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et nous avons mangé de mauvaise viande et bu de mauvais vin. 6. Ce matin vous et votre frère, vous avez blâmé injustement votre cousin. 7. Ces dames sontelles restées longtemps chez vous ? 8. Non, Madame, elles sont arrivées à huit heures et sont parties à neuf. 9. Elles ont beaucoup admiré le tableau que mon père a acheté l'autre jour. 10. Elles ont trouvé notre vin ordinaire délicieux. 11. Henri, n'avez-vous pas caché ma montre quelque part ? 12. Tenez, voici votre montre, elle était sur votre table. 13. Nous étions souvent ensemble, nons visitions les musées, qu'il admirait beaucoup. 14. Il admirait le plus, je pense, le musée de sculpture.

1. Is she praising ? is she praised ? 2. Was she not praising? was she not praised ? 3. Has she praised ? has she been praised ? 4. Had she not praised ? had she not been praised ? 5. Will she be praised ? will she have praised ? 6. Would she not be praised ? 7. Would she not have praised ? 8. Would she not have been praised ? 9. The garden which you bought last month is not so large as your uncle's. 10. I lost the book which you had lent to my mother. 11. Did you show to your landlord's wife the beautiful muff which you bought last week ? 12. Did

you
and
your

sister go to the museum yesterday evening? 13. Did you see my stick anywhere? 14. Have you not worked long enough ? 15. I think that the doctor has bought my uncle's house. 16. Where did your sister hide my handkerchief ? 17. When did your father come back from London ? 18. Why did you

shut all the doors and (all) the windows ? 19. When did your parents arrive ? 20. My mother arrived on Thursday, my father and I arrived on Saturday, June 28th, 1889.

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That and which may often be understood in English, but must always be expressed in French :

Je pense que votre frère est malade,
Où est le roman que vous avez acheté

hier ?

I think your brother is unwell.
Where is the novel you bought

yesterday ?

For is translated by pendant when it marks the whole duration of an action or a state, from the beginning to the end ; and, in this sense, it may generally be omitted.

Je travaillerai encore pendant une heure,
Je travaillerai encore une heure,
Il a été malade pendant trois jours,
Il a été malade trois jours,

le temps, time, weather.
un moment, one moment.

}I shall work yet for an hour. He was unwell for three days.

oublier, to forget.

oser, to dare.

1. Mon frère a travaillé longtemps ce matin, et il travaillera encore deux ou trois heures ce soir. 2. Je commencerai mes exercices dans une heure. 3. Je

au

pense que nous visiterons votre mère aujourd'hui. 4. Pourquoi n'accepteriez-vous pas cette bague? 5. Ne parlez pas de cette nouvelle si vous rencontrez votre cousine. 6. Combien d'heures travaillerez-vous jourd'hui. 7. Je travaillerai huit heures. 8. Ne vi. siterez-vous pas votre vieux maître quand vous serez à Londres ? 9. Je n'oublierai pas l'ouvrage dont vous avez parlé. 10. Blâmeriez-vous un père qui donnerait quelquefois des mots orageux à son fils, si celui-ci était paresseux? 11. Dès qu'ils auront commencé leur travail ordinaire, je fermerai la maison et je visiterai votre père un moment. 12. Si nous avions le temps, nous visiterions cette ville, elle est pleine de tableaux magnifiques.

1. They will forget; they would forget. 2. They (m.) will be forgotten; they would be forgotten. 3. They will have forgotten; they would have forgotten. 4. They will have been forgotten; they would have been forgotten. 5. They used to forget; they used to be forgotten. 6. They did forget; they do forget. 7. They have been forgotten; they had been forgotten. 8. They were forgetting; they were forgotten. 9. They are forgetting; they are forgotten. 10. I think he will not work much to-day. 11. I shall be very glad if he will work for two or three hours. 12. I would accept her present if I dared. 13. But you would not dare. 14. You forget that you and your brother will have no prize this month. 15. You will not forget my ring, it is in the drawer near the door. 16. I looked for your ring and your chain for half an hour, and I found nothing. 17. If we have time, we will look together this evening. 18. She would deceive her father if she dared. 19. Your sister and you will look for the thimble I have lost.

60.

t

When an action or a state which began some time ago is still going on, the present tense must be used in French; and in such cases for is translated by depuis. I have been working for three hours, Je travaille depuis trois heures.. I have been here for hulf an hour, Je suis ici depuis une demi-heure.

Observe that for does not mark the whole duration of the action or state in these examples, but only the beginning; it cannot, therefore, be translated by pendant, which expresses the whole space of time between the beginning and the end.

How long is translated :

(1) By depuis quand with the present tense, if the action or state is still continuing :

Depuis quand êtes-vous malade ? ) How long have you been ill ?

(2) By combien de temps with the past indefinite, if the action or state is past :

Combien de temps avez-vous demeuré

à Rome ?

How long did you live in Rome ?

(3) By combien de temps with the future, if the action or state is future : Combien de temps resterez-vous à

| Howlong shall you stay in Jerusalem ? Jérusalem ? rester, to stay.

bientôt, soon. jouer, to play.

l'après-midi (f.), the afternoon. chanter, to sing.

plus tôt, sooner. à l'école, at school.

gaiement, cheerfully. demeurer, to live, to dwell. donc, then, therefore. étudier, to study.

ensuite, afterwards. voyager, to travel.

au moins, at least.

1. Je demeure à Glasgow depuis quinze ou seize ans. 2. Henri a demeuré à Glasgow pendant trois ans, de 1860 à 1863. 3. Il était trois heures quand j'ai commencé mes exercices. Il est maintenant quatre heures et demie, je travaille donc depuis une heure et demie. 4. J'étudierai encore une demi-heure, et ensuite je visiterai ma tante qui est un peu malade depuis hier. 5. Votre cousin n'est-il pas à Londres depuis longtemps? 6. Oui, Monsieur, mon cousin demeure à Londres depuis trois mois. 7. J'ai demeuré à Londres quinze jours, il y a bien longtemps. J'étais alors très jeune, et j'aimais le plaisir plus que le travail. 8. J'ai peu voyagé depuis, mais je pense que je visiterai bientôt Paris. 9. Quand êtes-vous allé à Edimbourg ? 10. Il y aura trois mois à la fin de la semaine prochaine. 11. Depuis quand êtes-vous ici ? 12. Je suis ici depuis deux jours. 13. Combien de temps êtes-vous restés à Paris ? 14. Nous sommes restés trois jours à Marseille, deux à Lyon, deux à Dijon, et huit à Paris. 15. Combien de temps resterezvous à Londres ? 16. Quinze jours seulement.

1. I have been here for a long time, at least two hours and a half. Where were you ? 2. I was at the house of the lawyer, who arrived this morning from Paris. 3. I have been looking for your brother for half an hour. Where is he? 4. He has been living at his aunt's for two days. 5. My father and my mother have been travelling for two months. They are now in Paris. 6. They have been in Paris since Wednesday. 7. They were in Rome for ten days. 8. They were in Rome when they

1 They were, in this sentence, cannot be translated by the imperfect ils étaient, as you cannot turn it either into they used to be, they used to live, or into they were staying, they were living. But, in the next sentence, they were, meaning they were staying there when another event took place, must be translated by the imperfect.

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