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134

136-145

2nd. Conjugation

3rd. Conjugation dire

lire écrire

conduire taire faire.

croire boire

mettre vaincre .

suivre - vivre

coudre moudre résoudre craindre

prendre connaître

Irregular Verbs ending in „oir“

Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Reading Lessons.

Anecdotes et contes

Jdiomatic phrases

146

149

151

153

154

156-157

159-167

168-171

171-176

177—179

179-192

192-200

fst. Course.

The Pronuntiation.

n.

P

1. The Alphabet. The French Alphabet is composed of the 24 following letters: pronounce.

pronounce. ah.

n, bay.

0,

0. say.

pay. day.

9,

ku.
e,
ai.

1,

heir. f eff.

S,

ess. jay.

tay. h, aash.

eeyu.
ee.

V, vay.
J jee.

eeks.
kah.

egrec. 1, el.

z.

zed.

రంలో రేలంలో

అనే నినా

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The letters k and w only occur in foreign names. The vowels are: a, e, i, o, u. The compound vowels are: ai, eu, ou, or with the accent, as : é, è, é.

8. The Accent.

The french language has three accents which principally belong to the e, the acute accent (l'accent aigu) (é), the grave accent (l'accent grave) (e) and the circumflex accent (l'accent circonflesce) (). If the e be without the accent, it AHN, French Grammar. 1.

1

is either pronounced short, or not at all. It is not pronounced, if found at the end of words with more than one syllable as in „parole“, or when between consonants which may be joined as: tenir (l'nir) to hold, It is pronounced short in monosyllables, as: me, te, or belween consonants which do not join: regard, the look.

The „accent aigu“ or acute accent, is only used on the e, the” „accent graver?, or the grave accent, is used on the e, a, and u, and the accent circonflexe" - or the long accent, occurs in all vowels, and lengthens them:

patte, pâle ; il, ile; cotle, côle; butte, flûte. Besides these accents the french language has the following accentual marks: 1) The „tréma“, two points which are sometimes placed

over a vowel, as : haïr. 2) The „cédille“ (c), which is sometimes added to the c,

as: traça. 3) The „apostrophe, as : l'or. 4) The „trait d'union(-), hyphen, which joins two

words, as: tire-bolle, dit-il.

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3. Vowels.
Ou is pronounced like oo in the english word look:

trou, pronounce: troo, the whole.
fou,

foo, the fool.
mou,

moo, soft.
pour, for amour, love — mourir, to die.
0, Au, Eau are pronounced like o:
or, gold.
rose, rose.

cause, cause.
corne, horn.
rôti, roast.

murteau, hammer.
A, is pronounced like the a in the english word father:
ma, mine.
table, table.

arbre, tree.
mal, bad.
dame, lady.

carte, card.
É, é is pronounced like e in the english word better:
blé, corn.
métal, metal.

désir, wish.
pré, meadow.
été, summer.

rosée, dew.

Examples: Cou, cour, doute, moule, troupe, four, coulé, nourrir, matou, trouve, troussé, poudre, croûte, voûte. – mode, noble,

, morte, sotte, carrosse, trésor, motif, posé, aurore, rôle, côte, trône; faule, aune, autorité, aumône; rameau, tableau, troupeau.

salir, malade, sable, cabane, cabale, rame, classe, avare, âne, pâle, pâlir. – épi, piété, épelé, préposé, révéré, sévérité, degré, commodité.

mur,

U is pronunced by contracting the mouth, as it has no corresponding sound in the english language, it must be learned from the master:

wall.
lune, moon.

rue, street.
pur, pure. plume, pen.

flûte, flute. Eu, Oeu are pronounced like u in the eng sh word much:

peur, fear.

voeu, vow. preuve, proof.

soeur, sister. È, è, ê, ai, ei are pronounced like a in the english word care: père, father. faire, to make.

peine, trouble.
tête, head.
aile, wing.

veine, vein.
J, Y are pronounced like e in the english word me:
idée, idea.

style, style. lire, read.

abîme, abyss. mystère, mystery.

peu, little. feu, fire.

ile, ile.

Examples: Mule, cure, vertu, bourru, tortue, sur, nature, rusé, durée, fortune, solitude, moulure, mûrir. - bleu, lieu, meute, peuple, beurre, auteur, neuf, boeuf, coeur, oeuvre. — modèle, remède, manière, comète; rêve, bête, fenêtre, extrême; belle, éternel, - mettre, ferme, superbe, promesse; pair, fraise, capi taine, délai, monnaie, prairie, paitre; reine, baleine, seigle. – midi, idée, hardi, farine, utile, épître, mystère.

If the vowels a, o, or the diphthongs ai, ei, eu, are followed by m or n, they are pronounced with a nasal sound. am, an, em, en:

lampe, lamp. viande, meat. temple, temple.
plante, plant.
santé, health.

fente, cleft.
aim, ain, ein, im, in:
faim, hunger.
sein, bosom.

fin, end. bain, bath. simple, simple. matin, morning.

Om, on:

un, a.

nom, name.

non, no.

bâton, stick.
ombre, shadow.
montre, watch.

bonté, goodness.
Eon, um, un.

jeûn, fasting. brun, brown.

parfum, perfume. lundi, Monday. aucun, none. If a second m, n, vowel or ,,h“ follow, the nasal sound is not used. nasal-sound.

natural sound. le don, the gift.

il donna, he gave. l'an, the year.

l'âne, the ass. aucun, none.

aucune (fem.), none. le cousin, the cousin.

la cousine (fem.), the cousin.

Examples: Ample, ambassade, estampe, flambeau, danse, tante, artisan, tyran; membre, empire, emporté, tremble, remplir, rente, ventre, pendre, entendre. - daim, pain, main, plainte, crainte; frein, plein, peindre, éteindre; timbre, impoli, imprimeur, crin, florin, moulin, destin, inculte, infertile; symbole, sympathie. – bombe, sombre, trompeur, tombeau, bonbon, maison, pardon, oncle, monde, volonté; tribun, importun, commun, emprunté. – ami, animal, année, ennemi, omettre, sonné, uni, parfume, rhume, immortel, imité, inutile, inné, inégal, inhumain,

4. Diphthongs. If two vowels be pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, they are called diphthongs. Thus from o- and-a, the sound oa is formed, which in written oi.

roi, king. soir, evening. oiseau, bird.
loi, law.
noir, black.

moitié, the half. 2. From 0 and the nasal sound än, oån is formed, which in written oin.

soin, care. pointe, point. témoin, witness.
coin, corner. oindre, to oint.

besoin, need. 3. From i and än the sound iän is formed, which is written ien.

bien, good. rien, nothing. soutien, support. lien, band. tien, thine.

indien, Indian.

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