Images de page
PDF
ePub

The following adjectives also double their last consonant in the feminine. pareil,

like, alike, such, pareille.
épais,
thick,

épaisse.
gros,
stout, big,

grosse.
gras,
fat,

grasse.
bas,
low,

basse.
gentil,
pretty,

gentille.
las,
tired,

lasse.
sot,
foolish,

sotte.

Adjectives ending in of change f to ve :1 vif, lively, quick, vive; actif, active, active; neuf, new made, neuve.

Adjectives ending in -x change x into se : 2 heureux, heureuse.

délicieux, delicious, délicieuse. jaloux, jealous, jalouse. orageux, stormy, orageuse. pluvieux, rainy, pluvieuse. studieux, studiousstudieuse. généreux, generous, généreuse.

nombreux, numerous, nombreuse. garçon, boy.

sauvage, wild. fille, girl.

moderne, modern. histoire (f.), history.

la langue, the language. la bête, the beast.

italien, Italian. la géographie, geography. jamais, ever. chat (m.), chatte (f.), cat. appris, learnt.

1. Ces dernières nuits ont été très orageuses. 2. Votre frère est paresseux, mais votre seur est très studieuse. 3. Votre cousine n'est-elle pas un peu jalouse? 4. Votre bonne n'est pas si active que la nôtre. 5. J'ai un chapeau neuf et aussi des bottines neuves. 6. Nos oncles sont heureux, mais nos cousines sont bien malheureuses. 7. Ces fraises ne sont-elles pas délicieuses ? 8. Vous êtes

1 The reason is that, but for the change, there would be no difference in pronunciation between the masculine and the feminine.

2 Were an e mute added to x, according to the general rule, the sound (heureuxe, jalouxe) would be too hard.

bien heureuse, Madame, vous avez des enfants laborieux. 9. Ces filles sont moins actives que ces garçons. 10. Les éléphants ne sont pas cruels, mais ces bêtes sauvages sont très cruelles. 11. L'histoire moderne n'est pas si facile que l'histoire ancienne, mais la géographie ancienne est beaucoup plus difficile que la géographie moderne. 12. La langue italienne n'est pas difficile. 13. Les grosses fraises ne sont pas si bonnes que les petites. 14. Cette viande est trop grasse, donnez-nous autre chose. 15. Cette petite fille est bien lasse. 16. Pourquoi votre frère a-t-il vendu son petit chien ? il était si gentil. 17. Où votre seur a-t-elle trouvé cette gentille petite chatte ?

1. Have you ever read ancient history or learnt ancient geography ? 2. Has your brother seen that pretty little beast ? 3. This little boy is prettier than that little girl. 4. Yes, but in five or six years, the little girl will be prettier than the little boy. 5. Our arm-chairs are not so low as your chairs. 6. This beast is cruel. 7. Is the Italian language difficult? 8. No, sir, it is one of the easiest of languages. 9. Your watch is too big. 10. That cat (f.) is too fat and her hairs are too thick. 11. Your brothers are very tired.

12. Omnibuses are not numerous in this town. 13. These men are generous. 14. Those women are not generous.

15. Is not your sister happy ? 16. His shoes are new, but his boots are not new.

17. Aunt, your tea is delicious, but your butter is not very good. 18. We shall have a rainy night. 19. Our maid-servant is not so active as theirs.

1 Observe that, when a superlative is placed after its noun, the article is repeated : c'est une des langues les plus faciles.

55.

[ocr errors]

Exceptions to the formation of the feminine of

Adjectives continued.

The following adjectives form their feminine irregularly. vieux, vieil, old,

vieille. beau, bel,

beautiful, fine, handsome, belle.
nouveau, nouvel, new,

nouvelle.
fou, fol,
mad, foolish.

folle.
faux,
false,

fausse.
doux,
sweet, gentle.

douce.
blanc,
white,

blanche.
franc,
frank,

franche.
sec,
dry,

sèche.
public,
public,

publique.
grec,
Greek,

grecque.
malin,

malignant, cunning, clever, maligne.
frais,
fresh, cool,

fraîche.
long,
long,

longue.
favori,
favorite,

favorite.

Observe that the first four adjectives of this list have each two forms for the masculine. The second form is used only before a noun beginning with a vowel or h mute : un bel oiseau, le nouvel opéra, le fol enfant, mon vieil ami.2 large, broad.

la promenade, the walk. latin, Latin.

la nouvelle, the news. régulier, regular.

le bruit, the report. l'avenue (f.), the avenue. l'ouvrage (m.), the work, the book. · Nouveau, placed before its noun, means another : j'ai acheté de nouveaux livres, I have bought some more books.

Nouveau, placed after its noun, means recent: j'ai acheté quelques livres nouveaux, I have bought some books which have appeared recently.

Neuf means new made, that has not been in use yet: un habit neuf, un chapeau neuf, a new coat, a new hat. Neuf is always placed after its

noun.

2 Vieil is not absolutely required before a noun beginning with a vowel; we also say mon vieux ami.

1. Apportez-moi un verre d'eau fraîche. 2. Cette table est longue et large. 3. La langue grecque est plus riche que la langue latine : elle est aussi plus difficile. 4. Je n'ai jamais vu de petite bête plus maligne que celle-ci. 5. Cette nouvelle promenade n'est-elle pas publique ? 6. Oui, c'est maintenant ma promenade favorite. 7. Autrefois c'était cette longue avenue par laquelle nous sommes venus hier. 8. Voici des poires qui sont bien vieilles. 9. Mon nouvel ami n'est pas malin. 10. Sa sæur est la plus franche et la plus aimable des filles. 11. Mon frère avait un bel habit neuf, et ma seur une robe blanche. 12. Sa cousine est une très belle femme. 13. Son cousin est un très bel homme. 14. Cette nouvelle est fausse. 15. Ce bruit n'est pas moins faux.

1. Did you read Dickens's new work? 2. Is not this little girl your favorite ? 3. This wine is cool, but this water is not cool. 4. There is a fine animal. 5. My old friend (m.) is more cunning than you. 6. My old friend (f.) is more cunning than he. 7. The Italian women are more numerous in this country than the Greek women. 8. Your chain is longer than mine or (than) his. 9. We are lost if that news is true. 10. It is not true, it is false. 11. This long avenue is not public. 12. Your strawberries are not very fresh. 13. Your sister is more frank than his. 14. This muslin is as white as mine. 15. That poor woman is mad. 16. Your brother is very fond of (likes much) sweet ale. 17. Why is your aunt so unhappy? Is not her daughter industrious ?

56.

VERBS.

French verbs are divided into three conjugations, distinguished from each other by the termination of the infinitive.

The 1st ends in -er, the 2d in -ir, the 3d in -re.

The present participle is that part of a verb which ends in -ing. It is frequently used in English with the verb to be, but it is never so used in French. When we have to translate it from English, we turn it into the simplest form. For example, instead of I am speaking, we say I speak ; instead of I was speaking, we say I spoke ; instead of I shall be speaking, I

1 shall speak.

The auxiliary verb to do does not exist in French, and must be suppressed in translating : Do you speak? is therefore turned into speak you? Do they speak ? into speak they? etc.

FIRST CONJUGATION.

In the first conjugation, which contains more than four-fifths of the French verbs (3,400), the infinitive ends in -er, and the past participle in -é.

1 Most grammars divide French verbs into four conjugations; but one conjugation having only seven regular verbs and about forty irregular ones, it has been thought better to put all these among the irregular verbs.

« PrécédentContinuer »