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1. He feels; he sleeps; he serves. 2. We were feel- . ing; we were sleeping; we were serving. 3. Thou wilt feel; thou wilt sleep; thou wilt serve. 4. She had felt; she had slept; she had served. 5. They would feel; they would sleep; they would serve. 6. Sleep well, we shall meet to-morrow. 7. Let us help ourselves to a glass of water. 8. A gold watch has been given to me. 9. I shall accept a cup of tea with pleasure. 10. Mary, bring me a teacup. 11. Here is the paper knife, in case (dans le cas ) you should wish to read that new pamphlet. 12. Let us not fall asleep in the dining-room; everybody would mock us. 13. Where did you lose your watchkey? 14. I think I lost it in the park yesterday.

This paper bag will serve you as a (de) carpet bag. 16. Where did I put my watch ? 17. I think you have put it on the little wooden table.

104.

couru.

Courir, to run.

courant. je cours, tu cours, il court, nous courons, vous courez, ils courent. je courais, tu courais, il courait, nous courions, vous couriez, ils cou

raient.

je courus.
je courrai.

je courrais. que je coure, que tu coures, qu'il coure, que nous courions, que vous couriez, qu'ils courent.

que je courusse. cours, qu'il coure, courons, courez, qu'ils courent.

Notice the doubled r in the future and conditional, distinguishing these tenses from some forms of the present and imperfect; nous cod. rons, nous courrons ; je courais, je courrais. accourir, to hasten, to come up. parcourir, to run, to go, over or concourir, to compete, to concur. through. encourir, to incur.

secourir, to succor, to relieve.

?

Mourir, to die.

mourant.

mort. je meurs, tu meurs, il meurt, nous mourons, vous mourez, ils meurent. je mourais, tu mourais, il mourait, nous mourions, vous mouriez, ils

mouraient.
je mourus.
je mourrai.

je mourrais. que je meure, que tu meures, qu'il meure, que nous mourions, que vous mouriez, qu'ils meurent.

que je mourusse. meurs, qu'il meure, mourons, mourez, qu'ils meurent.

Here also notice the doubled r in the future and conditional.

Collective Nouns.

Some nouns, although used in the singular, represent a number of persons or things, and are called in consequence collective nouns. These collective nouns are general when they represent the whole of the persons or things mentioned, such as l'armée, la famille, le peuple. They are partitive, when they express only a part of the whole, such as une foule, un certain nombre, une douzaine.

Collective nouns preceded by le or la are general, and require their verb, adjective, and pronoun, to be put in the singular; as :le comité s'est réuni,

the committee have met. la foule des spectateurs applaudit, the crowd of spectators applauded.

Collective nouns preceded by un or une are usually partitive, and their verb, adjective, and pronoun agree, not with the collective, but with its complement; as: une foule d'enfants le suivaient, a crowd of children followed him. une foule d'hommes sont accourus, a crowd of men came up.

The collectives la plupart de, la moitié de, peu de, etc., are partitive and require agreement with their complement; as,la plupart des enfants sont légers, most children are thoughtless.

1. Le clergé s'est opposé à la réforme, mais le parlement a passé outre. 2. Huit jours après la bataille, une foule de soldats étaient morts de leurs blessures. 3. La maison de ce monsieur est fermée; la famille est partie pour la campagne

la semaine dernière. 4. Nous avons parcouru les plus beaux quartiers de la ville, nous avons vu une foule de choses intéressantes. 5. Bon nombre de ces messieurs ont eu recours à la protection du président, qui leur a, comme toujours, pardonné. 6. Vous n'avez pas le droit de parler mal de lui, il vous a secouru de sa bourse; vous êtes un ingrat. 7. La moitié de la classe a concouru, mais je crois que bien peu d'élèves réussiront. 8. On prétend que j'encourrai votre disgrâce si je dis la vérité; j'espère, Monsieur, qu'il n'en sera rien. 9. Le fils de notre voisine est mort ce matin. 10. C'est ce qu'on appelle mourir à la fleur de l'âge. 11. De quoi Mme votre cousine est-elle morte ? 12. Elle est morte d'une haleine courte; nous avons tous admiré sa fermeté.

