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Augustine Jones, Esq. 4. Longmeadow Families; communicated by Willard S. Allen, A.M. 6. Wittingham Genealogy; by Mrs. Caroline H. Dall. 6. Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Lyme, Conn.; communicated by the late Rev. Frederick W. Chapman, A.M. 7. King's Arms Tavern, Boston; with Suggestions for Indexing Public Records; by John T. Hassam, A.M. 8. Tappan Genealogy; by Herbert Tappan, Esq. 9. Letter of Rev. Thomas Prince, of Boston, 1738; communicated by John J. Loud, A.M. 10. William Johnson and his Descendants; by G. W. Johnson. 11. Genealogical Letter of John Quincy Adams; communicated by Rev. Horace E. Hayden. 12. Genealogy of Thomas Williams, of New Hartford, N. Y.; by George H. Williams, Esq. 13. Letters of Charles Lidget and Francis Foxcroft, 1692; communicated by John S. H. Fogg, M.D. 14. Marriages by the Rev. Benjamin Colman, 1715 ; communicated by Henry F. Waters, A.B. 15. Records of the Rev. Samuel Danforth, of Roxbury; communicated by William B. Trask, Esq. 16. Mission of Penhallow and Atkinson to the Penobscot Indians; communicated by the late Capt. William F. Goodwin, U. S. A. 17. Marriages in Boston by Several Clergymen, 1701–1743. 18. Account Books of the First Church in Charleston ; communicated by James

F. Hunnewell, Esq. April.—1. Sketch of the Life of Rev. John A. Vinton, A. M.; by Rev. Increase N. Tarbox, D.D. 2. Bristol Church Records, 1687–1710; communicated by Geo. T. Paine. 3. Annual Address before the N. E. Historic Genealogical Society; by the President, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Ph.D. 4. Who is a Gentleman ? by John D. Champlin, Jun., A. M. 5. How to Write Town Histories ; by Hon Charles Hudson, A. M. 6. Records of the Rev. Samuel Danforth, of Roxbury; communicated by William B. Trask, Esq. 7. Record of the Boston Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety. 8. Genealogy of the Family of Mulford ; communicated by William R. Mulford, Esq. 9. Portraits of New Hampshire Governors and Others; by Hon. Benjamin F. Prescott. 10. Seals in the Collection of Mellen Chamberlin ; by the Committee on Heraldry N. E. H. G. S. 11. Letter from the Earl of Bellomont; communicated by William B. Trask, Esq. 12. Early Records of New Hampshire Families; communicated by Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D. 13. Longmeadow Families; communicated by Willard S. Allen, A. M. 14. Marriages in Boston by Several Clergymen, 1702–1719; communicated by William S. Appleton, A. M. 15. A Sketch of the Howlands; by L. M. Howland. 16. Letter of Walter Barnesley, of London, 1667, to William Pitkin, of Hartford; communicated by Edwin Hubbard, Esq. 17. Descendants of Benedict Arnold. 18. Births, Marriages, and Deaths in Dartmouth;

communicated by J. B. Congdon, Esq. ORIENTAL AND BIBLICAL JOURNAL. Issued Quarterly. Volume I., No. I. (Chicago.) PRINCETON REVIEW, May, 1880. (New York.)-1. The Human and the Brute

Mind; by Professor Francis Bowen. 2. Reform of Women's Education ; by Sir Alex. Grant, Bt., D.C.L. 3. The Newest Atheism; by Noah Porter. 4. Organization of Labor; by Simon Newcomb, LL.D. 5. The Resurrection of Christ; by Rev. Phillip Schaff, D.D., LL.D. 6. Political Economy a Science-Of What; by Professor Lyman H. Atwater, D.D., LL.D. 7. Haeckel on the “ Evolution of Man;


(Nashville, Tenn.)-1. One of the Grand Old Fathers. 2. Development of Monotheism Among the Greeks. 3. Lovick Pierce. 4. Beyond the Grave. 5. The Light of Asia. 6. Conformity to Law in the Divine Economy. 7. Van Oosterzee's Practical Theology. 8. The Three Creeds. 9. Terminism.

