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transposes this order. Besides a sprinkling of uncorrected errors in reference to authors, we noted a more important one retained in H., viz., a statement that the pronoun is, ea, id, is sometimes used instead of a reflexive pronoun. The examples quoted do not warrant this statement, for the forms of is there employed refer not to the verb of their own clause, but of the preceding one. Sos occurs in Cic. Leg. ii, 9, 22 for eos, and in H. we are referred to is in init for explanation, but find there no reference to such form. Under bascauda we found Wall for Welsh, and under Dea, the reference near close of Bona De a to bonus F. should be to A. 6. We refer to such minute details to show that we have not made up our judgment of the book without some examination of it.

A valuable feature in Harpers is the frequent indication of words of synonymous or opposite signification. In etymology it is far in advance of A., as a comparison of the articles, especially those on the numerals, in both abundantly shows. A comparison of the two may perhaps be better made by examining closely several leading articles in each, and for this purpose we select those on Littera, 2 Jus and Lex, as treating important words, and yet not so long as to deter the reader from going through the dry details which necessarily enter into such a comparison. We present an accurate skeleton of each as given in Andrews and in Harpers, (omitting the references) with observations suggested to us by the comparative exhibit :

ANDREWS. LITERA, (also written littera,) æ, f. [lino.] A letter. I. Lit. ... literarum ordine, in alphabetical order,... digerere in literam, to arrange alphabetically, . . . nescire literas, not to be able to read and write, . . . facere literam and literas, to write, In the language of comedy : homo trium literarum, i. e., fur, a thief,

literam ex se longam facere, i. e., I, i. e., to hang one's self,

litera salutaris and tristis, i. e., A. (absolvo) and C (condemno) which were put on the voting tablets. . . vide the letters A and c. II. Transf. A. A word, a line, ... So, ad literam, word for word, literally, . . . B. A handwriting,

C. Literae, ārum, Plur., A letter, epistle ; literas resignare, to unseal or open a letter,

literae missae, are letters sent by a person; literae allatae, letters received ; hence liber literarum missarum et allatarum, a letter-book, L. M. (i. e., literae missae ;) . . . L. A. (i. l.,

literae allatae,) etc. In poets also sometimes in the sing. D. A writing, document, paper, . . . E. An account-book,

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...F. An edict, ordinance, literas revocavit, letter of appointment, commission, ... G. Written monuments, literature; abest historia literis nostris, is wanting in our literature, Graecae de philosophia literae, philosophical literature, tem literis sine interprete percipere, merely from books, H. History, inasmuch as it is derived from written documents, (* An inscr. ov.'m. 11, 706.) I. Literary Composition, K. Learning, the sciences, liberal education, scholarship, letters, nescire literas, to be without a liberal education, . . . Altiores literae, magic.

HARPERS. LITTERA, (less correctly lítěra,) e, f: [lino, q. v.] a letter, a written sign or mark signifying a sound. 'I. Lit...2 Litterarum ordine, in alphabetical order digerere in litteram, to arrange alphabetically, . scire litteras, to be able to read and write, . nescire litteras, not to be able to read and write, ... scientia litterarum, the art of writing, ... facere litteram or litteras, to write.

In the language of comedy : homo trium litterarum, i. e., fur, a thief, . . , litteram ex se longam facere, i. e., to make an I by hanging perpendicularly, to hang one's self, ... littera salutaris, i. e. A., (absolvo,) and tristis, i. e., C., (condemno,) which were put on the voting tablets.-II. Transf. A. Sing. 1. A word, a line... ad litteram, word for word, literally.-2. A handwriting.-B. Usually plur. 1. Litteræ, ārum, f., a letter, epistle ... literas resignare, to unseal or open a letter . litteræ missæ, a letter sent by a person ... litteræ allatæ, a letter received: hence, liber litterarum missarum et allatarum, a letter-book: L. M. (i. e., litteræ missæ) ... L. A., (i. e. litteræ allatæ,) etc. In poets, also, sometimes in sing. . 2. A writing, document, paper . esp. a written acknowledgment, littera poscetur. 3. An account-book. .. 4. An edict, ordinance. ... litteras revocavit, letter of appointment, commission. . . . 5. Written monuments, records, literature abest historia litteris nostris, is wanting in our literature ... Græcæ de philosophïa litteræ, philosophical literature, ... nullam artem litteris sine interprete et sine aliqua exercitatione percepi posse, merely from books. ...6. History inasmuch as it is derived from written monuments. 7. Literary labor, composition. ... 8. An inscription, Ov., M., 11, 706. ... 9. Learning, the sciences, liberal education, scholarship, letters ... nescire litteras, to be without a liberal education ... altiores litteræ, magic... Comically of the art of love. Litteras didicisti, quando scis, sine alios discere, Plautus.

