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CRUSADES, A.D. 1097.

Establishment of Religious Orders, which were once twenty-three,

afterwards reduced to

1. Augustinians.

2. Carmelites.

3. Dominicans.

4. Franciscans.

Under Boniface II. the Papal Power was at its highest pitch of


Koch's Tableau des Revolutions de l'Europe.


1. Indulgences arose out of the strict discipline of the early Church, which imposed ecclesiastical censures and punishments upon delinquents, for the remission of which, long acts of penance &c. were made necessary; and afterwards pardon was granted at the intercession of the Martyrs. Out of this came the doctrines of

1. Superabundant Blood of Christ.
2. Works of Supererogation.

And out of the treasury thus provided were indulgences granted, on conditions of penance, or payments of money for devout uses.

2. Purgatory, the State where penitential deficiencies were made

up by the devotions and bought masses of survivors.

3. Transubstantiation, which went to the elevation of the priesthood, by supposing a resident power in them of working a perpetual miracle.

4. Refusal of the Cup, and of the second sacrament, save once a


5. Auricular Confession.

These Doctrines, opposed by Wickliffe about the middle of the reign of Edward III.; who, in his Theological Lectures, delivered at Oxford, asserted:

1. That no change in the bread was wrought in the nature of the bread after consecration.

2. That Rome was not the head of Christendom.

3. That the Pope had not more power in the keys than any other priest.

4. That the Gospel was a rule, sufficient without traditions.

5. That all other rules for the government of religious orders added no excellence to it.

Opposed by John Huss in Bohemia, who was burnt A.D. 1415, by order of the Council of Constance.

Jerome of Prague, burnt 1416.

Contests were also held

Against the Spiritual Authority of the See of Rome, by the Gallican Church; who, acknowledging that a supreme ecclesiastical power must be lodged somewhere, assigned it to General Councils.

Against the Temporal Power, by England, particularly in the

Statute of Provisors


Edward III.

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For a knowledge of all particulars connected with the See of Rome, the General History of Europe during the above period must be consulted.


Luther, of the Order of St. Augustine, began the Reformation in
Germany, A.D. 1517.

By attacking the Doctrine of Indulgences, in a letter to the Bishop of

By asserting the Holy Scriptures to be the only rule of faith, and the
doctrine of justification through faith.

By condemning the use of Auricular Confession and the Doctrine of

By denying the truth of Transubsantiation.

For this, however, since he admitted the real presence, he substituted an idea, called Consubstantiation, to this day held by the Lutherans.

A. D. 1520. Leo ordered Luther's books to be burned.

Luther retaliated on the Pope.

The Pope excommunicated Luther; and Luther declared the Pope to be Antichrist.

A.D. 1530. The Confession of Augsburg, which is the rule of faith of the Lutherans, was presented to the Emperor at the Diet. It was drawn up chiefly by Melancthon.

Zuinglius and Ecolampadius carried on the Reformation in
Switzerland for some time, with the assistance of Calvin, who
taught a doctrine nearly resembling that of our own Church,
on the subject of the Lord's Supper, and in opposition to the
Consubstantiation of Luther:-the name of Calvinists was, for
a long time, applied to his followers on account of this very
difference, until the present distinction between Calvinism and
Arminianism arose.

In England, the Reformation, though begun under King Henry
VIII., made but little progress until the following reign.
The Six Articles, which were put forth a. D. 1539, were com-
posed without the assistance of Cranmer, who was early
instructed in the reformed opinions, by his converse with the
German Reformers, on his return from his mission to Rome
about the divorce.

The doctrines of Wickliffe were never lost sight of in England,
though they lay for some time inert, until a fresh impetus
was given them by the reforming power which was at work in
Germany. The work, however, was comparatively easy, when
once begun.

As Cranmer kept up a close correspondence with Melancthon, and other promoters of the cause in Germany, it will be necessary to study the works of those authors, in order to form a right judgment of the opinions which the English Church at that time adopted, and has since preserved; as also to mark the changes which were gradually made, from the time when "The Necessary Erudition of a Christian Man," was first published, A. D. 1543, (in which some of the obnoxious tenets of the Church of Rome were still retained,) until our Church Articles were expurged of every remainder of the Corruptions of the Popish Creed.

Books to be consulted in the following order :

Lewis's Life and Sufferings of John Wickliffe.

L'Enfant, Histoire du Concile de Pise, de Bâsle, et For the Affairs of de Constance. the Hussites.

Burnet's History of the Reformation, Book I., and the first Book of

the Continuation.

Sleidan's History of the Reformation.

Thuanus Historia sui Temporis.

Paul Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent (by Brent.)

Juelli Epistola ad Scipionem, Patritium Venetum.

Canones et Decreta Concilii Tridentini, et Index Librorum Prohibito

rum; and, for explanation,

Catechismus ex Decreto Concilii Tridentini ad Parochos.

Bossuet's Exposition of the Doctrines of the Catholic Church.

Strype's Life of Archbishop Cranmer.

Burnet's History of the Reformation, to be now concluded.
Ridley's Life of Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London.
[Gilpin's] Life of Latimer.

Life of Hooper.

Lives of the other Reformers.
Life of Jewell, prefixed to his Works.
Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biography.
Seckendorf's Historia Lutheranismi.
Gerdesii Historia Reformationis.

Brandt's History of the Reformation in Holland.

[Ruchat] Histoire de la Reformation de Suisse.

