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former. It is, in fact, a treatise consisting of four parts or divisions, in which this question, and other points connected with it, are discussed in a methodical and argumentative manner. But his reasonings will be best understood from the following abridged view of its contents.




I. THE apostle, after adverting to his person and office, salutes the Church of Rome, v. 1-7, excuses his delay in visiting them, and expresses his ardent desire to preach the Gospel at Rome:-v. 8-15.



I. The Gospel is the powerful means which God makes use of to work out the salvation of every one who believes; for it reveals the method which he has appointed for our becoming righteous, i. e. for our being justified, namely, by faith:-v. 16, 17.

This justification by faith proved to be necessary, in the first place to the Gentiles, by reason of their corruption and depravation, by which they are rendered guilty before God:-v. 18—32.


In the next place to the Jews; because all sinners of every nation are exposed to the wrath of God, v. 1-11, who will judge every man according to the spiritual light he enjoys, v. 12-16. But the conduct of the Jews is not, as they boast, superior to that of the Gentiles, v. 17-24, nor will the outward rites and ceremonies, and the external observance of the law of Moses, be of any avail to the justification of those who are transgressors of the law, as the Jews are:-v. 25-29.

This statement vindicated from some objections, v. 1-8. That both Jews and Gentiles are under the guilt of sin, and liable to the condemnation of God, proved from the Jewish Scriptures: v. 9—19. The conclusion, therefore, is, that no one can be justified by " the. deeds of the law," viz. by obedience to the law, either natural or revealed, since no one has perfectly obeyed it :-v. 20.

As no man can merit justification by his own works and deservings, God has, of his own free grace and mercy, through Christ, vouchsafed a method of justification, or of being accounted righteous in his sight, by faith:-v. 21-30.







First, that it is consistent with the revealed law of God appears from the Abrahamic covenant; for Abraham was justified by faith, and not by works, v. 1-5, and this manner of justification accords with the representation of David, v. 6—8. Nor is this justification by faith confined to the Jews; it extends to the Gentiles, as is proved, First, from Abraham having been justified by faith previous to his being circumcised, v. 9-12; and, Secondly, from God's promise to him, v. 13—17. This example of Abraham is recorded for our instruction and benefit: v. 18-25. And happy are the effects resulting from the gracious scheme of justification by faith, v. 1-11, the necessity of which is proved from its being the only remedy for the evils entailed on all mankind in consequence of Adam's fall:

v. 12-21.

Secondly, the Gospel doctrine of justification is consistent with the moral law written on the heart of man; because the very profession of


the Gospel lays us under the strongest obligations to holiness, v. 1-14, VII. because the service required by the Gospel is incompatible with the practice of sin, v. 15-23'; and because, though we are delivered by it from the law of works, it leads us to contract new obligations, which require us to serve God in a new and spiritual way :-v.1-6. So far, therefore, from making void the moral law, it is the only means of delivering mankind from the bondage of sin, to which they are subjected, while under the law, either of Moses or of nature:v. 7-25. The nature and blessedness of this deliverance described:v. 1-39.





The apostle commences this subject by expressing his affection for the Jewish nation :-v. 1-5. The rejection of the unbelieving Jews consistent with God's dealings with the Jews in former ages, v. 6—13, with his justice and mercy, v. 14-24, and with the predictions of the X. prophets:-v. 25-33. Their rejection also is just, because, through a blind zeal for their law, they have rejected that method of justification by faith which is required in all, v. 1—13, and which has been preached to all, v. 14-18, whereas the Gentiles have embraced it:v. 19-21. Nevertheless their rejection is not universal, and they will finally be converted :—v. 1-36.



This part treats of PRACTICAL MORALITY, and extends to the end of the Epistle.

From this synopsis of its contents, it must be evident that the Epistle to the Romans is a regular and methodical treatise, containing a luminous exposition of some of the fundamental doctrines of the Christian religion. To these doctrines let us pay a deep and serious attention; and may the Holy Spirit, which led the apostles into all necessary truth, so engraft them in our hearts, as to produce in us that true and lively faith, which can alone be available to our justification.-Pp. 343-345.

The introduction to, and synopsis of, the epistle to the Hebrews, though less copious than the preceding, are not less valuable: they contain, moreover, an explicit statement of that cardinal doctrinethe vicarious atonement of Jesus Christ: but our limits constrain us to proceed to a consideration of Mr. Holden's annotations.

As a knowledge of the history and circumstances of the times in which the apostles wrote, is indispensably necessary in order to comprehend their true meaning, he has paid special attention to these topics. Where our generally accurate authorized version has been rendered, not in strict conformity to the sacred original, Mr. H. has given the correct rendering, with the unassuming prefix, "Rather," as in Gal. v. 16, 21, 25, and in many other chapters. Practical Reflections at the end of each chapter are necessarily omitted, from the limits of his work but the author has interspersed numerous truly practical observations and admonitory remarks, which greatly enhance the utility and value of his "Christian Expositor."