We notice, first, that Ilarpers calls attention to the orthography, littera, as better than litera, followed in Andrews; secondly, that, in presenting the primary meaning of littera, Harpers adds the words, a written sign or mark signifying a sound. This addition removes all doubt as to the sense in which the word letter is here used; namely, that of a letter of the alpha

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bet, and not an epistle. This careful avoidance of ambiguity is also noticeable in the explanation in Harpers of the comic expression litteram ex se longam facere, and of littera salutaris and littera tristis, as compared with the same in Andrews. Harpers gives a much larger number of citations from, and references to, Latin authors to illustrate the meanings; for example, under I. Lit. there are ten additional ones, and, including Quintilian, Probus, Vitruvius, Gaius, and the Digest, not referred to by Andrews; and, under II. Transf., we find twentyseven additional references, embracing Juvenal, Cæsar, Tibullus, and Livy, not referred to in Andrews.

We noticed the following errors—in Andrews: II. Transf. C., the quotation, unis literis totius æstatis res gestas ad Senatum perscribere is found in Cic. Fam., 2. 7, not 3. 7, as printed, and reference to Cic., Att., 12, 1, as illustrating use of litera with verb, exarare, is a mistake. The word in Cic. is not littera, but litterula, and the citation is properly made in H. under the latter word. K. erat in quotation from Cic., Brut., 76, is typographical error for erant. In Harpers, we have noted errors as follows: I. Lit., Sen. Ep., 68, 18, should be Sen. 68, 9; Vitruv. 1, 1, 14, should be 1, 1, 4; then follows apparently a reference to same author, id., Clem. 2, 1, 2, which should be Sen. Clem. 2, 1, 2. as correctly printed in A. II. Transf. A. 1. Quint. 9, 1, 15, should be 9, 1, 25. B. 1, the reference to Tib. 3, 2, 27, should, I think, be put in 8, as illustrating sense inscription; 5, in quotation from Cic., Brut., 64, 228, illustratæ should be illustratuin, (agreeing with genus and not scriptionis,) as we find it in A., Ernesti, etc.—9, Cic. de Or. 2, 7, 28, should be 2, 17, 72.

ANDREWS. 2. Jūs, jūris, n (gen. plur., jurum for jurium, Cato in Charis. p. 109 P.) [from the same root with jubeo, jussi : prop. jussum] Right, laro, justice: I. Lit. (quite class.) ... obtinere, to maintain

. . dicere, to pronounce judgment, give a judicial decision, as, e. 9., the praetor : ... jus petis, you ask what is right, reasonable, ... jus publicum, common rights, ... jura communia, equal rights, . . gentium, the law of nations, ... civile, the civil law, ... AW., jure, adverbially, with justice, justly, ... jure optimo, with perfect justice,

summum, the extremity or utmost rigor of the law. II. Transf. : A. A place where justice is administered, a court of justice: in jus ambula, come before a magistrate. . . . B. Justice, justness of a thing. ... C. Legal right, power, authority,... patrium, the power of life and death over their children, ... (homo) sui juris, his own master, inde-pendent, ... jus ad mulieres, over the women. ... The legal forms of the old jurists : Jus Flavianum, Pomp. in Pand. 1, 2, 2, 7.

