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blood gushed out with extraordinary impetuosity.—He sang, m. saillir

is so prepossessed against me, that he will not agree that vouloir, v. convenir


contre, p.

I am in the right.-You will become a great man,

avoir raison

you continue

continuer, v. de


to study with the same assiduity.—He assiduité, f.

would have come to see us last week, if it had not rained.

venir (p. 166)

semaine, f.

-Do not go out to-day, you will suffer much

plu, p. p.

if you

beaucoup, adv.



do. I should not suffer (so much) if it were

tant, adv. faisait, v.

faites, v. weather. The king has invested that nobleman with all

his authority.




seigneur, m. de

You may set out this morning, but pouvoir, v. partir

to come back this evening.

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Asseoir, to sit.

INF. Pres. asseoir. Part. act. asseyant. Part. past, assis, -ise. IND. Pres. assieds, assieds, assied; asseyons, -ez, -ent. Imperf. asseyais, -ais, -ait; asseyions, -iez, -aient. Pret. assis, -is, -it; assímes, -ites, -irent. Fut. assiérai, -as, -a; assiérons, -cz, -ont: or, asseierai, -as, &c. Cond. Pres. assiérais, -ais, -ait; assiérions, -iez, aient. IMP. assieds, -eie; asseyons, ez, -ient, SUB. Pres. asseie, -es, -e; asseyions, -iez, -ient. Imperf. assisse, -isses, it; assissions, -iez, -ent.

This verb is generally used reflectively, s'asseoir, and its compound is rasseoir, to settle, se rasseoir, to sit down again.


Seoir, in the sense of, to be seated, or situated, is only used in the participles present and past, séant, sis. son sise à Versailles; a house situate at Versailles. La cour royale de Paris, séant à Versailles.

Seoir, to fit well, to become, to fit, is not used in the

infinitive; its participle present is séyant. It has the following tenses, but only the third persons singular and plural.

INF. Pres. sied; siéent. Imperf. séyait; séyaient. Fut. siéra ; siéront. Cond. Pres. siérait; siéraient. SUB. Pres. siée;


The other tenses are never used.

Surseoir, to prorogue, to put off, a compound of seoir, only used in law, and is thus conjugated ;


INF. Part. act. sursoyant. Part. past, sursis, -ise. IND. Pres. sursois, &c.; sursoyons, &c. Imperf. sursoyais, &c. ; sursoyions, &c. Pret. sursis, &c.; sursimes, &c. Fut. surseoirai, &c. surseoirons, &c. Cond. surseoirais, &c.; surseoirions, &c. IMP. sursois, &c.; sursoyons, &c. SUB. Pres. surseoie, &c.; sursoyions, &c. Imperf. sursisse, &c.; sursissions, &c.

Déchoir, to decay, to decline.

INF. Pres. déchoir. Part. past, déchu, -ue. IND. Pres. déchois, -ois, -oit; déchoyons, -ez, -ient. [No Imperfect.] Pret. déchus, -us, -ut; déchúmes, -útes, urent. Fut. décherrai, -as, a; décherrons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. décherrais, -ais, -ait; décherrions, -iez, aient. [No Imperative Mood.] SUB. Pres. déchoie, -es, -e; déchoyions, -iez, -ient. Imperf. déchusse, -usses, út; déchussions, -iez, -ent.

Choir, the root of the above verb, has only the infinitive and the part. past, chu, chue.


Echoir, to fall to, is conjugated like déchoir, with this exception, that it is only used in the third persons. part. act. is échéant.

Mouvoir, to move.

INF. Pres. mouvoir. Part. act. mouvant. Part. past, mu, mue. IND. Pres. meus, meus, meut; mouvons, -ez, meuvent. Imperf. mouvais, -ais, -ait; mouvions, -iez, -aient. Pret. mus, mus, mut; múmes, mútes, murent. Fut. mouvrai, -as, -a; mouvrons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. mouvrais, -ais, -ait; mouvrions, -iez, -aient. IMP. meus, meuve; mouvons, -ez, meuvent. SUB. PRES. meuve, meuves, meuve; mouvions, -iez, -ent. Imperf. musse, -es, mút; mussions, -iez, -ent.

The compound of this verb is,

Emouvoir, to stir up, to move.

Pouvoir, to be able, to have in one's power.

INF. Pres. pouvoir. Part. act. pouvant. Part. past, pu. IND. Pres. puis or peux, peus, peut; pouvons, -ez, peuvent. Imperf. pouvais, -ais, -ait; pouvions, -iez, -aient. Pret. pus, pus, put; púmes, -útes, urent. Fut. pourrai, -as, -a; pourrons, -ez,-ont. Cond. Pres. pourrais, -ais, -ait; pourrions, -iez, -aient. SUB. Pres. puisse, -es, -e; puissions, -iez, -ent. Imperf. pusse, pusses, pút; pussions, -iez, -ent.

Pouvoir has a sort of imperative mood, used when a wish is expressed. Puissé-je, puisse-tu, puisse-t-il; puissionsnous, puissiez-vous, puissent-ils. Ex.

Puissé-je la revoir !

may I see her again!

Remark.-1. When the words can, may, could, or might, express permission to do a thing, or a possibility of doing it, can and may are rendered by the present tense of the indicative of pouvoir *. Ex.

Je puis vous vendre un bon cheval, s'il vous en faut un; Vous pouvez aller au bal, mais revenez à dix heures;

I can sell you a good horse, if you want one.

you may go to the ball, but come back at ten o'clock.

