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ter has lost her pencil, her grammar, and also her large slate. 5. The man has seen his son and his daughter. 6. My uncle has seen thy father and thy daughter. 7. My son has a good pen. 8. My father, my mother, thy daughter, thy son. 9. My son has a good grammar. 10. My mother is poor, my uncle is rich. 11. My mother is a good mother. 12. My son is also a good son.


The e of je is suppressed when the following verb begins with a vowel, and an apostrophe takes its place.

When the verb is interrogative, it is connected with the following pronoun by a hyphen.

je, 1.
tu, thou.

ai, have.
as, hast.

j'ai, I have.

ai-je ? have I ?

tu as, thou hast. as-tu ? hast thou ?
notre (m. and f.), our. votre (m. and f.), your.
leur (m. and f.), their. difficile, difficult.
exercice (m.),

le frère, the brother.
thème (m )

la seur, the sister.



1. J'ai perdu votre crayon. 2. As-tu aussi perdu ma grammaire ? 3. Tu as un bon frère et une bonne sæur. 4. As-tu une bonne mère ? 5. J'ai un bon père et une bonne mère. 6. J'ai perdu une grammaire, une ardoise et un crayon. 7. As-tu aussi perdu ton exercice? 8. J'ai aussi perdu mon exercice. 9. Notre exercice est difficile. 10. Votre grammaire est facile. 11. Leur père est riche, mais leur oncle est pauvre. 12. Votre mère est une bonne mère. 13. Sa fille a vu notre oncle. 14. Leur seur a une mauvaise grammaire.

1. Hast thou seen my little sister ? 2. I have seen thy little sister and thy little brother. 3. Your sister has a very good daughter. 4. Hast thou lost thy grammar? 5. I have lost my grammar, my exercise, and my pencil. 6. Hast thou seen my father ? 7. I have seen your father, your sister, and also your uncle. 8. Our grammar is very easy. 9. Your exercise is very

difficult. 10. Their son has a large slate. 11. Our uncle is rich, but our father is very poor. 12. My father has seen your mother. 13. Our daughter has a bad grammar.


il a,

il, he.
elle, she.

a, has. a, has.

he has.

a-t-il ?1 has he ? elle a, she has. a-t-elle ? 1 has she ? la maison, the house.

la tante, the aunt. le jardin, the garden.

trouvé, found. le couteau, the knife.

acheté, bought.


1. J'ai acheté une maison et un jardin. 2. As-tu acheté une grande maison ? 3. La maison est petite, mais le jardin est grand. 4. Mon frère a aussi acheté une mai

5. A-t-il aussi acheté un jardin ? 6. A-t-elle vu ma tante? 7. As-tu trouvé mon couteau ? 8. Ta seur a perdu mon crayon, mais elle a trouvé un petit couteau. 9. Tu as acheté une mauvaise grammaire. 10. Votre frère a un mauvais crayon. 11. Notre fils a aussi un mauvais crayon. 12. Leur maison est très grande.

1. He has lost his pen. 2. Has he seen my little sister ? 3. He has seen thy little sister and thy little brother. 4. Your aunt has bought a house. 5. Has she bought a large house ? 6. Have I seen your house ? 7. Has she seen my garden? 8. Hast thou seen our garden and our house? 9. He has found their knife. 10. She has also

1 The t placed between the verb and the pronoun does not belong to the verb, and its use is explained in $ 53, 4.

found her knife. 11. Their uncle has a very good son and a very good daughter. 12. Hast thou a good sister and a good brother ? 13. His sister has a large house.



(1) When the nominative it stands for a masculine noun (such as crayon), translate it by il; when it stands for a feminine noun (such as maison), translate it by elle.

(2) The auxiliary verb to do does not exist in French and, in translation, you must change did 1 into have I; did he into has he ; did she into has she ; did you into have you, etc. la lettre, the letter.

pris, taken. le portrait, the portrait. , where écrit, written.

quand, when. nous, we. nous avons, we have. avons-nous ? have we ? or did we ? vous, you. vous avez, you have. avez-vous ? have you ? or did you ? le livre, the book.

la canne, the cane.

