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BOO'NESBOROUGH, one of at least thirty localities in the United States, which take their name from the first pioneer of the great valley of the Mississippi. It stands on the Kentucky, about 18 miles to the south-east of Lexington. Though now an insig. nificant village, yet it deserves a prominent place in the history of the mighty west. It was founded in 1775 by Daniel Boone (q. v.), as his first fort; and within three or four years thereafter, it was the seat of the first legislature beyond the Alleghanies.

which occurred in 1822. B. was one of the most adventurous of been frequently used among us.' The Claim of Right brought all those pioneers of civilization' to whose courage, endurance, forward by the Scottish Convention in 1689, denounced the use and skill America owes so much. of torture, without evidence, and in ordinary, as contrary to law.' Notwithstanding this declaration, the B. was used at least once again. In 1690, Neville Payne, an English gentleman who was supposed to have entered Scotland on a treasonable misWilliam, and still shown in the Register House at Edinburgh. sion, was put to the torture under a warrant superscribed by King The B. was applied to one leg, the thumb-screws to both hands, but without any effect, although in the words of one of the privycouncillors, the torture, which lasted for two hours, was inflicted 'with all the severity that was consistent with humanity, even unto that pitch that we could not preserve life and have gone further.' This is believed to be the last time that the B. was used. But it was not until Scotland had ceased to be an independent kingdom, that the British parliament enacted-by the statute 7 Anne c. 21-that in future no person accused of any crime in Scotland shall be subject or liable to any torture.' Torture is believed not to have been used in England after 1640. It was abolished in France in 1789, and in Russia in 1801. BOO'TAN. See BHOTAN.


BOO'RO an island of the Malay Archipelago, about 60 miles to the west-north-west of Amboyna, extending between S. lat. 3° and 4°, and between E. long. 126° and 127°. With an area of 2000 sq. m., it is estimated to contain from 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. Though it is mountainous, having Mount Dome and Tomahoo, respectively 10,400 and 6528 feet high; yet it is, on the whole, very fertile, its produotions being rice, sago, fruits, dyewoods, and cajeput oil. At the east end of the island, the Dutch have a station named Fort Defence; but the best anchorage is on the north side in Cajeli Bay.

BOOROJI'RD, or BOOROOGI'RD, a town in the province of Irak-Ajemi, Persia, situated in a fertile valley about 190 miles north-west of Ispahan. Lat. 33° 43′ N., long. 48° 45′ E. It has a castle and several mosques. Pop. about 12,000, who are chiefly engaged in agricultural pursuits.


BOOT, BOOTS, or BOO'TIKIN, an instrument of judicial torture, formerly used in Scotland to force confessions from persons accused of crimes, or answers from unwilling or suspected witnesses. Bishop Burnet in the History of his Own Time, and Sir Walter Scott in his Old Mortality, speak of the B. as made of iron; but the Rev. Thomas Morer in his Short Account of Scotland, written from personal observation of the country at a time when the B. was still in use, describes it as 'made of four pieces of narrow boards nailed together, of a competent length for the leg, not unlike those short cases we use to guard young trees from the rabbits. One or both legs of the person to be tortured having been placed in this case, wedges were inserted between the limb and the sides of the case, and these welges were driven down by the executioner with a mall or hammer, questions being at intervals put to the sufferer, until either he gave the desired information, or fainted away, or showed such endurance as satisfied the judges that no answer could be extorted from him. The wedges were commonly placed against the calf of the leg, but Bishop Burnet says he had heard that they were sometimes placed against the shin-bone. In one case-that of a lad in Orkney, in 1596-it is recorded that they were struck home as many as fifty-seven times. In another-that of John Fian, schoolmaster at Prestonpans, burned for sorcery in 1591-it is said that the victim' did abide so many blows, that his legs were crushed and beaten together as small as might be, and the bones and flesh so bruised that the blood and marrow spouted forth in great abundance, whereby they were made unserviceable for ever.' 'Still,' it is added, he would not confess;' and, indeed, it is remarkable in how many cases we are told that the torture, agonizing as it was, failed in its purpose, even where the sufferer shrieked for pain in terrible manner, so as to have moved a heart of stone.'