1. Does she sleep; does she run; does she feel ? 2. Did she not run; did she not sleep; did she not die ? 3. Was she not running; was she not sleeping; was she not dying? 4. Will they not sleep; will they not run; will they not die ? 5. Let us not go to sleep. 6. Die, scoundrel that you are! 7. A great number of pupils have competed for that prize. 8. The crowd ran to the field of battle. 9. A crowd of children were running about in the meadow. 10. Our family has incurred your displeasure. 11. I hope you will succor them in their misery. 12. His sister died very young. 13. How old was she when she died? 14. I think she was only? thirteen years (of age). 15. The poor man to whom you

1 Translate only by ne... que, placing ne before the verb and que before the number.

1

spoke last week died of hunger yesterday. 16. I do not think her uncle is dead; I saw him walking in his garden yesterday. We must (faut) not believe all we hear. 17. I fear that she is dead. 18. He died (pret.) in England.

105. Acquérir, to acquire. acquérant.

acquis. j'acquiers, tu acquiers, il acquiert, nous acquérons, vous acquérez, ils

acquièrent. j'acquérais, tu acquérais, il acquérait, nous acquérions, etc. j'acquis. j'acquerrai.

j'acquerrais. que j'acquière, que tu acquières, qu'il acquière, que nous acquérions,

que vous acquériez, qu'ils acquièrent. que j'acquisse. acquiers, qu'il acquière, acquérons, acquérez, qu'ils acquièrent. conquérir, to conquer.

s'enquérir, to inquire.

Ouvrir, to open.

ouvrant.

ouvert. j'ouvre, tu ouvres, il ouvre, nous ouvrons, vous ouvrez, ils ouvrent. j'ouvrais, tu ouvrais, il ouvrait, nous ouvrions, vous ouvriez, ils ou

vraient.
j'ouvris.
j'ouvrirai.

j'ouvrirais. que j'ouvre, que tu ouvres, qu'il ouvre, que nous ouvrions, que vous ouvriez, qu'ils ouvrent.

que j'ouvrisse.
ouvre, qu'il ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez, qu'ils ouvrent.
couvrir, to cover.

offrir, to offer.
découvrir, to uncover, to discover. souffrir, to suffer, to endure.

The Place of Adjectives. The following adjectives, used singly, generally precede the noun : joli, pretty.

petit, little.

mauvais, bad. beau, fine, beautiful. jeune, young. méchant, wicked. grand, great, big. vieux, old.

triste, sad. gros, large, stout. ancien, ancient. vilain, ugly. bon, good.

dernier, last. premier, first.

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To the adjectives mentioned in § 34 as following their noun may be added : adjectives of form (square, round); of taste (sweet, bitter): and participles used adjectively. une table carrée, a square table. une personne séduisante, a charming une orange douce, a sweet orange. person. un prince redouté, a dreaded prince.

In addition, observe that, when an adjective is a mere ornament, which could be suppressed without altering the meaning of the sentence, it generally comes before the noun ; as, un vil scélérat. If, on the contrary, the adjective is absolutely necessary to complete the expression and give a clear meaning to it, it is placed after the noun; as, un homme vil.1

The preposition with, placed after an adjective or a participle, is translated by avec when it means along with, and by de when it implies with some of or with any of; as : il est arrivé avec votre frère, he has arrived with your brother. elle est douée de grandes qualités, she is gifted with great qualities.

By after a comparative, in after a superlative, and than before a number, are translated by de; as : je suis plus grand que lui de trois I am taller than he by three centi.

centimètres, voici le plus beau tableau de cette here is the finest picture in this galerie,

gallery. nous n'étions pas plus de quinze, we were not more than fifteen.

1. Ce prince a conquis des territoires vastes et nombreux, mais il est abhorré de tous les honnêtes gens.

1 There will be found in the Appendix a list of adjectives which change their signification according as they are placed before or after the noun.

2 Some is not expressed here to avoid the meeting of two de's. If it were expressed, we should have, She is gifted with (some) great qualities, elle est douée de (des) grandes qualités.

meters.

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