1. J'ai vu sa maison, elle est très grande. 2. Quand 1 a-t-elle pris votre couteau ? 3. Où as-tu acheté ta grammaire ? 4. J'ai écrit mon exercice, il est très difficile. 5. Où ai-je perdu son couteau ? 6. Où a-t-elle vu son oncle? 7. Avez-vous vu mon portrait ? 8. Nous avons vu votre portrait, il est très bon. 9. Quand avez-vous vu ma mère ? 10. Vous avez pris notre livre. 11. Votre seur a trouvé leur lettre. 12. Où as-tu perdu mon livre ?

1. When did he buy his garden? 2. Where did she lose her portrait ? 3. When did I see your daughter ? 4. I have seen your letter, it is very good. 5. She has written

1 A d placed at the end of a word must be sounded like a t when the next word begins with a vowel.

a short letter. 6. Did I take their pen ? 7. Has she lost her knife ? 8. Where didst thou see my father? 9. Did you lose her book ?

10. Have we taken their grammar ? 11. I have seen his letter, it is very short. 12. Did you take my good pen ? 13. Where did we lose their letter ?


The Possessive Case.

(1) The sign 's denoting possession is not used in French. Turn therefore my brother's book, their aunt's garden, and all such expressions, into the book of my brother, the garden of their aunt, etc.

(2) The prepositions de and à are repeated before each noun.

de, of or from. à, to or at.

le mouchoir, the pocket-handkerchief.

reçu, received.

1. Quand avez-vous perdu le livre de ma fille ? 2. Nous avons écrit à notre tante et à notre oncle. 3. J'ai reçu une lettre de ma soeur. 4. Avez-vous écrit à la mère de votre oncle? 5. J'ai perdu le couteau de mon frère et le mouchoir de ma sœur. 6. L'exercice de mon frère est très difficile. 7. J'ai acheté la maison de votre frère. 8. Avez-vous vu le petit couteau de ma soeur? 9. Nous avons reçu une lettre de notre oncle et de notre tante. 10. Quand avez-vous écrit à votre seur ? 11. J'ai vu votre portrait, il est très bon.

1. Where is my mother's book ? 2. Where did you lose your sister's knife ? 3. My uncle's house is very large. 4. We have bought your aunt's garden. 5. She

1 The preposition à is accented simply to be distinguished in writing from the verb a, but the pronunciation is the same.

has written to her father and to her mother. 6. I have received a letter from your father and from your mother. 7. She has lost her brother's grammar. 8. Where did you find my daughter's pencil ? 9. We have bought our aunt's portrait. 10. Did she lose her mother's handkerchief? 11. We have seen your exercise, it is bad. 12. Where did she lose her knife ?


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Qui, who, which, that, is nominative.
Que, whom, which, that, is accusative (or objective).

In other words, when the relative pronoun which or
that is next the verb in English, translate it by qui.
When it is separated from the verb by one or several
words, translate it by que.
joli, pretty.

utile, useful. haut, high.

jeune, young. pour, for.

dans, in. 1. Nous avons vu une maison qui est très haute. 2. Le livre que vous avez acheté est très utile.) 3. L'homme que nous avons vu dans le jardin est très jeune. 4. Elle a acheté pour sa tante une maison qui est très jolie. 5. J'ai trouvé une plume qui est très mauvaise. 6. Nous avons vu le jardin que votre père a acheté, il est très grand. 7. Le livre qu'il ? a perdu est mon livre. 8. Avez-vous vu le jeune homme qui a acheté la canne de mon frère ? 9. Avez-vous perdu le couteau que vous avez acheté pour mon fils ? 10. Avez-vous vu le portrait qu'il a acheté ?

1. We have bought the garden which you have seen. 2. Your brother has a grammar which is very useful.

1 The e of que is always elided before a vowel or h mute, but the i of qui can never be suppressed.

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