2. Could is rendered by one of the following tenses, viz. the imperfect, preterite definite, or indefinite, or conditional present; and might by this last tense.

Je ne pouvais mieux faire ;
Il ne put venir avec nous la
semaine passée;

Vous pourriez vous tromper,
aussi bien que lui;


I could do no better.

he could not come with us last week.

you might mistake, as well as he.

3. Could or might, being joined to the verb to have, immediately followed by a participle past, must be rendered by the conditional past of the above verb, with the participle turned into the present of the infinitive mood.

J'aurais pu vous le dire hier au soir:

Vous auriez pu le faire en trois jours;


I could have told it to you last night.

you might have done it in three days.

*See SUPPLEMENT on Auxiliaries.

Savoir, to know.

INF. Pres. savoir. Part. act. sachant. Part. past, su, sue. IND. Pres. sais, -is, -it; savons, -ez, -ent. Imperf. savais, -ais, -ait; savions, -iez, -aient. Pret. sus, sus, sut; súmes, sútes, surent. Fut. saurai, -as, -a; saurons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. saurais *, -ais, -ait; saurions, -iez, -aient. IMP. Pres. sache, sache; sachons, -ez, -ent. SUв. Pres. sache, -es, -e; sachions, -iez, -ent. Imperf. susse, susses, sút; sussions, -iez, -ent.

Valoir, to be worth.

INF. Pres. valoir. Part. act. valant. Part. past, valu. IND. Pres. vaux, vaux, vaut; valons, ez, -ent. Imperf. valais, -ais, -ait; valions, -iez, -aient. Pret. valus, -us, ut; valúmes, -útes, -urent. Fut. vaudrai, -as, -a; vaudrons, ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. vaudrais, -ais, -ait; vaudrions, -iez, -aient. SUB. Pres. vaille, -es, e; valions, -iez, vaillent. Imperf. valusse, -usses, -út; valussions, -iez, -ent.

The compound of this verb is prévaloir, to prevail, which is conjugated as valoir; but it makes, in the present tense of the subjunctive,


Que je préval-e, -es, -e; préval-ions, -iez, -ent.

Voir, to see.

INF. Pres. voir. Part. act. voyant. Part. past, vu, vue. IND. Pres. vois, vois, voit; voyons, -ez, voient. Imperf. voyais, -ais, -ait; voyions, -iez, -aient. Pret. vis, vis, vit; vímes, vites, virent. Fut. verrai, -as, a; verrons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. verrais, -ais, -ait; verrions, -iez, -aient. Imp. vois, voie: voyons, -ez, voient. SUB. Pres. voie, -es, -e ; voyions, -ez, voient. Imperf. visse, visses, vít; vissions, -iez, -ent.

Entrevoir, to have a glimpse of.
Revoir, to see again.

Prévoir, to foresee.
Pourvoir, to provide.

Prévoir differs from voir in the future and conditional present. Ex.

Fut. prévoirai, -as, -a; prévoirons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. prévoirais, -ais, -ait; prévoirions, -iez, -aient.

*This tense, conjugated negatively, is often Englished by cannot. Ex.

Je ne saurais vous le dire;

I cannot tell it to you.

Pourvoir is conjugated like voir, except,

Pret. pourvus, -us, -ut; -vúmes, -útes, -urent. Fut. pourvoirai, -as, -a; pourvoirons, -ez, -ont. Cond. Pres. pourvoirais, -ais, -ait; pourvoirions, -iez, -aient. SUB. Imperf. pourvusse, -usses, -út; pourvussions, -iez, -ent.

Vouloir, to be willing.

INF. Pres. vouloir. Part. act. voulant. Part. past, voulu, -ue. IND. Pres. Veux, veux, veut; voulons, -ez, veulent. Imperf. voulais, -ais, -ait; voulions, -iez, aient. Pret. voulus, -us, -ut; voulumes, -útes, -urent. Fut. voudrai, -as, -a; voudrons, Cond. Pres. voudrais, -ais, -ait; voudrions, -iez, -aient. IMP. pl. veuillez. SUB. Pres. veuille, -es, -e; voulions, -iez, veuillent. Imperf. voulusse, -usses, -út; voulussions, -iez, -ent.

-ez, -ont.


1. When the words will or would signify a will, choice, or deliberation in the agent, and can be expressed by choose or chose, WILL is rendered, in French, by the present of the indicative mood, or future, of vouloir. Ex.

Je veux y aller, et lui parler

moi-même ;

Il ne veut pas manger;

Je le ferai quand je voudrai;

I will (or choose to) go there,

and speak to him myself.

he will not eat, or does not choose to eat.

I will do it when I please.

2. And would, having the same signification, is to be rendered by one of the following tenses, viz. the imperfect, preterite, definite or indefinite, or conditional present. Ex.

Il voulut absolument partir


Que voudriez-vous que je fisse?

he would (or chose) absolutely to

set out yesterday. what would you have me do?

3. When would is joined to the verb to have, immediately followed by a participle past, they are to be rendered by the preterpluperfect or conditional past of the above verb

Strictly speaking, this verb has no Imperative, since we cannot command any one to be willing, but a second person plural of the Imperative is often and elegantly used to make a request, or ask a favour. Ex.

VEUILLEZ faire cela pour moi; be so kind as to do that for me.

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