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BOOK V. In the year ending in 1774, the civil service is stated

at 159,5371., the marine at 53,7001., the military at 1774. 1,304,8831., and the total at 1,518,1201. In the

year 1772, the proportion of the military expense, defrayed by the Nabob of Oude, was 20,7661. In the year 1774, the proportion defrayed by him was 131,4301. In the following year, that ending in April 1775, there was a slight improvement in the collections, which may in part be ascribed to the measures of the preceding administration; and there was a total cessation of war which produced a reduction of the military expenditure, remarkable only for its minuteness. The gross collections amounted to 2,87,20,760 rupees, the net receipt to 2,51,02,090, or 2,823,9641.; the civil service to 231,7221., the marine to 36,5101., and the military to 1,080,3041. ; total, 1,349,836l.: and the proportion this year borne by the Nabob of Oude was 240,7501. It thus abundantly appears, that nothing so important as to deserve the name of improvement had arisen in the financial administration of the Company. A pecuniary relief had indeed been procured, but from sources of a temporary and very doubtful description; partly from the produce of the bills drawn in such profusion upon the Company, by the predecessor of Hastings; partly from the reduction of the allowance to the Nabob of Bengal, from thirty-two to sixteen lacks; but chiefly from the plunder of the unhappy Emperor of the Moguls, whose tribute of twenty-six lacks per annum for the dewannee of Bengal was withheld, and whose two provinces

| Fifth Report, ut supra, p. 35.
3 Ibid. p. 35.

? Ibid. p. 8.
* Ibid. p. 41.

CHAP. 1.

1774.

Balances in the

Treasuries.

Debts at
interest.

Other debts.

Corah and Allahabad were sold for fifty lacks to the BOOK V. Vizir;

from the sale of the Rohillas, the extirpation of whom was purchased at forty of the same eagerly coveted lacks; and from the pay and maintenance of a third part of the troops, which were employed in the wars and dominions of the Vizir. With regard even to the payment of the debt, an inspection of the accounts exhibits other results than those presented by the declarations of the President. Year ending in April. 1772.. C.R.65,09,041..1,07,84,520..52,48,480. 1774 ...21,62,994..1,17,71,486..95,41,795. 1775.....1,23,95,598....90,68,584..87,05,871. Upon this statement, if we compare the year in which Mr. Hastings began his administration, with that in which it ended, we see a prodigious deterioration. If we compare it even with that which follows, the total amount of debt in 1772 was 1,60,30,000 rupees ; in 1775 it was 1,77,68,584, which is an increase of 17,41,455. The only improvement appears in the balance of cash, which in 1775 exceeded the balance in 1772 by 58,86,557 rupees. Deducting from this a sum equal to the increase of debt, there remains 41,45,102 rupees, by which alone the state of the exchequer, after all the calamity which had been produced to supply it, was better in 1775 than it had been in 1772.

· Fifth Report, ut supra, p. 8, 36, 42.

CHAPTER II.

Commencement of the New Government.-Supreme

Council divided into two Parties, of which that of the Governor-General in the Minority.- Presidency of Bombay espouse the cause of Ragoba, an ejected Peshwa. Supreme council condemn this Policy, and make Peace with his Opponents. - Situation of the Powers in the Upper Country, Nabob of Oude, Emperor, and Nujuf Khan. Pecuniary Corruption, in which Governor. General seemed to be implicated, in the cases of the Ranee of Burdwan, Phousdar of Hoogley, and Munny Begum.-Governor-General resists Inquiry.— Nuncomar the great Accuser. He is prosecuted by the Governor General.- Accused of Forgery, found guilty, and hanged.Mohammed Reza Khan, and the office of Naib Subah restored.

CHAP. 2.

1774.

BOOK v. The operation of the new constitution framed by

the Parliament of England, was ordained to commence in India after the 1st of August, 1774. The new councillors, however, General Clavering, Mr. Monson, and Mr. Francis, who, along with Mr. Hastings and Mr. Barwell, were elected to compose the board of administration, did not arrive at Cal. cutta until the 19th of October. On the following day the existing government was dissolved by proclamation, and the new council took possession of

its powers.

CHAP. 2.

1774.

On the proposal of the Governor- BOOK V. general, who stated the necessity of a few days, to prepare for the council a view of the existing state of affairs, and to enable Mr. Barwell, who was then absent, to arrive; the meeting of the Board was suspended until the 25th. On the very day on which its deliberations began, some of the discord made its appearance, which so long and so deeply embarrassed and disgraced the government of India. The party who had arrived from England, and the party in India, with whom they were conjoined, met not, it should seem, with minds in the happiest frame for conjunct operations. Mr. Hastings, upon the first appearance of his colleagues, behaved, or was suspected of behaving, coldly. And with jealous feelings this coldness was construed into studied and humiliating neglect. In the representation which the Governor-general presented of the political state of the country, the war against the Rohillas necessarily attracted the principal attention of the new councillors; and, unhappily for the Governor-general, presented too many appearances of a doubtful complexion not to excite the desire of elucidation in the minds of the most candid judges. An obvious objection was, its direct opposition to the frequent and urgent commands of the Court of Directors, not to engage in offensive wars of any description, and to confine the line of defensive operations to the territorial limits of themselves and allies. The reasons, too, upon which the war was grounded; a dispute about the payment of an inconsiderable sum of money, and the benefit of conquest,

, to which that dispute afforded the only pretext;

CHAP. 2.

BOOK V. might well appear a suspicious foundation. When

the new government began the exercise of its authority, the intelligence had not arrived of the treaty with Fyzoolla Khan; and an existing war appeared to demand its earliest determinations. To throw light upon the field of deliberation, the new Councillors required that the correspondence should be laid before them, which had passed between the Governor-general (such is the title by which the President was now distinguished), and the two functionaries, the commander of the troops, and the agent residing with the Vizir.

And when they were informed that a part indeed of this correspondence should be submitted to their inspection, but that a part of it would also be withheld, their surprise and dissatisfaction were loudly testified, their indignation and suspicions but little concealed.

As reasons for suppressing a part of the letters, Mr. Hastings alleged, that they did not relate to public business, that they were private confidential communications, and not fit to become public.

It is plain that this declaration could satisfy none but men who had the most unbounded confidence in the probity and wisdom of Mr. Hastings; and as the new Councillors neither had that confidence, nor had been in circumstances in which they could possibly have acquired it on satisfactory grounds, they were not only justified in demanding, but their duty called upon them to demand a full disclosure. The pretension erected by Mr. Hastings, if extended into a general rule, would destroy one great source of the evidence by which the guilt of public men can

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