English Reviews. BRITISH QUARTERLY REVIEW, April, 1880. (London.) - 1. Planets, Moons, and

Meteorites. 2. Winckelmann. 3. The Profession of an “Architect.” 4. The English System of Penal Servitude. 6. The Revolutionary Movement in Russia. 6. Circumstantial Evidence. 7. The Political Situation.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN EVANGELICAL REVIEW, April, 1880. (London.)-1. Nature of

the Divine Inspiration of Scripture; by Rev. Professor M'Gregor, D.D. 2. Strictures on the Article “Bible,” in the Recent Edition of the.“ Encyclopædia Britannica ; " by Rev. Professor Watts, D.D. 3. The Latest Phase of the Pentateuch Question ; by Rev. Alfred Cave, B. A. 4. Methodism in Ireland ; Life of Gideon Ouseley; by Rev. W. Irwin. 6. Jabez; by Professor John Campbell. 6. The Conservation of Energy; by Borden P. Bowne. 7. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew; by Professor George P. Fisher, D.D. 8. Ration

alism in the Church versus Rationalism Without; by Rev. Samuel M. Smith. EDINBURGH REVIEW, April, 1880. (New York.)-1. Ritualistic Literature. 2. Bige

low's Life of Benjamin Franklin. 3. Mohammedanism in China. 4. The Schools of Charles the Great. 6. Modern Horse-racing. 6. Catholic Rule in Ireland, 1641–48. 7. The late Professor Clifford's Essays. 8. Burton's Reign of Queen

Anne. 9. The New Parliament. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, April, 1880. (London.)-1. The Authorship of

Nature. 2. The Approaching Perihelia of the Larger Planets. 3. Religious Liberty in Europe. 4. Kafirland: The Native Policy of the Cape Colony, 7. Two Indian Missionaries. 6. Mind and Brain. 7. Is Life Worth Living ?

8. M. Berger on the Bible in the Sixteenth Century. LONDON QUARTERLY REVIEW, April, 1880. (New York.)– 1. David Hume. 2. The

English Flower Garden. 3. The Marquess Wellesley. 4. The Book of Com

mon Prayer. 5. Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat. 6. The Chinese in Central :

Asia. 7. The Taxation of India. 8. The Slavonic Menace to Europe. 9. The

Conservative Defeat. WESTMINSTER Review, April, 1880. (New York.)-1. The Marquess Wellesley.

2. Artistic Copyright. 3. Masson's Life of Milton. 4. Greek Humanists : Nature and Law. 6. The Letters of Charles Dickens. 6. Animal Intelligence. 7. The Issues of the Election.

German Reviews. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR KIRCHENGESCHICHTE. (Journal for Church History.) Edited by

Dr. Brieger. Volume IV. Number 1. Essays : 1. REUTER, Augustinian Studies, (First Article.) 2. Uhlhorn, Preparatory Studies for a History of Christian Charity in the Middle Ages. 3. Schultz, Luther's View of the Method and the Limits of the Doctrinal Statements concerning God. Critical Reviews : BUDDENSIEG, English Works on the History of the Reformation, published from 1876 to 1878. Analecta: 1. Schultze, The Christian Inscription in Pompeii. 2. MulLER, Fragments of Homilies of Photius. 3. LENZ, The Correspondence of Land

grave Philipp with Luther and Melanchthon. The history of Christian charity, says Dr. Uhlhorn in this second article, has yet been but rarely treated of, and least by Protestants and in Germany. A well-known French work by Chastel, which has also been translated into German, (Etudes historiques sur l'influence de la charité durant les premiers siècles chrétiens, Paris, 1853,) embraces only the first centuries, From a Catholic point of view Dr. Ratzinger has written a work on the history of the Church charities in regard to the poor, (Geschichte der kirchlichen Armenpflege, Freiburg, 1868.) He ignores the evangelical Church altogether, is unacquainted



with what the Protestant Churches have done for the poor, and does not even try to explain the causes which brought about the great changes in the character of the Church charities of the Middle Ages as compared with those of the early age of the Christian Church. These causes, Dr. Uhlhorn insists, must be looked for in the change of ethical views. The practical charities of an age will always be conditioned by the ethical point of view from which riches and poverty are judged, by the value attached to labor and to the earthly vocation of man, and by the conception of a Christian's duty in regard to charity. The history of the changes of these ethical views has been hitherto too much ignored. Dr. Uhlhorn's essay is intended to trace the peculiar manifestations of Christian charity in the Church of the Middle Ages to the ethical views prevailing in those times. He mentions two characteristic points of the Church charities of the Middle Ages: first, the absence of any regulated care of the poor; the absolute control of all acts of charity by the Church authorities. There was no lack of acts of charity; perhaps they were more frequent than at other times; numerous religious orders and societies devoted themselves to the care of the sick and the poor, and frequently showed a spirit of selfsacrifice which calls forth our admiration, but every thing was isolated, disconnected, and without regulation. We meet with no provision to adopt preventive measures to ward off threatening poverty, and with no systematic efforts to remove existing poverty. The donors do not give directly to, and do not directly exert themselves in behalf of, the poor, but the poor receive every thing as a gift from the Church authorities. It was not so in the Church preceding that of the Middle Ages. Then there was a regulated system of caring for the poor, conducted by deacons under the supervision of the bishop. When the emperors became Christians State and Church co-operated in the dispensation of charities. The State government left the care of the poor in the hands of the Church, but supported the Church, and in exchange obtained some kind of control. In the legislation of Charlemagne for the poor we still find an example of regulations for the support of the poor of a mixed ecclesiastical and secular character. After Charlemagne legislation of this class begins to disappear, and in the eleventh century no trace of it is found. About one century before the