A writer of 1591, after speaking of the ' pilniewinks,'' pilliwinks,' thumb-screws, or thumbikins (q. v.) as a grievous torture,' and of compression of the skull by a twisted cord as a most cruel torment also,' describes the B. as 'the most severe and cruel pain in the world.' Yet there are instances in which it was not thought enough. When the boots were first used in Scotland is not known. In a case where a deed of conveyance of land was challenged as a forgery, in 1579, two witnesses, a clergyman and a notary, both of Forfarshire, were ordered to be put in the boots, gins, or any other torments, to urge them to declare the truth.' In a letter, still preserved in the State Paper Office at London, Sir Francis Walsingham writes to the English ambassador at Edinburgh, in 1583, that Queen Elizabeth desires that Father William Holt, an English Jesuit then in Scotland, may be 'put to the boots.' The B. was subject of allusion on the English stage in 1604; in Marston's Malcontent, printed in that year, one of the characters is made to say: All your impiries could never do the like cure upon the gout the rack did in England, or your Scotch boots.' A young gentlewoman of Aberdeenshire was tortured by the B. in 1630. Soon afterwards, it is said to have fallen into desuetude for about thirty years. It was revived after insurrection of the westland Covenanters in 1666, and continued to be used throughout the reigns of King Charles II., and King James II., and during the first years of King William III. The genius of our nation,' writes Sir J. Lauder of Fountainhall in 1681, 'looks upon the torture of the boots as a barbarous remedy, and yet of late it hath

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BOO'TÉS, in ancient mythology, the son of Ceres and Iasion, who, being plundered of all his possessions by his brother Pluto, invented the plough, to which he yoked two oxen, and cultivated the soil to procure subsistence for himself. As a reward for this discovery, he was translated to heaven by his mother with the plough and yoke of oxen, under the name of B., i. e., the Oxdriver, which is still borne by one of the constellations. According to others, B. was the son of Lycaon and Callisto, whom his father slew, and set before Jupiter for a repast, to try his omniscience. Jupiter restored him to life, and placed him amongst the stars. BOOTH. Throughout all Europe, in early times, trade was carried on chiefly by fairs, as indeed is still the case in some parts of it, and in many parts of Asia. The tents, huts, or other temporary or movable structures in which the traders exposed their goods for sale, were calle booths. Though the corresponding German bude is generally referred to bauen, to build, our booth is traced by some to the Gaelic both or bothag, bothy or hut; by others to the Greek apotheke, through the Latin apotheca, the Italian boteca, and the French boutique-all signifying an office, shop, store-house, or tavern. From this, its primary sense, B. gradually came to mean a fixed shop or warehouse. As towns sprang up, the yearly fair was more or less supplanted by the weekly market. The slight B. which was set up in the same spot every week, had an irresistible tendency to become substantial and permanent; and the records of the 12th and some following centuries are full of unavailing complaints against the encroachments which were in this way made upon the market-places and streets. Thus, Joceline of Brakelond chronicles the ineffectual efforts of his great and wealthy abbey, in 1192, to dislodge the burgesses of Bury St. Edmunds from the shops, sheds, and stalls, which they had erected on the marketplace without leave of the monks.

So in the Winton Domesday Book, compiled in 1148, notice is taken of houses' in Winchester which had been stalls. So, also, Stow relates that the houses in Old Fish Street, in London, were at the first but movable boards set out on market-days to show their fish there to be sold; but procuring license to set up sheds, they grew to shops, and by little and little, to tall houses.' So, again, the same chronicler tells us that in Cheapside, from the great conduit west, were many fair and large houses, which houses in former times were but sheds or shops, with solars (that is, lofts or upper chambers) over them.' So in Edinburgh the range called at first 'the Boothraw,' and afterwards the Luckenbooths,' arose the very center of the High Street. So, likewise, in Edinburgh and elsewhere, the trader who for years had spread his stall under the shelter of the same buttress of the church or town-hall, began to rest a fixed wooden B. against it, gradually transforming the timber beams into lath and plaster, or even into brick or stone, until at length the basement of the stately cathedral, or hôtel de ville, was incrusted all over with unseemly little booths (or krames, as they were called in Scotland), like limpets on a rock. The B. which thus arose had often but


Merchants' Booths:

From an illuminated MS. rep esenting Venice in the 14th century.