HARPERS. 2. Jūs, jūris, (gen. plur. jurum for jurium, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 86 ; Cato ap. Charis. p. 72 and 109 P. ; juribus, Dig. 13, 5, 3, § 1; Charis. p. 19; jure, arch. dat., Liv. 42, 28, 6: Corp. Ins. Lat. 198, 31,) n. [kindred with Sanscr. yu, to join : cf. Çevyvvue, jungo, 9. v. the binding, obliging: cf. lex from ligo,] right, law, justice. I. Lit., (class.: in plur. very rare, except in nom. and acc.,) that which is binding or obligatory, that which is binding by its nature, right, justice, duty, ... obtinere, to maintain, ... de jure alicui respondere, to lay down the law, ... dicere, to pronounce judgment, give a judicial decision, as, e.g., the praetor, ... jus petis, you ask what is right, reasonable, ... jus publicum, common right, ... jura communia, equal rights, ... gentium, the law of nations, ...civile, the civil laro, ... jus fasque est, human and divine right ... Abl.: jūrě, adverb., with justice, justly, ... jure optimo, with perfect justice, ... summum jus, the extremity or utmost rigor of the law. II. Transf. A. A place where justice is administered, a court of justice, ... in jus ambula, come before a magistrate.... B. Justice, justness of a thing.-C. Legal right, power, authority, permission.Of particular rights : jus eundi, a right of way, ... jus civitatis, the right to obtain the privileges of citizenship (cf. civitas: v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 640) ... patrium, the power of life and death over their children, ... (hoino) sui juris, his own master, independent, ... jus ad mulieres, over the women.— The legal forms of the old jurists: Jus Flavianum, Dig. 1, 2, 2, $ 7.

In comparing these articles our attention is first called to the greater fullness of H. in respect of unusual forms. A. gives only one, namely, gen. plur. jurum for jurium, with reference to Cato ap. Charis, only; whereas H. gives three, namely, gen. plur. jurum for jurium, juribns and old dative form, jure, each with at least two references, in one of which, however-namely, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 86—the reading in the Tauchnitz edition is jurium, the regular form. Secondly, we notice that the definition of the primary meaning in A. is stated merely in the terms ordinarily used to translate jus into English, but in H. an explanation is also made of the sense in which these terms are to be taken as equivalents of jus; namely, as something binding by its nature; and this fuller exegetical explanation is followed by citations from Justinian and the Digest, wherein the meaning is brought out and illustrated in carefully expressed and exact judicial language. In the etymology A.

is entirely unsatisfactory. It is said, indeed, that jus is from the same root as jubeo, but, on consulting the article on that verb, we find no statement of its etymological affinities. Jubeo is probably a compound of jus and habeo; so that the assertion of sameness of origin is most likely partially correct, but does not help to solve the problem. One the other hand, H.’s reference to the Sanscr. yu, the Greek Geúyvolil, and Latin jungo, as kindred forms, indicates, we think, the true path to the etymology as well as the primitive signification of jus, and we shall consider this point further in our observations on the article lex. The feature of greater fullness and exactness of statement appears throughout in H., as well as much more copious references to authorities, of which, for example, there are in I. Lit. nineteen additional ones, embracing Justinian's Inst., Gaius, Virgil, Livy, and Juvenal, to whom no reference is here made in A. The phrases “de jure alicui respondere, to lay down the law,” and “jus fasque est, human and divine right," are left unexplained in A. In II. Transf. H. gives twenty additional references to authors, among whom are Horace, Juvenal, Gaius, and Seneca ap. Lact. not cited in A. To the definition given in A., under Sec. C, H. adds the word permission, which serves to call attention to the ground of the legal right, power, authority; namely, a permission by recognized authority to do a certain thing, as shown by examples quoted. H. adds also a subsection “of particular rights,” jus eundi, a right of way; jus civitatis, the right to obtain the privileges of citizenship, etc. We note that references (I. Lit.) to Plaut. Pers. 1, 3, 26, and Cist., 1, 1, 22, are in A. assigned to Ovid, and in H. those to Cic., Tusc., 3, 12, 26, and Fin., 5, 2, 4, are marked as though belonging to Juvenal, while that to Plaut. As. 1, 1, 20 should be Cis. 1, 1, 22, as correctly given in A.

ANDREWS. LEX, lėgis, f. [2 lego A proposition or motion for a lar, made to the people by a magistrate, a bill: I. Lit. . . . II. Transf.: A. A bill which has become a law in consequence of its adoption by the people in the comitia, a law, ... leges duodecim tabularum, the laws composed by the decemvirs, the foundation of Roman lega islation ... lege and legibus, according to laro, legally. ... 2. In partic.: lege agere, to proceed according to law; i. e., a. of the lictors, To execute a sentence . . b. To bring an action according

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