Reformation a reaction against the monopolization of the care for the poor in the hands of the Church manifests itself in the towns. The town authorities begin to have an influence upon the badly administered hospitals, and the charities dispensed by the guilds emancipate themselves from the guidance of the priests. The principles of the Reformation were hardly anywhere else so successful as in establishing certain principles for the regulation of Christian charities, for which the active cooperation of the Christian congregation and of the municipal authorities was generally secured. The author then enters into an elaborate discussion of the views of the mediæval Church regarding private property, poverty, almsgiving, beggary, and shows how injurious an influence these views had to exert, and actually did exert, upon the social condition of the mediæval States. A book which was published at the time of the Reformation states that in Germany of every fifteen persons only one worked, and the fourteen others were idlers and beggars.


ogy. Edited by Hilgenfeld.) Third Number, 1880. 1. E. von Hartmann, The Philosophical Presuppositious in the Dogmatic System of Lipsius. 2. Grimm, On Koheleth iii, 11. 3. HILGENFELD, The Gnostic Valentinus and his Writings. 4. SPIEGEL, Dr. Bertheaus' Essay on Albert Rizäfus Hardenberg. 5. KNEUCKER, The Baruch Question. 6. Tollin, Servetus' Anthropology and Soteriology. 7. Egli, Critical Remarks on Genesis xxiii. 8. NESTLE, Remarks on Ezra

vi, 51. The theological school named after Valentinus is said to have been the most influential of all the Gnostic parties, and to have contained a large number of talented and eminent teachers. (See M'Clintock and Strong, Cyclopædia, art. Gnosticism.) In the above article Professor Hilgenfeld collates the scanty information on Valentinus which is found in ancient writers, publishes the very meager fragments which are extant of his writings, and, in conclusion, attempts to construct a brief summary of his doctrinal system. In the following lines we give a brief abstract of Professor Hilgenfeld's article. Epiphanius found no account of the home of Valentinus in the writers on the ancient heresies. He only mentions the report that Valentinus was born on the sea-coast of Egypt, and received a Hellenistic education in Alexandria. As we know that the Gnostic Basilides taught at Alexandria under the Emperor Hadrian, it is well possible that Valentinus may have received impressions from him. Valentinus subsequently taught himself at Alexandria very successfully without falling into the reputation of being a heretic. According to Epiphanius, Valentinus found many adherents in different parts of Egypt without being regarded as a heretic. It is less probable that, as the same Epiphanius states, Valentinus taught even in Rome for some time without giving offense, and that he did not apostatize from the Orthodox faith until he took up his residence in Cyprus. Valentinus arrived in Rome, according to the testimony of Irenæus, under Bishop Hyginus, (between 136 and 140.) He taught there acceptably during the episcopate of Pius, (between 140 and 155,) and remained until the time of Bishop Anicetus, (about 155 or 156.) It is likely that in Rome he soon fell out with the ruling Church, for in the writings of Justin, about 147, he is mentioned as a heretic. Tertullian commits an obvious blunder when he places the arrival of Valentinus at Rome in the episcopate of Eleutherus, (between 175 and 189,) but he confirms the report that Valentinus was not yet a heretic when he arrived at Rome. It is even by no means impossible that, as the same Tertullian states, Valentinus fell out with the Church because he failed in his aspiration to be elected bishop. Why should he not have aspired, at the death of Hyginus, at the Roman see? Do we not find among the occupants of this see the Patripassian Kallistos, the Arian Felix, and Honorius, the author of Monothelism. The Chronicles of Eusebius, which twice mention Valentinus, also favor the opinion that he was not yet an outspoken heretic when he arrived at Rome during this episcopate of Hyginus. Valentinus resided in Rome for about twenty years, as the active head of a heretical sect. It appears probable that the sojourn of Valentinus on Cyprus, to which island he came by shipwreck, took place before his arrival in Rome, that he fell out with the ruling Church neither in Egypt nor on Cyprus, but in Rome, where he arrived about 140 and died about 160. Thus Valentinus belongs to the inventors of heresies who, according to Clement of Alexandria, began to make their appearance in Rome during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, (117 to 138,) and continued to agitate the Church during the reign of Antoninus Pius, (138 to 161.) The same Church writer states that Valentinus boasted of be

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