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one apartment, which opened on the street by a narrow door, and
a broad unglazed window, closed at night by a wooden shutter,
dividing in the middle, and hinged at top and bottom, so that the
upper half formed a sort of awning, while the lower half served
as a table for the display of the trader's wares. It was at this
window that business was conducted, the trader standing within,
the buyer without. Occasionally a flight of steps led down to a
cellar under the B., which served as a store-room. In other cases,
a chamber behind was the warehouse of the merchant's B., or the
workshop of the craftsman's B., or the sleeping-place of either.
As civilization advanced, a 'solar' or chamber was raised above
the B. for the dwelling-house of the trader, occasionally with a
store-room in the roof, to which goods were hoisted by a crane.
There is mention of a goldsmith's B., with a 'solar' above it, at
Perth, about 1220. Traces of the middle-age B. still remain in this
country. There are many perfect examples in France, some of
them believed to be of the 12th century.
BOOTHS, UNLICENSED, are, by the law of England, public
nuisances, and may, upon indictment, be suppressed, and the
keepers of them fined. But by the 6 and 7 Vict. c. 68, s. 23, theat-
rical representations in booths or shows at fairs, feasts, or custom-
ary meetings of the like kind, when allowed by the justice of the
peace of the district, or other local authorities, are lawful. See


top, had a very high heel, and round the ankle it had a flat leather band bearing a powerful spur. In the adjoining cut is offered a representation of this highly characteristic boot, which we readily associate with the civil and foreign wars that distracted the 17th century. This huge species of boot remained in use in British cavalry regiments until comparatively recent times, and was dismissed as being too cumbrous in the case of men being dismounted. It is, nevertheless, in a somewhat polished and im proved form, still worn by the Horse-guards, with whose stalwart appearance, doing duty in their tall B. at Whitehall, most people! are familiar.

As an improved jack, the Horse-guards boot bears a remarkably close resemblance to the boot of the French postilion, well known to the older class of continental tourists. French postilion B., however, it is proper to understand, are made of that capacity that will suit any ordinary foot and leg. Kept economically as part of the equipment of a posting-house, they are ready for all legs, with or without stockings, as the case may be; and looking at the strength of their materials, they may very fairly be supposed to accommodate all the post-boys of an establishment during half a century.

The jack-boot is almost entitled to be called the parent of the top and some other varieties. B. with tops of a yellow color were so commonly worn by gentlemen in the 18th c., as to become a BOOTH, BARTON, a celebrated actor of the 18th c., was born peculiarity in the national costume of the English. When Philip, in 1681, his father being nearly related to Henry Booth, Earl of Duke of Orleans, and other revolutionists of note, affected to imiWarrington. Having received a good education at Westminster, tate the sentiments and manners of the English, they ostentatioushe was sent at the age of 17 to Cambridge University, from which ly wore top-boots. In the early years of the present century, & he ran away to join a company of strolling-players, who were number of members of the House of Commons, among whom may shortly after dispersed by the law. B. next performed at Bar-be specified the late Sir Francis Burdett, habitually wore toptholomew Fair with such success that Betterton would have en-boots; nor have they yet entirely disappeared. By jockeys and gaged him for Drury Lane had he not been afraid of offending fox-hunters, they are likely to remain in permanent his family by doing so. After a successful engagement in Dublin, use. What perhaps contributed to break up the genhe returned to London, and was now engaged at Drury Lane, eral use of top-boots, was the introduction of the Heswhere he appeared in 1701, and made a great sensation.' He be- sian boot, as an article of walking-dress. Worn over came quite the rage among the nobility, who vied with each other tight pantaloons, the Hessian boot was a handsome in placing their carriages at his disposal; and he frequently stayed piece of attire, giving, undoubtedly, an elegant apovernight at Windsor, where the court was then held. His great-pearance to the nether costume. A representation of est character was the ghost in Hamlet, in which he is said never to have had an equal; and his Othello, according to Cibber, was also a very masterly performance. He died May 10, 1733. BOOTHAU'K, a fortified pass of Afghanistan, 12 miles to the east of Cabul. It runs for 5 miles between cliffs 500 feet high, and is in some places only 50 yards wide.

