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This operation, although expensive, has hitherto done more than double the value of the land; and the proprietor is amply remunerated for his outlay by the two succeeding crops, besides getting his land laid down in a superior state, being quite level, and without furrows.

The reaping-machine was introduced in 1836. It does its work very neatly in favourable circumstances, viz. when the ground is level, free of stones, and the corn not lodged; but, owing to the climate and exposure of this parish, it is not likely ever to be generally adopted. The machine was made at Carstairs Mains, and constructed on the principle of Mr Smith's invention, which has been generally known throughout Scotland for the last ten years.

Leases and Rotations.—Leases, in general, run nineteen years ; but many farms in this parish were let for fifty-seven years by the late Mr Fullerton, and at amazingly low rents, which in the present day bear no proportion at all to the advanced price of land. The low rate at which farms were formerly let tended to foster indolence and slovenliness, and operated as a direct hinderance to every species of improvement; while, on the contrary, upon farms where the rent has been more than doubled, the tenant is found to be in much better circumstances,—thus affording a certain demonstration, that the rise has only stimulated to more useful and profitable exertion. The rotations in general practice are as follows :-Ist, From lea, one or two crops of oats; 2d, a green crop, viz. potatoes or turnips ; 3d, oats or barley, sown down with

grass and clover-seeds ; 4th, a crop of hay. Some persons at this stage most injudiciously turn up the land for a fresh crop, while the more skilful allow it to remain in pasture for two or three years. The rotation occupies at the farthest eight years ; at the least six, if regularly followed out.

Rent.— The valued rent of the parish is L. 2150 Scots; and the real rent, as given in by the former incumbent in 1794, was upwards of L. 2000 Sterling. It has now advanced to nearly L. 5000; and when the long leases of the former proprietor of Carstairs estate shall have expired, a much greater advance will take place.

Manufactures. This is wholly an agricultural parish; no manufactures of any kind being carried on, except what is termed

customary work,” executed by a few weavers, who are also employed by the Lanark agents for some manufacturing houses in

Glasgow, to work up cotton fabrics. These weavers are as often found handling implements of manual labour in the field as on the loom-board,—the former employment being found more pleasant and more profitable than the latter.

V.-PAROCHIAL ECONOMY. Market-Towns.— There is no market-town in the parish; the nearest are those of Lanark and Carnwath,—the first, four; and the other, two and a half miles distant from the church.

Villages.— There are two villages in the parish,— Carstairs, containing the church and parochial school, and Ravenstruther, a mile and a half to the west. We have already spoken of the aspect of Carstairs village, and the improvement made on it by the proprietor. It contains 420 inhabitants, Ravenstruther 100.

Inns. There is one inn in the village of Carstairs, the tenant of which is licensed to retail spirits. A second existed for a short period; but the license being withdrawn, the premises were converted to other uses. One inn is quite sufficient for the place and the parish, if even one be necessary. There is not a drunkard in the parish.

Means of Communication.— The great road from Lanark to Edinburgh by Carnwath, as well as that by Wilsontown, and the road from Glasgow to Peebles, all pass through this parish, and are kept in excellent repair. The parish roads, kept up by the statute labour conversion money, are also in excellent order. A coach from Lanark to Edinburgh plies daily, and is well supported. The means of communication are thus abundant.

Ecclesiastical State. The earliest information which can be collected on this subject is, that, in A. D. 1170, the church and barony of Carstairs, with right to present to the benefice, were, by several bulls from different popes, confirmed to Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, during the period when Bruce and Baliol contended for the Scottish Crown, and referred the decision of their right to Edward I. of England, who usurped the sovereignty. This church and barony remained vested in the see of Glasgow till the total demolition of church property, at the Reformation in 1588. The rectory of the church of Carstairs, with its property and revenues, had been constituted a prebend of the Cathedral church of Glasgow, and the cure was served by a vicar. By a taxation of the prebends in that bishopric in 1401 for the use of the Cathedral, Carstairs was at that time assessed in two merks

per annum. In Bagimont's Roll the prebend was taxed L. 4 Scots yearly;

and the vicarage L. 2, 13s. 4d. At the Reformation the prebendary parsonage was held by Bishop Kennedy, and the vicarage by Mr John Scott. The former was then reported at eight and a half chalders meal, and one-third bear, the latter at L. 40. The aggregate of the prebend in money was L. 105, 12s. By the act of annexation 1588, when all the church lands were annexed to the Crown, the superiority passed into the hands of the sovereign. It would appear, that when the estate of Carstairs was conveyed to Sir James Hamilton, (of which conveyance no record is to be found in history,) the benefice and all other pertinents were bestowed on him also. Both are now held by H. Monteith, Esq.