With regard to the doctrinal notes, Mr. Holden (as was to be expected from the author of the "Scripture Testimonies to the Divinity of our Lord Jesus") has evinced a special anxiety to oppose the glosses of the modern Socinians (or rather Humanitarians) on the one hand, and of the Romanists on the other.

All those passages which relate to the Divinity and atonement of our Saviour are clearly illustrated: they are too numerous to be distinctly specified here, but we cannot help calling our readers' attention to the notes on Matt. vi. 9-11, and xvi. 16, on the first ten verses of the first chapter of St. John's Gospel, and on Phil. ii. 8, 9, 11.

With respect to the peculiar dogmas of the Romanists, we would notice the observations on Matt. viii. 14; xvi. 18, 19; xxvi. 26 and 28; Luke xxvi. 10; Acts iv. 12, and viii. 31; 1 Cor. iii. 13, and ix. 5; 2 Thess. iv. 11; James iv. 14, 15, and 1 John v. 16. We extract the notes on Matt. xxvi. 26 and 28, in which the Romish tenet of transubstantiation is briefly but irrefragably refuted.


this is my body.] On this text is built the monstrous doctrine of transubstantiation; yet by the same mode of arguing it might be evinced, from Ezek. v. 1-5, that the prophet's "hair" was the city of Jerusalem; from John x. 9, xv. 1, that Christ was literally a door" and " a vine;" and from Matt. xxvi. 27; 1 Cor. ix. 25, that "the cup' was his blood, and that Christ commanded his disciples to drink and swallow "the cup." The expression, it is evident to common sense, means, "this represents my body." The verb substantive is often equivalent to signifies, represents; as, for instance, Gal. iv. 25, "this Agar is mount Sinai," i. e. represents mount' Sinai; so Gen. xli. 26; Exod. xii. 11; 1 Cor. iv. 10; Rev. i. 20, v. 6—8, xi. 4, xvii. 12—18, xix. 8. We are to eat of the bread, which represents his body, as a mark or symbol of our partaking of the effects of the death of Christ, signified by its being broken. 27. he took the cup,] After supper :-Luke xxii. 20; 1 Cor. xi. 25.

Drink ye all of it,] Rather, "drink ye all out of it." Hence it is plain, that all who come to the holy communion ought to drink of the cup, as well as to eat the bread. This also appears from the next verse, which concerns all believers, and from 1 Cor. xi. 25, et seq. Yet the Romanists withhold it from the laity!

28. this is my blood.] This represents my blood, (v. 26, note), the blood of the new covenant; i. e. the blood by which the new covenant is ratified, which blood" is shed for many for the remission of sins;" i. e. which will immediately be shed in order to procure the forgiveness of sins to all penitent believers. The present being put for the future, and "many" denoting all, as in ch. xx. 28; Mark x. 45, xiv. 24; Rom. v. 15-19, viii. 29; Heb. ix. 28, et al. It is here declared, that by the shedding of Christ's blood the new covenant was ratified, and the pardon of sins secured to men on the conditions of that covenant:-Exod. xxiv. 7,8; Lev. xvii. 11; Jer. xxxi. 31; Zech. ix. 11; Col. i. 14-20; Heb. ix. 14, et seq. x. 4, et seq. xiii. 20.-Pp. 109, 110.

Among the many passages involving difficulty, which are satisfactorily elucidated, we would mention the following, viz. Matt. xiii. 31; xvi. 28; xviii. 10; xxi. 19; xxii. 11, and xxvi. 17; Mark xi. 13, and xvi. 16; Luke ii. 1, 2, and xvi. throughout; John iii. 1-20; v. 4; vi. 44; ix. 2; xviii. 31, and xx. 21; Rom i.-xi.; Gal. iv. 21; Eph. v. 19 (a new and ingenious interpretation), and Heb. vii. 3.

Whatever may be the opinion formed, for their own private satis

faction, by learned or pious individuals on the much litigated topics of election and predestination, these are no where inculcated in the Scriptures as doctrines which are of the essence of faith, or as articles of indispensable belief. They are not dogmas, necessarily to be propounded from the pulpit. Disregarding, therefore, the conflicting sentiments of controversialists, Mr. Holden has simply stated what appears to be the scripture doctrine on these subjects, guided by principles of sound critical interpretation, together with the careful comparison of really parallel passages. His notes on the following texts, which bear upon the points just stated, are particularly useful : viz. Matt. xx. 16; Acts ii. 23, 47, and xiii. 48; Rom. viii. 29, 30, and ix. 11, et seq.; 1 Cor. vi. 11; Eph. i. 4; Heb. vi. 4-6; 1 Pet. i. 1, and 1 John iii. 9. Of these various passages we can only find room for the notes on Rom. viii. 29, 30.

