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Je serai, I shall or will be. tu seras, thou wilt be. il sera, he will be. nous serons, we shall be. vous serez, you shall be. ils seront, they shall be.

Compound of the Future.

J'aurai été, I shall or will have been.

tu auras été, thou wilt &c. il aura été, he will have been. nous aurons été, we shall &c. vous aurez été, you shall &c. ils auront été, they will &c.


Je serais, I should or would be.

tu serais, thou wouldst be.
il serait, he would be.
nous serions, we would be.
vous seriez, you should be.
ils seraient, they should be.

Compound of the Conditional.

J'aurais été, I should or would have been.

tu aurais été, thou wouldst &c. il aurait été, he would &c. nous aurions été, we should &c. vous auriez été, you should &c. ils auraient été, they would &c.


Je ne serai pas, I shall not be. tu ne seras pas, thou shalt not be. il ne sera pas, he shall not be. nous ne serons pas, we shall n. b. vous ne serez pas, you shall n. b. ils ne seront pas, they shall n. b.

Compound of the Future.

Je n'aurai pas été, I shall not have been.

tu n'auras pas été, thou wilt &c. il n'aura pas été, he will not &c. nous n'aurons pas été, we shall &c. vous n'aurez pas été, you will &c. ils n'auront pas été, they will &c.


Je ne serais pas, I should or would not be.

tune serais pas, thou shouldst &c. il ne serait pas, he should &c. nous ne serions pas, we should &c. vous ne seriez pas, you should &c. ils ne seraient pas, they would &c.

Compound of the Conditional.

Je n'aurais pas été, I should or would not have been. tu n'aurais pas été, thou &c. il n'aurait pas été, he should &c. nous n'aurions pas été, we &c. vous n'auriez pas été, you &c. ils n'auraient pas été, they &c.

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Sois, be thou.


qu'il soit, let him be. qu'elle soit, let her be. soyons, let us be. soyez, be (ye or you). qu'ils soient, let them be.

Ne sois pas, be thou not. qu'il ne soit pas, let him not be. qu'elle ne soit pas, let her not be. ne soyons pas, let us not be. ne soyez pas, be ye not.

qu'ils ne soient pas, let them &c.



Que je sois, that I may be. que tu sois, that thou &c. qu'il soit, that he may be. que nous soyons, that we may be. que vous soyez, that you &c. qu'ils soient, that they may be.

Compound of the Present.

Que j'aie été, that I may have


que tu aies été, that thou mayest have been.

qu'il ait été, that he may have been.

que nous ayons été, that we may have been.

que vous ayez été, that you may have been.

qu'ils aient été, that they may have been.


Que je fusse, that I might be.

que tu fusses, that thou &c. qu'il fût, that he might be. que nous fussions, that we &c.

que vous fussiez, that you &c.

qu'ils fussent, that they &c.

Compound of the Imperfect. Que j'eusse été, that I might have been.

que tu eusses été, that thou &c. qu'il eût été, that he &c. que nous eussions été, that we might have been.

que vous eussiez été, that you might have been.

qu'ils eussent été, that they &c.


Que je ne sois pas, that I may not be.

que tu ne sois pas, that thou &c. qu'il ne soit pas, that he &c. que nous ne soyons pas, that we &c. que vous ne soyez pas, that you &c. qu'ils ne soient pas, that they &c.

Compound of the Present.

Que je n'aie pas été, that I may not have been.

que tu n'aies pas été, that thou mayest not have been. qu'il n'ait pas été, that he may not have been.

que nous n'ayons pas été, that we may not have been. que vous n'ayez pas été, that you may not have been. qu'ils n'aient pas été, that they may not have been.


Que je ne fusse pas, that I might not be.

que tu ne fusses pas, that thou &c. qu'il ne fût pas, that he &c. que nous ne fussions pas, that we might not be.

que vous ne fussiez pas, that you might not be.

qu'ils ne fussent pas, that they &c.

Compound of the Imperfect. que je n'eusse pas été, that I

might not have been.

que tu n'eusses pas été, that &c. qu'il n'eût pas été, that he &c. que nous n'eussions pas été, that

we might not have been. que vous n'eussiez pas été, that you might not have been. qu'ils n'eussent pas été, that &c.



1. In the following exercises, the learner must recollect that, whenever the word some or any is expressed or understood before a substantive, it must be expressed in French by du, de la, de l', or des, according to the gender and number of the substantive. (See page 16.) Ex.

J'ai des livres ;
Avez-vous des plumes?

I have books.
have you any pens?

2. But if an adjective precede the substantive, the article is omitted, and the preposition de or d' alone is used. Ex.

J'ai de bons livres ;

Avez-vous de belles gravures?

I have good books.
have you fine engravings?

3. If the verb avoir be used negatively, de or d' is also prefixed to the substantive instead of the article. Ex.

Je n'ai pas de livres ;

Vous n'avez jamais d'argent,

I have not any books.
you never have money.

4. The same preposition de is likewise used after adverbs of quantity, such as combien, how much; beaucoup, much; assez, enough; trop, too much or too many, &c. Bien, much, many, is, however, an exception, and du, de la, des are used after it, according to the gender and number of the noun. Ex.

Nous avons trop de vin;
Elles auront assez d'argent;
Il avait bien des amis;

We have too much wine.
They will have money enough.
He had many friends.


5. It must also be remembered, in writing the sentences on the verb étre, to be, that the adjective which follows the verb must agree in gender and number with the subject. Ex.

Ils sont grands;

Elles sont heureuses;

they are tall.
they are happy.

See SUPPLEMENT on the peculiarities of the verb ETRE.


See Rules 1-5, p. 124.


PRES.-I have a book.-I am happy.-He has a hat



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big. — We have no money. We

which is too

trop, adv. grand.

argent, m.

are not ambitious.-You have a sword.-You are very

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IMP. I never had friends.—I was grateful. My sister

had no work,

ouvrage, m.

she was idle.


We had a holiday, we

were very glad of it.-You had company,

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were not ready.-Your brothers had no learning, but they

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PRET.-(As soon as) I had a fine horse, I was satisfied.—

Dès que, c.


My cousin had a little garden, he was ingenious.-As soon

cousin, m.

as we had bread


pain, m.


Dès we were satisfied.. You had no fine rassasié, p. p.

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weather, you were not pleased.-Your friends had beautiful temps, m. flowers: they were very careful of them.-Thou hadst no

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FUT.-I shall have discretion; I shall be prudent.-Miss

discrétion, f.

White shall have a bird; it will be very

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