BOOʻTHIA FE'LIX, a peninsula forming the most northerly part of the American continent. Towards the south, it is terminated by an isthmus, while, to the north, it is bounded by Bellot Strait (q. v.). It was discovered by Sir John Ross during the most famous of his voyages, and named after his friend Sir Felix Booth, being supposed at the time to reach as far north as Barrow


BOO'THIA GULF separates Boothia Felix on the west from Cockburn Island on the east, and is, in fact, a continuation of Prince Regent's Inlet towards the south.

a Hessian boot, with its tassel, is annexed. B. of this
shape, as is seen by engravings, were worn by English
general officers in the early part of the French war,
and somewhat later. At length they were superseded
by the well-known Wellington boot, which, as its
name imports, was introduced by the great Duke, as a
simplification, under the loose military trouser. This
species of boot has, in its turn, been almost entirely
abandoned in England, in consequence of the universal
use of short ankle B.; but it is still generally used by some classes
of persons in the United States, though in an odd fashion, with the
trousers stuffed loosely in at the top.'


BOO'TY is the victors' share in property captured from the vanquished. It is generally a military term, the word prize being more frequently used in the navy. The regulations concerning B. in the British army were collected and consolidated in 1831, and BOO'TON, an island near the S. E. of Celebes, between 4° 25'- have only been slightly altered since. All military B. is appor5° 45' S. lat., and in 123° 4' E. long. Area, 1807 miles. It is tioned as the sovereign from time to time may direct. Deserters, mountainous and thickly wooded, produces fine timber, rice, and those who do not claim their share within six years, receive maize, sago, &c. There are buffalo, swine, horses, and goats. none. The officers appoint two B. or prize agents, by letters of The people are Malays. The chief town, Booton, is walled, and attorney; the field-officers naming one, and the subordinate officers there fine cottons and other stuffs are made. The sultan is in al- another. The officer commanding the successful expedition sends liance with the Dutch. Pop. 17,000. to the military authorities a list of the persons entitled to booty. The agents collect the property, convert it into money at the best advantage, and hand over the proceeds to the authorities, receiving a small percentage for their trouble. A scale of distribution is then made out, and the money is paid after a certain interval. When an army and a fleet join in a capture, the Admiralty calculates the army share, and sends the amount to the military authorities. Prize and B. originally belonged to the sovereign, and are only distributed to the captors as an act of grace; for, if the sovereign pleases, the property can be given back again to the enemy. See further, under PRIZE.

BOOTS, which are only a lengthened variety of shoes, are among the most ancient articles of attire. Shoes, extended a certain height up the leg, laced, ornamented, and of fanciful colors, were in use by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, as is seen by existing relics and drawings. Leaving an account of these and other varieties of shoes, as well as an account of the trade and manufacture of shoes and boots generally, to the article SHOE-TRADE, we here confine attention to a few historical particulars respecting what are properly called B., meaning by the term leather coverings for the legs and feet. Different kinds of halfboots were worn by the Anglo-Saxons and AngloBOPP, FRANZ, Ordinary Professor of Oriental Languages at Normans; and in the reign of Edward IV., if not Berlin, was born at Mainz, on the 14th of September 1791. Devotearlier, the boot-proper, with tops and spurs, was ing himself exclusively to the study of oriental literature, he spent established as an article of knightly dress. (See some years in Paris, where he was encouraged in his labors by Book of the Feet, by J. Sparkes Hall, London.) In Chezy, Silvestre de Sacy, and August Wilhelm Schlegel, and afthe reign of Charles I., a species of boot, exceed-terwards visited London, to prosecute his favorite studies more ingly wide at the top, made of Spanish leather, came thoroughly, being partly supported by a small pension from the into use; and with Charles II. the highly decorated king of Bavaria. His first publication was on the Sanscrit verb; French boot was introduced as an article of gay he afterwards produced a Sanscrit grammar, a Glossarium Sancourtly attire. Meanwhile, the jack-boot, as it is scritum, and editions of several fragments of the great Indian called (see JACK), had become indispensable in the epic, the Mahabharata, in the original text, with a translation. costume of cavalry soldiers and horsemen generally; He helped much to facilitate the study of Sanscrit in Europe. But and by William III. and his followers it was regu- his most important labors centered in the analysis of the gramlarly naturalized in England. Strongly made, thematical forms of the different languages of the Indo-Germanic jack-boot extended in length above the knee, was capacious at family, by which he may be said to have founded a new science