Jewel's Apology and Answer to Harding.

Corpus et Syntagma Confessionum Fidei.

Formularies of Faith during the Reign of Henry VIII.

Appendix to Copleston on Predestination.

Henry's History of England.

To mark how the Church of England did Nor adopt the Opinions


any distinct set or party of the Reformers, but chalked out a path for herself, by selecting from each what appeared most agreeable to Scripture. Thus:

From the Romanists,

Episcopacy, and Apostolical Ordination of Priesthood.

From the Lutherans,

Doctrines of Grace,

Free Will,

Justification by Faith.

From the Calvinists,

The Doctrine of the Lord's Supper, in opposition to Consub



1. Public.

Such as The Confession of Augsburg.
Documents in Henry VIII.'s time, which
may be consulted as Commentaries on
the Church Formularies subsequently put
forth, being nearly all drawn up by
Cranmer: the first, when under the in-
fluence of Henry's leaning to Popery ;-
the second, when left to the free exercise
of his own judgment and opinions.

2. Private.

Such as the Loci Communes of Melanchthon, and the Works of Cranmer, Latimer, &c.

Todd's Inquiry into the Declarations of the Reformers may be, read, in order to ascertain the sense, in which the terms of our Creeds and Articles were used by those who framed them; as also

Burrow's Summary of Christian Faith and Practice.
Edward VI.

Dean Nowell's Catechism.

In the Enchiridion Theologicum.

Bishop Burnet on the Thirty-nine Articles.

Strype's Annals of the Reformation. History of the Articles.
Laurence's Bampton Lectures.


Remarks on "Concilium quorundam Episcoporum Bononiæ congregatorum, quod, de ratione stabiliendæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ, Julio III. Pont. Max. datum est. Ex Bibliotheca W. CRASHAVII, in Theol. Baccal. et Verbi div. ap. Temp. London: Bædio.

(Concluded from p. 316.)

[In furtherance of our intention we now lay before our readers a few examples from the above-named document, in addition to what we stated in our last Number.]

THE holy Cardinals and Bishops are directed to celebrate mass in person, with all the pomp and magnificence possible; to consecrate in public baptismal fonts, churches, altars, and burial grounds; to baptize bells, and give the veil to nuns ; as things "which astonish and charm the vulgar, and the contemplation of which, as in a snare, takes them through the soul and spirit, so that they require no other nourishment nor instruction; and this (to speak the truth) is the object of their institution."

And every year, on Good Friday, the thrice holy oil of unction, for the sick, is to be consecrated by a bishop, surrounded by twelve

priests, who are to offer their adorations three times, with as many salutations, exorcisms, and breathings (insufflationibus), mingling with the holy oil a precious balm.

Also, when they consecrate the water of baptism, they usually mix with it salt and oil, plunge into it three times the paschal candle, and make the sign of a cross with it; command also that they add a little vinegar. That ought also to be used in all the ceremonies of the Church, because it was offered to Christ upon the cross.

In like manner, also, in dedicating churches, the Bishops write upon the ashes, with their cross, the Greek and Latin alphabets: order them to add to them the Hebrew alphabet, if they understand it (nevertheless this last condition is of no great importance, for they certainly do not know the Greek alphabet, and scarcely the Latin, and yet they write them both on this occasion, as if they understood them (!)—because it was in these three languages that the subject of the condemnation of Christ was inscribed upon the cross.

The Bishops are also recommended to anoint the outside as well as the inside of the hands of priests to be ordained, together with their heads and whole person, for this logical reason;

For if a few drops of oil have the virtue of sanctification, a greater quantity of oil will sanctify them still more. (! ! !)

When they baptize bells, they burn before them incense and perfumes: let them add musk and amber, for the great edification of the public, and gaining more respect.

Lastly, when a bishop prepares to celebrate worship with pomp and magnificence, he is distinguished from the common priests by a great number of ornaments, such, for instance, as the bones or relics of a dead person, set in a cross of gold; enjoin him to carry suspended from his neck, by a tolerably strong cord, an entire arm or leg or head of some saint; this will contribute much to augment the piety of the crowd, and will penetrate all the assistants with an incredible respect (incredibili admiratione).

ALL THESE CEREMONIES HAVE BEEN INVENTED BY SOVEREIGN PONTIFFS; you then, who are also a Sovereign Pontiff, are able, if you like, to augment their number; it is even necessary that you should do it, if you wish to attain the end which we have pointed out to you.-P. 647.

Our three Bishops discover another source of evils in the abandonment of logic, sophistry, metaphysics, and decretals; and in the mania which exhibits itself amongst Protestants in the cultivation of Greek and Hebrew learning, in the comparison of the originals of the Scriptures, and in the study of theology and the writings of the ancient Fathers of the Church. The reasons given for interdicting the use of a certain work called Decretum are too remarkable to pass without notice, but too long to be stated here. One passage or two we shall, however, extract.

This book is very dangerous .... for it denies that the Pope has the right of adding the least thing to the doctrine which Christ himself has revealed to us, and the Apostles taught: who is there amongst us who does not depart from them every day? Scarcely do we retain in our churches even the shadow of that doctrine and discipline which flourished in the days of the Apostles; we have substituted a doctrine and discipline entirely different. Quid enim aliud quotidie inculcant nostri adversarii, quam ne latum quidem unguem licere ab his rebus, quæ Apostolis fuêre in usu, recedere? At quis est ex nostris qui

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