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coal and lime is formed, where the old red sandstone would naturally be looked for; at the west point of the trap, the foul limestone with its attendant numerous bands of ironstone start on edge, are dislocated, bend back upon themselves, and lie on either side in a position exactly as if broken in upon by a powerful agentthe whole - superior strata around Hillhead participating in this change. On the north of the trap, and close to it, the foul band of limestone dips north ; at its westermost point, the dip of that limestone is west; and to the south, the dip is south-west. In other words, the summit of Hillhead is the trap, and around its westermost point the strata is ranged in a semicircular form.
Where the trap wrought, it is from 18 to 20 feet thick; its coluinnar form here is beautifully seen, as well as its effects on the adjacent and subjacent strata. It overlays a blackish shale resembling (probably from its altered state) in no respect the shale of the corresponding stratum ; and on the west extremity it is overlayed by a few thin seams of freestone. The blue shale (slate-clay) lying above the foul band of limestone, on which the course of the trap seems to have been arrested is changed to the colour of brick, quite like what it is when burnt. Near the trap, in the shales in its course, large masses, of what from description we believe to be magnesite, has been found. To take a position on the west point of the trap, and enumerate what we find around within a few hundred yards, a remarkable catalogue is produced. South-east and east the main limestone is close at hand; to the south-west and north-west lie all the limestones from the foul band upwards, including about twenty bands of ironstone, all at the outcrop; and on the north there is a large deposit of peat. The trap is used as road metal, if we are allowed to use the common phrase.
Alluvial Deposits.—The north-east corner of the parish is almost entirely covered with peat, in some places to the depth of 12 feet. Throughout, it consists of a fibrous mass, containing a vast number of trees of all sizes, generally lying with their roots to the west, stems of reeds, large leaves of plants, and hazel nuts. In some places, the peat merely overlays the outcroppings of the limestone, freestone, &c. but more generally a dense arenacious clay containing boulders, in which near its surface the roots of plants in some places are found. It is common to find beets (sheaves) of lint and quantities of lint-seed five, six, and seven feet below the surface of the peat, in what no doubt had been steeping pools.
With few exceptions, the dense clay found under the peat pervades the whole district. A deposit of fine quartzose sand, fit for the crystal manufactory, is found on the south base of Kingslaw; and in the valley near Lee, and on the banks of the Clyde, but much above its present bed, extensive deposits of sand and gravel occur, as at Braehead, Gills, Waygateshaw, and Milton-Lockhart, &c.
The soil necessarily is of the same quality as the subsoil, modified by the disintegration of some of the rocks, by the air, by heat, and by artificial processes. Above the old red sandstone, however, in the south-eastern division, the soil is, to use a common phrase, lighter. The loamy soils are found at places favourable only from their position, as the flats around rising grounds, the holms of the Clyde, &c.
Clay fit for a variety of purposes, such as brick-making and the pottery manufactures, abounds. Large deposits of white plastic clay are found in Braidwood lands, at Thorn, &c.
On the Hyndshaw lands, in the north-west, there is a good example of an ancient lake converted into a flat deep rich soil. In some places, the depth of the soil is found to be many feet, consisting of slimy layers, and at other places the clay projects in the form of what may have been little islets. Tradition dates its existence at no remote period. An outlet seems to have been got by cutting through the rock on its western boundary. On its margin, there are places named Waterlands and Bogside. Many fathoms under the surface, the course of a considerable river was discovered some years ago, while working one of the under seams of coal at Orchard ; and lately, near the same place, and in the same plane, in the cannel-coal workings, it was again come upon. The coal in its course is worn through and finely polished. We have little hesitation in entertaining the belief that this must have been the continuation of the river which at one time flowed through Lee Valley, of which positive evidence exists in addition to what is implied in the word Lee. *
The courses of our numerous little streams arising in the higher parts of the parish, principally from Kingslaw, and flowing towards the Clyde, afford excellent scope to the geological inquirer; and the equally numerous gills through which these streams flow immediately above the Clyde, are (apart from their intrinsic beauty)
Lli, a stream.
sections of the strata, presenting many interesting geological phenomena.
Zoology.— Roe-deer are still found, though few in number, in the Gills opening to the Clyde, and especially in the woods of Milton-Lockhart. Pheasants have increased much of late. The badger is now extinct, and the otter nearly so. The cross-bill, after an absence of eleven years, has again paid us a visit, in considerable numbers. (August 1838.)
Botany.— The Flora of the district is rich, as might be expected, from the variety of soil and exposure, including sheltered glens, marshes, open meadows, and moorland. We possess, however, no rare plants, unless Carduus nutans, musk-thistle; Epipactis latifolia, broad-leaved helleborine, found at Mauldslie, and Do. ronicum pardalianches, great leopard's-bane, found in abundance at Hallcraig, be considered such.
II. - CIVIL HISTORY. The only account of the parish, that we are aware of, is to be found in Hamilton of Wishaw's manuscript description of the sheriffdom of Lanark, contained in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. Scattered notices of Carluke likewise occur in the ecclesiastical histories, and in some pamphlets and sermons published in the seventeenth century. From these, as well as from the pa. rish records, it is sufficiently obvious, that our good people were imbued with fully their own share of the covenanting spirit, which distinguished the west of Scotland.