of Comparative Grammar. His great work in this department is a that when the candle is burning, the end of the wick when it gets Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lith- long, may fuse and fall to the side, where it can be burned away. uanian, Old Slavonian, Gothic, and German (Vergleichende Gram--Boro-glyceride, prepared by heating B. A. with glycerine, posmatik, &c., Berl. 1833, &c.; a second edition, entirely recast, was sesses very valuable antiseptic properties. published in 1857). An English translation by Lieutenant Eastwick, and conducted through the press by Mr. Wilson, Boden professor of Sanscrit in Oxford University, was published in three vols. 1845-1850. In recognition of his splendid services to philology, he was, in 1842, made a knight of the newly erected French Ordre du Mérite, and in 1857, foreign associate of the French Institute. He died in 1867.


Borage (B. officinalis):

BO'RAGE (Borago), a genus of plants of the natural order Boraginea (q. v.), having a wheel-shaped corolla, the mouth of which is closed with five teeth, and forked filaments, of which the inner arm bears the anther, the anthers connivent around BO'PPARD, or BO'PPART (ancient Baudobriga), a walled the style, in the form of a town of Rhenish Prussia, situated on the left bank of the Rhine, cone. The species are few, about 9 m. S. of Coblenz. B. is a very ancient place, with dark, chiefly natives of the narrow streets, and chiefly built of wood. Its appearance, however, countries around the Mediis picturesque, and it has several buildings architecturally remark-terranean Sea. The COMable. The church of the Carmelites contains some fine speci- MON BORAGE (B. officinamens of 16th c. sculpture. During the middle ages, B. was an lis) is found in waste imperial city, and many councils were held in it. Remains of the places in many parts of Roman fortress built by Drusus still exist in the town. Near B. Europe, and is pretty freis Marienberg, the famous hydropathic resort. Pop. (1880) 5524. quent-perhaps naturalized-in Britain. It is a BORA, KATHARINA VON, or CATHARINE DE BORA, the wife plant of rather coarse apof Luther, was born, it is supposed, at Löben near Schweinitz, in pearance, with a stout Saxony, on 29th January 1499. At a very early age, she entered erect herbaceous stem, the Cistercian convent of Nimptschen, near Grimma. Becoming 1-2 feet high, somewhat acquainted with Luther's doctrines, she found herself very un- branched; the lower leaves happy in her monastic life; and finally, along with eight other elliptical, obtuse, tapering nuns, whose relatives, like her own, refused to listen to them, she to the base; the stem, applied for assistance to Luther. Luther obtained the services of leaves, flower, stalks, and Leonhard Koppe, a citizen of Torgau, and by him and a few as- calyx rough with hairs. sociates the nine nuns were liberated from the convent in April The flowers are more than 1523. They were brought to Wittenberg, where Luther had suit- half an inch broad, of a ably provided for their reception. Catharine became an inmate in beautiful blue color. the house of the burgomaster Reichenbach. Luther, through his was formerly much culti- a, flowering branch; b, the cone of stamens, &c. friend, Nicholas von Amsdorf, minister in Wittenberg, offered her vated and highly esteemed, being reckoned amongst the cordial the hand of Doctor Kaspar Glaz, who became pastor in Orla- flowers, and supposed to possess exhilarating qualities, for which münde. She declined this proposal, but declared herself ready to it no longer receives credit. The belief in its virtues was at one marry Von Amsdorf, or Luther himself, who had already laid time extremely prevalent in England, and its use accordingly uniaside his monastic dress. Her marriage with Luther took place versal. The flowers were put into salads, Gerarde tells us (1597), on 13th June 1525, and was made the occasion of much unjust re-to make the mind glad;' and he adds: There be also many proach by his enemies, which has not ceased to be repeated to this things made of them, used everywhere for the comfort of the heart, day. In his will, he left her all that he had, so long as she should for the driving away of sorrow, and increasing the joy of the remain a widow, because, as he says, she had always been an affec- mind.' Like some other plants of the same order, B. contains tionate and true wife to him. After Luther's death, the Elector of nitrate of potash (nitre), and is slightly febrifuge. It is mucilaginSaxony and Christian III. of Denmark contributed from time to ous and emollient, and has been used in pectoral affections: its time to her support. She died at Torgau on 20th December leaves impart a coolness to beverages in which they are steeped; and with wine, water, lemon, and sugar, enter into the composiBORA CIC A'CID is found native (1) in the steam or vapor tion of an English drink called a cool tankard. The young leaves which rises from certain volcanic rocks in Tuscany, and (2) as a and tender tops are pickled, and occasionally boiled for the table. saline incrustation in the crater of a mountain in the island Volcano, which is situated 12 miles north of Sicily. This crater is about 700 feet deep, the sides lined with a crust of B. A. about half an inch thick, and is sufficient to yield an annual supply of 2000 tons. B. A. also occurs in combination in Borax (q. v.), Datholite (q. v), Boracite, and other minerals, and to a very minute extent in trap rocks generally. The Tuscan supply of B. A. may be regarded as the most important, and its collection takes place over an area of about 30 miles. The plan pursued is to form a series of caldrons-100 to 1000 feet in diameter, and 7 to 20 feet deep partly by excavation, and partly by building, in the side of the volcanic mountain where the steam and B. A. vapors are issuing from fissures, and divert the course of a mountain stream, so that at pleasure the caldrons, or lagoons, may be supplied with water. As the volcanic vapors-called suffioni-gurgle through the water contained in the lagoons, the B. A. is arrested by the water, which becomes impregnated with it. The liquid is passed from one lagoon to another, then on to settling vats and flat-bottomed evaporating pans, till it becomes so concentrated that on cooling, impure crystals of B. A. separate. In this condition it is sent to England and other countries.



