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(3) Will you must be thus translated by voulez-vous when the person addressed is asked to do a thing; and the answer I will, I am quite willing, with pleasure, I have no objection, is rendered by je le veux bien : Will you (do you wish to) go to the voulez-vous aller à la campagne country with your brother? I am avec votre frère ? je le veux quite willing.

bien.

But shall and will, referring to future time, are auxiliaries of the future tense :

irez-vous demain à la campagne ?

Shall you go to the country to

morrow ?

(4) The present of vouloir generally means to will, to command :

The law commands it,
Do what I command you,

la loi le veut.
faites ce que je veux.

But, if the word bien is added to it, it softens the expression and gives it the sense of a consent:

If it is agreeable to you, we shall go si vous le voulez bien, nous parti

rons tout de suite.

at once,

(5) Je voudrais or je voudrais bien expresses a mere wish :

I should like to see that,

je voudrais bien voir cela. He would like to go to the theatre, but il voudrait aller au spectacle, mais

his mother will not allow him, sa mère ne le veut pas.

(6) Vouloir, followed by an infinitive, means sometimes to intend:

He intends to do nothing,
She intends to leave to-morrow,

il ne veut rien faire.
elle veut partir demain.

:

1. Nous comptions partir par le train de deux heures et demie, mais mon tuteur ne l'a pas voulu. 2. Voudriezvous que je vienne vous voir, quand vous serez à la campagne ? 3. Voulez-vous prendre une tasse de thé avec moi ? 4. Je le veux bien. 5. Elle ne veut pas attendre une minute de plus. 6. Une fois que l'homme de cæur a dit: "je veux,” il se sent bien plus maître de lui qu'il ne le croyait auparavant. 7. Je veux bien que vous alliez patiner cette après-midi, mais je veux que vous soyez de retour avant cinq heures. 8. Je voudrais vous parler un moment en particulier. 9. Je voudrais bien être riche, je voyagerais six mois de l'année. 10. C'est l'homme le plus irrésolu que je connaisse, il ne sait jamais ce qu'il veut. 11. Celui-ci, au contraire, est un modèle de fermeté : il veut ce qu'il veut. 12. Que voulez-vous dire ? 13. Je veux dire que j'ai raison, et

?
que c'est vous qui avez tort.

Veuillez être discret,
Et n'allez pas, de grâce, éventer mon secret.

(Molière.) 1. I wish to go away. 2. I want him to go away. 3. I wished to pay him, but he would not receive my money. 4. They are ready to depart, they will not wait one minute longer (de plus). 5. They were wishing to send me to Germany, but I would not go. 6. Will you come to take a walk with me? With pleasure. 7. I wonder (je m'étonne) if you will receive (recevrez) your money to-day. 8. I am quite willing to receive it, but I know they will not give it to me. 9. I want him to come, he must obey me. 10. I consent that he may come. 11. If it is agreeable to you, we shall pay (fe

. rons) a visit to your sister-in-law. 12. I wish I were rich! 13. I should like to see him beating you! 14. I

14.

think she intends to write to you. 15. What does that mean? 16. When I am in the country ($ 49), would you like to come to see me? 17. Will you tell me, please, the name of the lady whom we heard sing ($98), last evening? 18. It is impossible for me to lend you this novel; I have promised to lend it to him.

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118.

Devoir, to owe, to have to, must, ought. devant. da, due. je dois, tu dois, il doit, nous devons, vous devez, ils doivent. je devais.

je dus.

je devrai. je devrais. que je doive, que tu doives, qu'il doive, que nous devions, que vous deviez, qu'ils doivent.

que je dusse. dois, qu'il doive, devons, devez, qu'ils doivent.

apercevoir, to perceive, to see (with the eyes).
s'apercevoir, to be aware of, to notice (by the mind).
recevoir, to receive. décevoir, to deceive.

Different Meanings of the Verb devoir.

(1) The original meaning of devoir is to owe, to be owing: He owes me money,

il me doit de l'argent. He owes more than he

possesses, il doit plus qu'il ne possède. Its figurative meaning is to be one's duty, as in most of the following cases :

(2) When should can be changed into ought, translate it by je devrais, etc.; when should have can be changed into ought to have, translate it by j'aurais dû, etc., with the next verb in the present infinitive; as — You should come with me,

vous devriez venir avec moi. You should have come with me, vous auriez dû venir avec moi.

1 The circumflex accent is put upon the past participle dû merely to distinguish it from the article du, of the.

(3) When to be is followed by an infinitive, translate it by the verb devoir : He is to (intends to, shall) dine il doit dîner avec nous.

with us,

He was to (intended to) dine with il devait dîner avec nous.

US,

(4) When to have is followed by an infinitive, translate it either by devoir or by avoir à :She has to go out this morning, elle doit sortir ce matin. She is obliged to go out this morning, elle a à sortir ce matin.

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(5) When must implies supposition, translate it by je dois, etc., and must have by j'ai dû, etc., with the next verb in the infinitive present:You must be ill after so much fa- vous devez être malade après tant tigue,

de fatigues. You must have been well pleased, vous avez dû être bien content. You must have been very glad to vous avez dû être bien aise d'ap

hear that your father arrived prendre que M. votre père est safely,

arrivé sans accident. (6) The imperfect of the subjunctive (dussé-je, dussestu, dît-il, etc.), placed at the beginning of a clause, means even though: Even though I should be blamed, I dussé-je être blâmé, je vous soushall support you,

tiendrai.

1. Il me devait dix mille francs, il y a trois mois, mais aujourd'hui il ne m'en doit plus que cinq mille. 2. Vous lui devez tout. 3. C'est à elle qu'il doit la place qu'il occupe. 4. Je ne dois compte de mes actions à personne. 5. On devrait planter des arbres le long de cette route. 6. Vous auriez dû me prévenir.

7. Vous n'auriez pas dû sortir sans ma permission. 8. Je dois aller demain à la campagne. 9. Il doit partir après-demain. 10. Il devait sortir hier. 11. Nous devons chanter ce soir. 12. Il doit y avoir cette semaine une assemblée de soldats. 13. C'est lui qui doit avoir fait cela. 14. Des actes d'une nature si sublime doivent être rares. 15. Il a dû partir ce matin par le train de 9 heures 40. 16. Dussé-je être blâmé, je lui donnerai mon appui. 17. Dussions-nous échouer, nous essayerons. 18. Je dois quatre cents francs à mon marchand de vin, Un fripon qui demeure au cabaret voisin.

(Regnard.)

1. He does not receive; she is not received. 2. We have not received; she has not been received. 3. You were not receiving; she was not received. 4. I will not receive; she will not be received. 5. He will not have received; she will not have been received. 6. Thou wouldst not have received; she would not have been received. 7. That she may receive; that she might receive; that she may not have been received; that she might not have been received. 8. I owe her still fiftyone francs. 9. You should pay her at once. 10. You should have paid her when she was at my father's house last month. 11. I think I should not go out with you. 12. Should they not have sent me that parcel long ago ? 13. We are to spend (passer) two months in the country this summer. 14. She was to pay (rendre) us a visit this morning, but we have not yet seen her. 15. I have to go to the market, come along (venez) with me. 16. You must be very hungry. 17. He must have left 1 last night or this morning. 18. You must have been

1

1 It is seen by this sentence that must have is not invariably rendered by j'ai du, etc., as is said in the 5th Rule of this chapter. It is translated by je dois avoir, etc., when the action or its consequences are still lasting.

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