During the earlier period of the reign of the first Charles, a manifesto was published at Carluke kirk door, denouncing the reigning monarch and his posterity, which caused much commotion, and was followed by a strict inquiry. The minister of the parish, Mr John Weir, appears to have abandoned his charge for fourteen or fifteen weeks, in order to perform military duty against Montrose in 1645.' The sederunt of session bearing the date of the 26th November in that year, professes to be “ the first session after ye minister his returne and ye defait of ye enimies at Philiphaugh.” After his said return, the minister, with his elders, seems to have taken strict account with those accused of “ traffiquing with ye enemies,” condemning several to “ publict repentance” for so doing.
This traffiquing, in most instances, amounted to no more, than merely procuring a protection from the royal general. Amongst those rebuked is “ Helen Allan, who
At a later period, William Lockhart of Wicketshaw, with a party of Carluke men, was one of the first to take a share in the rising, which terminated in the defeat at Rullion Green. * For his share in this transaction, a sentence of forfeiture was passed against his property, and that of Bell of Westerhouse, who had accompanied him.f In the proclamation, dated 9th May 1668, authorizing the seizure of those persons who had refused to avail themselves of the bill of indemnity, passed the previous year, there occur the names of no less than fourteen Carluke parishioners,—a number, we believe, greater than that belonging to any of the other parishes implicated. These individuals were,— William Jack, William and John Gilkersons, William Frame, Archibald, Robert, and Gabriel Forrest, Thomas Martin, John Scoular, James Armstrong, William King, Archibald Hastie, Robert Smith, and William Brown. Amongst the first ten individuals who were condemned for being concerned in the Pentland rising, and executed on Friday the 7th December 1666, was Gavin Hamilton, in Park of Mauldslie, an elder of the parish. I
Land-Owners.— The barony of Lee is situated partly in the parish of Carluke, and partly in that of Lanark. It has been the property of the Lockharts since they came into Scotland, with other Norman families in the reign of David I., and is now held by Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Bart. whose younger brother Alexander represents the county in Parliament.
The barony of Braidwood belonged formerly to the Earls of Douglas,g on whose forfeiture in 1455 it was bestowed upon the Earls of Angus. It passed into the possession of Chancellor Maitland, then to the Earl of Lauderdale, and ultimately to the Douglases again. It was sold by James the last Marquis of Dou
receaved a protection, but procured it not.” The buying of plundered goods appears to have been viewed as a heinous crime. Keeping commities as a committiema:1," sending - propynes," and being " a souldier" were the crimes of some.
* Kirkton's Church History of Scotland, p. 234. † Acts of the Court of Justiciary in 1667.
I Samson's Riddle, or, a bunch of bitter wormwood bringing forth a bundle of sweet smelling myrrh, p. i.
The following is the inscription upon a tombstone in the burial-ground of Hamilton, lying upon the heads of John Parker, Gavin Hamilton, James Hamilton, and Christopher Strang, who suffered at Edinburgh, 7th December 1666.
Stay, passenger, take notice what thou reads;
Because with them, we sware the Covenant. $ Hamilton's Account.
glas to the Lockharts of Carnwath, and is now the property of various heritors, who hold of Sir Norman Lockhart.
Waygateshaw, formerly Wicketslaw, forms part of the barony of Touchadam, in Stirlingshire. It was long in the possession of a branch of the family of Lockhart, but was sold in the reign of George II. by William Lockhart of Wicketshaw. Part of it has recently reverted to the family, having become the property of William Lockhart of Milton-Lockhart, but the principal and most valuable portion, including the mansion-house, belongs to Samuel Steel, Esq. of Waygateshaw.
The barony of Milton, now called Milton-Lockhart, to distinguish it from another barony of the same name in the lower ward, was an ancient possession of the Whitefords* of Whiteford. Since they alienated it about 1640 it has been possessed by several families, and is now the property of William Lockhart, Esq. of MiltonLockhart and Germistown.
Kirkton, anciently church lands belonging to the Abbey of Kelso, was in 1662 erected into a barony by Charles II., in favour of Walter Lockhart, a cadet of the family of Wicketshaw, at that time its proprietor. It now belongs to John Hamilton, Esq. of Fairholm.
The most extensive barony in the parish is that of Mauldslie. It was granted, with other possessions, to the Danielstons or Dennistowns of Newark, by a charter of Robert II. dated 1374. From them it passed by marriage in the year 1402, to the Maxwells of Calderwood,+ in whose possession it remained till 1640, when it was sold to Arthur Erskine of Scotscraig. From him it passed, by purchase, first to the laird of Alva, and afterwards to Sir Daniel Carmichael, second son of the first Lord Carmichael, ancestor to the Earls of Hyndford. On the death of Andrew, the last earl, in 1817, the unentailed part, situated on the Clyde, was, along with the castle, inherited by his nephew, Archibald Nisbet, Esq. of Carfin. The upper part passed, with the Carmichael estates, to the heir of entail, and now belongs to Sir Windbam Carmichael Anstruther of Elie and Carmichael, Bart.
The discontents, which eventually led to the destruction of Regent Morton, were greatly augmented in 1576, hy his putting to the torture Adam Whiteford of Milton, with his nephew, John Semple of Beltrees, on suspicion of a conspiracy. Aikman's Hist. Vol. iii. p. 18, and Balfour's Annals of Scotland, Vol. i. p. 364. Aikman by mistake calls himn Wineford. † Douglas' Baronage, p. 53.
From a censure in the session books against John Maxwell, younger of Maulds. lic, the former proprietors appear to have been still residing there in 1662.