BORAGI'NEE, or BORAGINA'CEE, a natural order of the dicotyledonous plants, consisting chiefly of herbaceous plants, but also containing shrubs and even trees, the leaves generally rough with hairs which proceed from a thick hard base, and the and without stipules. The flowers are in spikes, racemes, or panwhole plant mucilaginous and emollient. The leaves are alternate icles which are almost always coiled up, and gradually uncoil and elongate themselves, the flowers expanding in succession. The calyx is 4-5 partite, and remains till the fruit is ripe; the corolla is generally regular, 4-5-cleft, imbricated in bud; the stamens rise from the corolla, and are equal in number to its divisions-generally five-and alternate with them. The ovary is 4-partite, 4-celled; the style simple, arising from the base of the lobes of the ovary. The fruit consists of 4-or sometimes of 2-distinct achenia. See ACHENIUM.-The order Ehretiacea of some botanists differs chiefly in the fruit, which in the more typical four dry achenia more or less consolidated.-There are about 600 species is a succulent drupe; and in the Heliotropes consists of known species of the proper Boraginea, and about 300 of Ehretiacea. The former are natives principally of temperate climates, The appearance of the surface of the ground, from which thou-and are particularly abundant in the south of Europe and in the sands of jets of steam are constantly issuing, is very striking; and temperate parts of Asia; the latter are more tropical, but not exthe name given to one of the principal mountains, Monte Cerboli (q. v.), and FORGET-ME-NOT (q. v.), are familiar examples of the clusively so. BORAGE (q. v.), ALKANET (q. v.), COMFREY (Mons Cerberi), denotes the feeling of awe with which the peasantry former; the exquisitely fragrant HELIOTROPE (q. v.) is the best regard the district as the entrance to the lower regions. Native B. A. is employed as a source of borax (q. v.), and contains about known of the latter. The drupes of some species of Ehretia are three-fourths of its weight of true B. A., accompanied by onefourth of water and impurities. In a pure condition, B. A. may be prepared by dissolving 40 parts of borax (NaO,2BO,) in 100 of water, and acting thereon by 25 parts of hydrochloric acid (HCl), which removes the soda, forming chloride of sodium (NaCl) and water (HO), and on cooling the mixture, the B. A. (BO,) crystallizes out. On re-solution in water and re-crystallization, it is obtained in pure white feathery crystals. B. A. is used in the arts as a flux, as an ingredient in the glaze employed in pottery; and the wicks of stearine and composite candles are treated with it, so


BO'RA SA'MBA, a curious little half-independent state, or raj, in India, within the jurisdiction of the political agent for the southwest frontier of Bengal. Its central point is in N. lat. 20° 55', E. long. 83° 10'; its area is about 622 sq. m.; the pop. is estimated at 28,000. The country is rugged, and the people savage. Outlaws from other parts of India have too often found refuge here. The revenue is about £400 a year. A tribute of £16 is paid to the British government.


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