29. whom he did foreknow,] This, being connected with the preceding verse, must mean those whom he foreknew would "love God." Some render it, "whom he fore-approved," i. e. whom he from eternity regarded with especial favour. But whom did he thus regard? Clearly only those who "love him;" and, therefore, this coincides with the former interpretation, viz. those only who obey the calling, who embrace the Gospel, "he did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son;" i. e. in holiness here, 2 Cor. iii. 18; Eph. i. 3, et seq.; 2 Tim. i. 9; 1 Pet. i. 2, and in glory hereafter, 1 Cor. xv. 49; Phil. iii. 21; 1 John iii. 2, in order "that he might be the first-born among many brethren;" i. e. that he might be the head and chief of the redeemed, whom he condescends to call his brethren, as being joint-heirs with him in glory:-v. 17; Eph. i. 22, iv. 15; Col. i. 18; Heb. i. 6; Rev. i. 5.

30. Moreover whom he did predestinate,] Viz. to be conformed to the image of his Son," them he also called," by the preaching of the Gospel; ch. ix. 24; Eph. iv. 4; Heb. ix. 15; 1 Pet. ii. 9; and whom he thus called, "them he also justified" by counting their faith for righteousness, ch. iii. 21, et seq.; and whom he justified, "them he also glorified," by admitting them to the happiness of heaven. The context shews that this verse relates to "them that love God;" and though the verbs are in the past time, this may be only, agreeably to an usual idiom, to denote the certainty of the event; or, as the tense will permit, they may be rendered in the present time. They are, at least, intended to describe the steps by which God's gracious purpose to bestow salvation on believers is carried into execution. Those persons whom God foreknew would "love him," be faithful and obedient, he predestinated, from all eternity, to be conformed to the image of his Son; and those whom he hath thus predestinated, he first calls by offering the salvation of the Gospel; secondly he justifies, pardons, and acquits them through faith; and finally glorifies them in heaven. Here is no intimation of an absolute and irrespective decree; but of an eternal decree to save and reward with endless felicity, those whom God foreknew would love him. Such is the scriptural view of predestination.-P. 373.

Such is a brief outline of Mr. Holden's work, which we trust will meet with a circulation commensurate to its merits. Should it be favourably received, he announces his intention of proceeding in another volume with a similar commentary on the Old Testament, to which will be subjoined requisite tables of Weights, Measures, Coins, &c. &c. and a general index of places, persons, and offices occurring in the Scriptures. We shall rejoice to announce the completion of this important undertaking.


An Attempt to ascertain the Chronology of the Acts of the Apostles, and of St. Paul's Epistles. By the Rev. EDWARD BURTON, D.D. Regius Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church. Oxford: Parker. London: Rivingtons. 1830. 8vo. Pp. 107. Price 3s. 6d.

THIS able tract first appeared in the Quarterly Theological Review, for April, 1828, as a critique upon Hug's "Introduction to the New Testament." Assuming the year 31 for the crucifixion of our Lord, and supposing the conversion of St. Paul to have happened in the same year, Dr. Burton places the first arrival of the Apostle at Rome, in the year 56. In this important date he is at variance with most chronologists; but our space forbids us to enter at large into the merits of the discussion. Suffice it to say, that the argument of the learned Professor is conducted throughout with the greatest perspicuity; and that he is supported in his result by Petavius, Capellus, Cave, and Bishop Burgess, and by the testimony of Eusebius, Jerome, and others of the Fathers. Proceeding upon these hypotheses, he has assigned the following dates to the Epistles of St. Paul. We annex, by way of comparison, the corresponding dates of Lardner and Michaelis.

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Reverendi Patris Lanceloti Andrews, Episcopi Wintoniensis, Preces privatæ quotidianæ Græcè et Latinè. Editio altera et emendatior. Londini: Pickering. 18mo. Pp. xi. 375. 12s. The Private Devotions of Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester: translated from the Greek and Latin, by the Rev. PETER HALL, B. A. of Brasennose College, Oxford. To which is added, The Manual for the Sick, by the same learned Prelate. London: Pickering. 1830. 18mo. Pp. xxx. 456. 6s.

THESE two beautiful little volumes are not nearly so well known as they ought to be, and we feel infinite gratification in directing that attention to them which they so richly deserve. The former is the Greek "Devotions" (accompanied with a Latin version) of Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, originally published at Oxford in 1675, and long ago become a scarce book. The other, an English translation of the same work, of which the second part is now done into English for the first time, with the addition of the "Manual for the Sick," the Greek of which is lost, but the English was preserved in an old version by Dr. Drake. The translation by Stanhope, however desirable as a manual, conveys nothing whatever of the spirit of Bishop Andrews, and very little even of the form. By adhering rigidly to the language of the authorized version of the Bible, the present translator has given a more venerable and devotional air to the work; and we should be pleased to see his elegant version substituted for the flowery periods of Stanhope, which, with some alterations and additions by Bishop Horsley, is one of the books recommended on the list of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

In the execution of his task, the editor has corrected a vast number of errors and misprints, which had found their way into the Oxford edition of

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