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There are, of course, exceptions to this rule ; but according to its author, it holds good in 99 cases out of 100.

Observe that the rule does not apply to nouns evidently denoting males, as prince, homme ; nor to nouns evidently denoting females, as princesse, dame, etc.

III. Formation of the feminine in nouns representing ani

mate beings. Nouns representing animate beings usually have a particular form for each sex, and their feminine, like the feminine of adjectives, is more or less regularly formed :

un Français, a Frenchman, une Française.
an Prussien, a Prussian, une Prussienne.
un jardinier, a gardener, une jardinière.
un baron,

a baron,

une baronne. un jumeau,

a twin,

une jumelle. un époux,

a husband, une épouse. un compagnon, a companion, une compagne. (1) Those ending with an e mute are the same for both genders : un Russe,

a Russian, une Russe. un esclave,

a slave,

une esclave. un artiste,

an artist,

une artiste.

PRINCIPAL EXCEPTIONS. un âne,

an ass,

une ânesse. un chanoine, a canon,

une chanoinesse. un comte,

a count,

une comtesse. un hôte,

a host,

une hôtesse. un maître,

a master, une maîtresse un nègre,

a negro,

une négresse. un prêtre,

a priest, une prêtresse. un Suisse,

a Swiss, une Suissesse. un tigre,

a tiger, une tigresse. un traître,

a traitor, une traîtresse. (2) Substantives ending in -eur, and which are derived from a present participle, change -eur into -euse :

lo danseur (from dansant), the dancer, la danseuse.
le plaideur (from plaidant),

the suitor, la plaideuse.
lo buveur (from buvant),

the drinker, la buveuse. (3) Substantives ending in teur, and which are not derived from a present participle, change -teur into -trice: l'accusateur,

the accuser,

l'accusatrice. l'acteur,

the actor,

l'actrice. l'instituteur, the teacher, l'institutrice.

Add to these : le débiteur, debtor ; l'inspecteur, the inspector ; l'executeur, the executor ; l'inventeur, the inventor ; le persécuteur, the persecutor.

(4) Some in -eur change it into -eresse for the feminine, such as : l'enchanteur, the enchanter, l'enchanteresse ; le pécheur, the sinner, la pécheresse ; le vengeur, the arenger, la vengeresse ; le défendeur, the defendant, la défenderesse ; le chasseur, the hunter, la chasseresse. Chanteur has two feminines, chanteuse and cantatrice : the latter is said only of professional singers. Empereur makes impératrice; gouverneur makes gouvernante, serviteur makes servante. Témoin is used for both genders, and also auteur, poète, philosophe, peintre, juge, guide, etc., and even possesseur and successeur.

(5) Some nouns originally feminine keep that gender, even when applied to man: la dupe, the dupe ; la sentinelle, the sentry; la recrue, the recruit ; la caution, the bail ; la victime, the victim, etc.

(6) The names of animals form their feminine irregularly :

le bélier,
le bouc,
le cheval,
le mouton,
le sanglier,
le singe,
le canard,
le chat,
le lapin,
le mulet,
l'ours,
le perroquet,
le loup,
le dindon,

the ram,
the he-goat,
the horse,
the sheep,
the wild boar,
the monkey,
the duck,
the cat,
the rabbit,
the mule,
the bear,
the parrot,
the wolf,
the turkey,

la brebis.
la chèvre.
la jument.
la brebis.
la laie.
la guenon.
la cane.
la chatte.
la lapine.
la mule.
l'ourse.
la perruche.
la louve.
la dinde.

(7) Most of the names of animals have only one form for both genders ; such are:

ALL MASCULINE.
le castor, the beaver.

le cigne, the swan.
le chamean, the camel. le hibou, the owl.
l'écureuil, the squirrel. le vautour, the vulture.
l'éléphant, the elephant. le merle, the blackbird.
le léopard, the leopard. le saumon, the salmon.

