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of physical; “types” of the law of liberty which, operate in what matter it will, is still a law of uniformity. It is the Pauline sense of the word, as when he tells the Romans that Adam was a “ type” of Him that was to come; or, philosophising history to the Corinthians, teaches them that all that happened to Israel in the wilderness were “types” written for our admonition: or bids the Philippians walk as they had him for a "type"; or exhorts Timothy to be a "type” to the believers; or praises the integrity of the faith of the Thessalonians, that they were "types" to all that believed in Macedonia and Achaia. A type that is sought, not in a single isolated act, but in the whole career of a living human being, making him a pattern to after generations of the power of divine grace and the possibilities of human nature, must be a type governed by human, that is, moral or spiritual laws, and cannot consist in mere symbolism-mere literal, physical conformity.

There is a phrase of St. Paul which appears to me to imply these ideas. It was God the Father's purpose, says the Apostle, in the dispensation of the fulness of time “to gather together in one all things in Christ, both things in heaven and things on earth,” that so, as he teaches the Colossians, He might be not only the “image of the invisible God," but the “first born of every creature."

The force of the Greek word ανακεφαλαιώσασθαι is very inadequately rendered by the expression “ to gather together in one.” That is a vague phrase, and the Greek word is a most precise one, meaning “to bring

to a head,” “ to collect as in a focus," " to sum up in an organic whole” what has before been dispersed, disjointed, disrnembered, spread over a wide surface; “to recapitulate," as the Latins call it; to reproduce to the eye, or ear, or understanding, in a compact, complete, living way, that which before had been fragmentary, partial, disconnected, apparently incongruous, or separated in its parts by long intervals of place or time. Thus the Gospel was the ανακεφαλαίωσις of all previous revelations—“ the dispensation of the fulness of time;" and Christ was the avakepalaíwois of all previous manifestations of the power of grace in the soul of man.

In Him they were reproduced, summed up, harmonised, developed, culminated. He was “the first-born of every creature.” “Things,” says Aristotle, “which are philosophically, and in the order of ideas, first; naturally, and in the order of time, are last.” Jesus Christ, in the perfection of His human nature, and not Adam, was the archetypical idea of man. conformed to Him, not He to Adam. He was the type, the mould, the pattern-form. They that were saints and heroes did but take off the impression of His saintliness and heroism, as clearly as the coarser clay of which they were fashioned allowed its outlines to be seen. And so they were as shadows in the morning, projected before the body which generated them, whose outline they represent, and whose approach they herald, but which contract themselves more and more, and are finally absorbed, when the sun reaches his noonday height, and pours down in a direct ray his glory upon the earth.

Adam was

Thus the principle of typology, even when applied to the whole life of a human being, is relieved from all just exceptions, and the simplest justification of it is also the truest. For it stands upon the relationship which may be claimed to exist between Christ the Head of the Church, and those who have belonged to His mystical body in every age. This relationship, issuing as it does from the verity of His human nature, rests upon the great philosophical dogma of the immutability of the laws—that is, of the will and purposes-of God.

These laws, which are simply the expression of His will, determined by the essential attributes of His character, are as unchanged and unchangeable in the moral and spiritual, as in the physical, world. The phenomenon which complicates the question here, and renders it philosophically inexplicable under our present conditions of thought, is that, in the moral world you have free agents, exercising their freedom, and by that exercise fashioning their character and their destiny, under a system of necessary and immutable laws.

So, when we speak of typical men, we mean those whom the conscience, the divine instinct within, recognises as the ideals of humanity, illustrating the capacities of the race, showing in what infinite variety both of ways and of degree the natural man may become spiritual, and the heirs of a fallen nature may once again become partakers of the divine.

“ The types of the Book of Genesis,” says an ingenious and pious writer, “exhibit God's great dispensational purposes and the course appointed for man's development.” By the phrase "dispensational purposes,” he means “the mode in which God, at various periods since the Fall, has dealt with man, in different degrees of intimacy, and in a certain sense, also on different principles.” “Throughout all He has had one purpose in view-to reveal what He is, and to show what man is; but this one end has been brought about in different ways and under various repeated trials.”

I demur, however, to the statement that in the course of this development the Creator has dealt with the creature even “in a certain sense,” on different principles. The outward manifestation of the principle may have been different, but the inward power and energy of it have been the same. The God of the Old Testament is the God also of the New. The proclamation of the name of the Lord to Moses on Mount Sinai—“the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; yet that will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers


the children and upon the children's children unto the third and fourth generation”-is as true now as it was then.

The God of the Jews, says St. Paul, is also the God of the Gentiles. Faith is the condition of justification to 'the circumcision' and 'the uncircumcision.' "The righteousness of God manifested without the law;' rather perhaps should it have been translated, “manifested without an accompanying code of rules,” embodied in a Divine Person, was yet "witnessed by the law and the prophets” (Romans iii. 21).

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God,” says the text,“ preached the Gospel to Abraham.” The very oath sworn to him by his Maker was, according to the Epistle to the Hebrews, designed to show to the heirs of promise, down the whole stream of time, the immutability of God's counsels. God forbid, cries St. Paul, that any one should think that the lawthe schoolmaster who was to bring us to Christ—was against the promises of God. Though the sanctions of the two covenants might be different—a circumstance which does not in the least affect the moral obligation —the terms on which they dealt with man were the same. This development may be more complete, more uniform, more equable, more progressive, under the Gospel than under the law, but the direction of that development was ever, if not consciously towards Christ, at least towards Christianity. “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day,” said Christ, “and he saw it and was glad."

And so these men, living under what we sometimes call “another dispensation,” and certainly surrounded by very different circumstances, may yet be regarded as typical. They have their message for us "on whom the ends of the world are come.' "They sought a country," a brighter, better land than any which their feet had ever trod, or on which their eye had ever rested. “They died in faith," “confessing themselves strangers and pilgrims," " persuaded of the promises and embracing them, though they never actually received them-indeed, they seemed ever to retreat from their yearning gaze. Even now they are waiting with us for their perfection. Even now their impatience,

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