a single stitch, causing each stitch on the other side only to cover a third of the preceding one. The whip-stitch seam consists of a series of stitches running spirally round the

B

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