ALL FEMININE.
la baleine, the whale. l'alouette, the lark.
la girafe, the giraffe. l'hirondelle, the swallow.
la panthère, the panther. la perdrix, the partridge.
l'hyène, the hyena.

la pie, the magpie.
la souris, the mouse.

la tortue, the tortoise. To all these nouns, when we want to determine the sex, we add mâle or femelle: la panthère mâle, la panthère femelle; l'éléphant mâle, l'éléphant femelle.

IV. Formation of the plural. Nouns and adjectives form their plural by adding s to the singular; $$ 9, 10.

EXCEPTIONS. — (1) Nouns and adjectives ending in 8, 8, 2, in the singular, are the same in the plural ; $ 30.

(2) Nouns and adjectives ending in -au or -eu take a in the plural ; $ 30.

But the noun landau, a landau (sort of carriage), and the adjective bleu, blue, take s in the plural.

(3) Nouns and adjectives in -al change al into aux ;

§ 30.

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But s is added in the plural to the nouns bal, carnaval, chacal, régal, and to the adjectives amical, fatal, final, glacial, initial, natinal, naval, pénal, théâtral, and a few others seldom used. (4) Six nouns ending in -ail change ail into aux : le bail, the lease,

les baux. le corail,

les coraux. l'émail, the enamel,

les émaux.

the coral,

the toy,

lo soupirail, the air hole,

les soupiraux. le travail, the work, the labor, les travaux.

le vitrail, the glass windows, les vitraux.
(5) Six nouns ending in -ou take x:
le bijou,
the jewel,

les bijoux.
le caillou,
the flint,

les cailloux.
le chou,
the cabbage,

les choux.
le genou,
the knee,

les genoux.
le hibou,
the owl,

les hiboux.
le joujou,

les joujoux. (6) Aïeul, ciel, and wil, generally make aïeux, ancestors ; cieux, heavens ; yeux, eyes. But aïeul makes aïeuls when it means the paternal and maternal grandfathers ; ciel makes ciels when it means the testers of beds, the roofs of quarries, or “skies ” in painting ; and in the cases when wil does not mean properly eye, it makes wils, as, des cils-de-boeuf, oral windows.

(7) Foreign words, which have not yet been naturalized in France by custom, remain invariable, such as: des alibi, des errata, des in-folio, des in-quarto, des post-scriptum, des fac-simile, etc.

But the following take the mark of the plural : des bravos, des duos, des trios, des numéros, des opéras, des zéros, des impromptus, des échos, des déficits, etc.

THE ADJECTIVE. V. Formation of the feminine of adjectives. GENERAL RULE. – To form the feminine of adjectives, add e mute to the masculine (§ 2).

EXCEPTIONS. — (1) Adjectives ending with e mute in the masculine are the same in the feminine ($ 2).

(2) Adjectives ending in -el, -en, -on, -et, double the last consonant, and take an e mute after it ($ 54).

(3) Eight other adjectives also double their last consonant in the feminine ($ 54).

(4) Adjectives ending in -f change f into ve ($ 54). (5) Adjectives ending in -x change x into se (54).

(6) Adjectives ending in -eur, and which are derived from a present participle, change eur into euse.

Flatteur (from flattant), flatteuse ; grondeur (from grondant), grondeuse.

(7) Adjectives ending in -teur, and which are not derived from a present participle, change teur into trice.

Profanateur, profanatrice ; corrupteur, corruptrice.

Adjectives ending in -érieur, not belonging to either of the above exceptions, follow the general rule : inférieur, inférieure ; ultérieur, ultérieure. Add to them meilleur, majeur, and mineur.

(8) Some adjectives form their feminines irregularly (855).

The plural of adjectives is formed in the same way as that of nouns (see page 276).

For the comparison of adjectives see $$ 24, 48.

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OBSERVE. Possessive adjectives are compared with possessive pronouns in § x.

VII. Demonstrative adjectives.

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SINGULAR. This or that,

Before a consonant, | Before a vowel. Before any letter.
ce.
cet.

cette.

PLURAL. These or those,

ces.

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