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3. The man whom

have seen in


father's garden is very tall. 4. You have an aunt who is very amiable. 5. Where did you see the knife which he has bought ? 6. The garden which she has bought is very large. 7. She has written au exercise which is


difficult. 8. My uncle, whom you have seen in the garden, is

very rich. 9. Did you take the small knife which I have bought for your brother ? 10. I have taken a small knife which I have found in the garden.


(1) Nouns form their plural, as in English, by adding s to the singular.

(2) Before all plural nouns use les for the.



le frère, the brother.
la seur, the sister.
l'oncle, the uncle.
la table, the table.
le fauteuil, the arm-chair.

les frères,1 the brothers.
les sœurs, the sisters.
les oncles, the uncles.

mis, put.
sur, on or upon.

1. Notre oncle a vu la maison et les jardins. 2. Leur tante a aussi vu les jardins. 3. J'ai vu la table et le fauteuil. 4. J'ai vu les tables et les fauteuils. 5. Nous avons mis les livres sur votre table. 6. Où avez-vous vu les plumes de mon père. 7. J'ai vu le crayon, l'ardoise et les plumes de votre seur.

8. Nous avons acheté les portraits que vous avez mis sur la table. 9. Avez

1 As the s put at the end of a plural noun is not sounded in French, the only way we have to show that a noun is singular or plural is the proper pronunciation of the preceding article. Pupils must therefore accustom themselves at once to pronounce les, and also mes, tes, ses, etc., long, as if they were written with a grave accent, lès, mès, tès. sès.

vous reçu les lettres ? 10. Nous avons reçu les lettres et les portraits.

1. Where have you seen my sister's books ? 2. I have lost my brother's pencils. 3. Did you also lose your sister's pens ? 4. We have seen the house and the gardens. 5. Has he written his brother's exercises ? 6. Where did you put the letters ? 7. I have put the letters on the arm-chair. 8. Has she seen the portraits which I have put on her table? 9. We have seen my daughter's exercises. 10. She has lost her brother's pencil and pens. 11. Where and when did you buy your grammar ?


(1) An adjective always agrees in number (as well as in gender) with the noun which it qualifies.

(2) Adjectives form their plural, like nouns, by adding s to the singular.



petit (m.).
petite (f.).
bon (m.).
bonne (f.).
méchant (m.), naughty.
méchante (f.).
aimable (m. and f.).
l'enfant, the child.
l'ami, the friend.
ils sont (m.), they are.
elles sont (f.), they are.

petits (m.).
petites (f.).
bons (m.).
bonnes (f.).
méchants (m.).
méchantes (f.).
aimables (m. and f.).

la chambre, the room.
la montre, the watch.
ils ont (m.), they have.
elles ont (f.), they have.

1. Les enfants de votre frère sont très aimables. 2. Les amis de mon oncle sont très riches. 3. Les montres de notre oncle et de notre tante sont jolies. 4. Avez-vous vu les fils et les filles de notre ami ? 5. Les fils sont aimables, mais les filles sont méchantes. 6. J'ai vu dans le jardin les enfants de votre frère, ils sont très jeunes. 7. Les mouchoirs que ma seur a mis sur la table sont très jolis. 8. Avez-vous vu les petites cannes de mon frère ? 9. Les enfants de ma soeur sont très aimables. 10. Les fils de ma scur sont petits, mais les filles sont grandes.

1. You have taken the little books. 2. Did you see my uncle's little children? 3. My brother's pencils are good, my sister's pens are bad. 4. My friend's rooms are very large. 5. My father's houses are small. 6. We

. have seen your uncle's daughters, they are very pretty and very amiable. 7. Where did you see our friend's children ? 8. Are they tall ? 9. Are they pretty ? 10. You have seen my son's exercises; are they good ?


(1) An adjective qualifying two or more nouns masculine, must be masculine plural.

(2) An adjective qualifying two or more nouns feminine, must be feminine plural.

(3) An adjective qualifying two or more nouns of different genders, must be masculine plural.

parlé, spoken.

souvent, often. 1. Le père et le fils sont grands. 2. La mère et la fille sont grandes. 3. L'oncle et la tante sont petits. 4. J'ai vu votre fils et votre fille dans le jardin de ma tante, ils sont très jolis et très aimables. 5. Nous avons vu les tables et les fauteuils de votre oncle, ils sont très hauts. 6. Où avez-vous vu les plumes de ma seur? 7. J'ai vu les plumes et les crayons de votre seur sur la table, ils sont très bons. 8. Nons avons parlé à la mère, à la tante et à la fille, elles sont très bonnes et très aimables. 9. J'ai souvent vu le fils et la fille de votre oncle. 10. Sont-ils très jolis ? 11. Ils sont très jeunes et très jolis.

1. The daughter, the mother, and the aunt are very amiable. 2. The son, the father, and the uncle are very good. 3. We have often spoken to your uncle and (to) your aunt; they are young and amiable. 4. Are they rich ? 5. They are very poor.

6. I have seen your friend's arm-chairs and tables; they are pretty, but very high. Your daughter's pens and pencils are good. 8. Did you often speak to your friend's aunt and mother? 9. Are they poor? 10. They are poor, but amiable. 11. When did you see her book ?


(1) The past participle of a verbl coming after any forms of to be agrees in gender and number, like all adjectives, with the subject.

(2) The following ten past participles are always used in French with to be:



devenu, become. sorti, gone out.

arrivé, arrived. parti, gone away, departed, set out, left. entré, entered, come in. venu, come.

resté, remained, stayed. revenu, come back, returned.

tombé, fallen.

1 See § 57 for the definition of a past participle.

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Before any plural noun use mes for my ; tes for thy ; ses for his, her, its; nos for our ; vos for your ; leurs for their,

theiry 1. Où sont-elles allées ? 2. Mes frères sont sortis. 3. Leurs seurs sont parties. 4. Nous avons vu votre oncle, ses fils sont venus. 5. Tes filles sont revenues. 6. Nos tantes sont entrées dans la maison. 7. Elles sont devenues très pauvres. 8. Sont-ils restés dans la maison ? 9. Les lettres sont arrivées. 10. Ma sœur est tombée dans le jardin. 11. Vos frères et vos seurs sont revenus. 12. Nous avons acheté leur maison et leurs jardins.

1. I have seen thy sisters in the garden, they are arrived. 2. My uncles have become rich. 3. Has she come also ? 4. Our brothers are gone out. 5. My sisters have remained in the garden. 6. They are departed. 7. Have you seen my sons and my daughters ? they have become very tall. 8. Her exercises are difficult. 9. My sisters have fallen. 10. Where did they fall ? 11. Your brothers have entered (in) the house. 12. Their rooms are very large.


Before a masculine noun singular beginning with a consonant, use du for of the or from the; au for to the or at the.

le frère, the brother.
du frère, of or from the brother.

au frère, to the brother.
le professeur, the professor. le cadeau, the present.
le médecin, the doctor.

vendu, sold.
le prince, the prince.

prêté, lent.

donné, given.

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