The parish church, with its surrounding burying-ground, stands in the centre of the village on a rising ground, a situation exceedingly well chosen for the convenience of the population generally. It was rebuilt in 1794, and is ornamented with a spire and clock. It affords 430 sittings, all of which are divided among the heritors, according to their respective valuations, and again subdivided among the tenants, excepting the seat of the patron, according to the size of their respective farms. None of the seats are let. The families in the village of Carstairs, having no sittings attached to their feus or houses, complain of the want of accommodation, and, in consequence, some bave left the Established Church and joined the Dissenters.

There is no Dissenting place of worship in the parish. The Dissenters who reside in it are chiefly connected with the Relief and Associate Synods, and attend the places of worship belonging to these sects in Lanark and at Braehead, in the adjoining parish of Carnwath.

Number of families attending the Established Church, 163; number of Dissenting or Seceding families, 42.

An elegant and commodious manse, with offices and garden-wall, was built in 1820, on a new and very eligible site, about five minutes' walk from the church. The glebe contains 13 acres, including the ground occupied by the garden, manse, and offices, It may be valued at L. 40 yearly.

The stipend, which was augmented in 1819, amounts to 15 chalders, half meal and half barley, estimated at the rate of the highest fiars in the county, with L. 8, 6s. 8d. for communion elements.

Education.— There are two schools in the parish; the parochial school in the village, and a private school at Ravenstruther. The

parochial school is attended by about sixty scholars, and the branches taught are, English reading, grammar, arithmetic, bookkeeping, practical mathematics, Latin, Greek, and geography. The fees for English reading are, 2s. 6d. a quarter; for writing, 3s.; for English grammar, 3s. 6d.; for arithmetic and practical mathematics, 4s.; for Latin and Greek, 5s.; for book-keeping, L. 1, Is. No extra charge is made for geography; and the fee for the higher branches always includes the lower. The salary is the maximum, L. 34, 4s. 4£d., with a free house and the statutory quantity of ground for a garden. The schoolmaster, also, receives the produce of a mortification (left by Sir James Lockhart of Carstairs, Bart. in 1751,) that yields about L. 1, 10s., annually, and for which he pays 5s. of feu-duty to the superior. Taking into account the salary, school-fees, and perquisites belonging to the session and heritors' clerk, the amount received by the teacher may be estimated at L. 75 yearly.

The private school at Ravenstruther has no salary attached to it. It is attended by about 65 scholars, a considerable number of whom come from the parish of Lanark.

The inhabitants of the parish seem alive to the advantages of education. The children are sent young to school, generally about five years of age; so that they are able to read and write before they are nine. There are none in the parish above ten years


who cannot read. Library.— There is a library in the village of Carstairs, containing about 350 volumes, tolerably well chosen. It is gradually increasing, although the fund is but small.

Poor and Parochial Funds. The average number of poor upon the roll may be stated at & These are wholly supported by collections made in the church, which may average 10s. weekly, and the interest of L. 200; together with the mortcloth dues, amounting to about L. 1, 10s. yearly. There are many more who receive occasional aid in the shape of money, clothes, coal, and houserent. There is no assessment, as in some of the surrounding parishes, and the non-resident heritors, with one honourable exception, have hitherto contributed nothing to the support of the poor.

Fuel.— From the extent of moss in the parish, peat is used as a considerable portion of the fuel. But the vicinity to coals, as well as their comparative cheapness, and the labour and expense of preparing peat, induce as great, if not a greater, consumpt of coals

than peat.

MiscelLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. Since the former Statistical Account was written, the population has increased. The value of land has risen also considerably, and the farms, which have been let since the present proprietor acquired the property, have been so improved as to wear a totally different aspect. Mr Monteith takes a deep interest in all agricultural improvements, and has exhibited them on his own home farm to a very great extent. It is not saying too much to affirm, that his residence in the parish has proved a blessing of no ordinary character.

Besides affording constant employment to the labouring classes, and striving to render their situation comfortable, he takes every opportunity of discountenancing vice, and promoting true religion, by his personal example.

January 1839.




1.- TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY. Name.—The earliest notice of Carluke parish occurs in a charter of Robert I., by which he grants to the monks of Lesmahute ten merks yearly, from the revenue of his mills of Maldeslay, for the purpose of supporting lights at the tomb of St Machute. In a second charter of the same monarch, dated 8th March 1315, he conveys to these monks from his mills of Carluke, other ten merks yearly, to supply eight wax lights for the tomb of Machute, on Sundays and festivals. In the same reign, the Church of EglisMaluack, in Strathclyde, with all its rights and pertinents, is granted by the King to the monks of Kelso. From these facts, it is supposed that the name of the church was Eglis-Maluack, whilst the parish in general was distinguished by the appellation of Carluack or Carluke. The former of these names is supposed to be

* Spotiswood's “ Religious Houses," appended to Hope's Minor Practicks of the Law of Scotland, p. 442.

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