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you have done him all the services you could.

rendre lui


pouvoir, pret. ind.

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I know your sisters; I have seen them and spoken to them several times. I know they are excellent musicians.Have you ever heard them sing? Yes, several duets; and the first which I heard them sing was Italian.-What pret. ind.

were the first that you heard them sing? They were pret. ind.

taken from the operas of Metastasio.-Is not your mother tiré Metastase.

in the country? Yes, sir;

(she has been there these) six elle y est depuis

months.-Does she often write to you? Very often; I

received a letter from her last week; and I have received


two this week.-Have you read the letters of which I spoke to you this morning? Yes; I have read them.-Let us always endeavour to imitate the good actions which we have seen others do.-Is Miss D. at Clifton? Yes; I faire.



saw her go out of church this morning; she then

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We have given ourselves a great deal of trouble to serve him. Have you had the happiness to succeed? Yes, we

have; and we rejoice (at it).—Do you know, said I the other


day to my little Louisa, who has created you? Yes, papa,

replied she; it is He who, from my birth, has given me répondre

health, and has preserved me for your happiness-—it is God.

-The heads which you have learned to draw are very beautiful.—The fable which you have begun to learn has always been considered as one of the most beautiful of La Fontaine's. The intense cold we have had during the winter has been severely felt by the poor.-The continual rain

which we have had for six weeks has done much pendant

injury to the harvest.-Tell me, my friend, do

pret. ind.

you think

I exaggerated the misfortunes which I predicted you would pret. ind. experience? No, you (did not exaggerate) them at all; pret. ind.

you judged them rightly.

pret. ind.




Why is the participle so called?

How many participles are there?
What are they?

What is the difference between the verbal adjective and the participle present?

Can ayant and étant become verbal adjectives?

When are the participles past of passive and of neuter verbs declined?

Is the participle past declined when it is preceded by its direct object?

Is it, when followed by it?

How can you find the object of a participle past?

How can you ascertain whether that object be direct or indirect?

How is the participle influenced by a verb in the infinitive which follows it?

Is the participle past declined when followed by its indirect object?

Is the participle declined, when used impersonally, with the auxiliary verb ?

Is the participle past of a reflective verb always declined?



ADVERBS have been divided, according to their several significations, into adverbs of place, time, quality, quantity, number, order, affirmation, negation, doubt, interrogation, comparison, collection, separation, &c. But this classification, however ingenious, is far from being exact. It has

been thought preferable, therefore, to give it up, and to give a list of those adverbs, simple and compound, which are most in use, the primary adverbs being classed alphabetically.

The place of the adverb, in French, is generally after the verb. Ex.

Ils sont établis agréablement ; they are comfortably settled.

It must particularly be remembered, that the adverb can never be placed between the pronoun and the verb, as it frequently happens in English. Ex.

Il refusera bien certainement;

he certainly will refuse.


Abondamment, abundantly, plentifully.

A l'abandon, at random, in confusion, in disorder.

D'abord, at first, immediately.

Absolument, absolutely.

D'accord, granted, done.

Agréablement, pleasantly, comfortably.

Ainsi, so, thus, in the same manner.

Aisément, facilement, easily.

Mal aisément, difficilement, with difficulty.

Dans un an d'ici, a year hence.
L'année qui vient, the next year.

Anciennement, formerly, anciently.


En ami, friendly, in a friendly manner.
A l'amiable, amicably.

En arrière, tomber en arrière, to fall backward.

A reculons, marcher à reculons, to walk backward.

Assez, enough.

Assurément, sûrement, certainement, certainly.

Aujourd'hui, to-day.

D'aujourd'hui en huit, dans huit jours, this day se'nnight.

Time to come, D'aujour'hui en quinze, dans quinze jours, this

day fortnight.

y a aujourd'hui huit jours, a week ago.

Time past, Il y a aujourd'hui quinze jours, a fortnight ago.

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a aujourd'hui un an, twelve months ago.

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Dorénavant, in future.

A l'avenir, for the future.

A l'Anglaise, after the English manner, fashion, or way.

A l'Italienne, after the Italian &c.

A la Française, after the French &c.

A la Turque, after the Turkish &c.


Our garden produces all kinds of fruits plentifully.-You

sorte, f.

did not know me at first.—He would

absolutely do it.—I

vouloir, v.

hope we shall spend the day pleasantly.-Have we not

passer, v.

spent this so ?—My brother learns his lessons easily, and I

with difficulty.-A year hence you (will be able) to speak pouvoir

French tolerably well.-My father says I shall go to France


next year.-Your brother and mine have settled their affairs régler, v.

amicably. He who walks backward cannot see his way.

Have you played enough?-Certainly you must be tired.devoir, v.

We do not expect him to-day.-If it be fine weather I shall

be back de retour

this day week or se'nnight.—I shall see you this

day fortnight, if I

be well. This day week I was se porter

(at your house).—A month ago I met your brother.—I came chez vous.

here twelve months ago. He has as much money and as ici, adv.

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