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Non, non pas, ne-pas, ne-point, point; no, not.

OBSERVATION ON THE ADVERB OÙ.

The adverb of place, où, where, is most commonly and more elegantly turned into French by que after the two other adverbs, ici, here, là, there, to prevent the hiatus caused by the meeting of the two vowels; and sometimes after nouns expressing the place where something has happened, been done, or committed, especially when the sentence begins with the verb étre, to be, used impersonally; as, it is, it was, it will be, &c. Ex.

C'est ici que nous l'attendons;

Ce fut là que je le vis pour la première fois;

Ce fut en plein sénat que César fut inhumainement assassiné;

it is here (where) we are waiting for him.

it was there (where) I saw him for the first time.

it was in full senate (where) Cæsar was inhumanly murdered.

Observations on the adverbs, non, non pas, ne, ne-pas, nepoint, point; no, not.

NON, NON PAS.

1. Non, no, the opposite of oui, yes, never accompanies a verb. If non begins the sentence, and the verb is used negatively, that verb must be attended by another negation.

Ex.

L'avez-vous fait? Non;

have you done it? No.

Le ferez-vous? Non, je ne le will you do it? No, I never

ferai jamais;

Dites oui ou non;

will.

say either yes or no.

2. Non is sometimes repeated to give a greater force to the negation. Ex.

Non, non, je n'y consentirai No, no, I never will consent to jamais;

it.

3. Non may be joined to an adjective, in order to give it a contrary meaning. Ex.

Des gens non intéressés agi- disinterested people would act differently.

raient autrement;

4. Oui and non are sometimes used substantively. Ex.

Il ne répond presque jamais que he hardly ever answers but by par un oui ou par un non; yes or no.

They are also frequently used after dire, croire, penser, imaginer, instead of a verb.

Irez-vous ce soir?
Je crois que oui ;
Je crois que non ;

Je vous dit que c'est ainsi ;
Et moi, je vous dis que non ;

5. Non and pas are often familiar conversation. Ex.

Me permettez-vous de prendre cet œillet?

Non pas, je vous en prie;

Ex.

Shall you go this evening?
I think I shall.

I believe not.
I tell you it is so.
I tell you it is not.

used together, particularly in

will you give me leave to take this carnation?

I would rather you did not.

Of the cases in which pas, point, are omitted.

It has been remarked, page 28, that two negations, nepas, ne-point, are used in French. However, pas or point are suppressed,

1. After the verbs cesser, to cease; oser, to dare; pouvoir, to be able; and savoir, to know. Ex.

Il ne cesse de parler;
Je n'ose la contredire;
Je ne puis me commander ;
Je ne saurais me taire ;
Je ne sais où il est ;

he talks incessantly.

I dare not contradict her.
I cannot command myself.
I cannot be silent.

I do not know where he is.

2. In interrogations of this kind

Est-il rien qui m'appartienne, is there any thing of mine but

dont vous ne puissiez dis

poser?

Ai-je un protecteur, un ami, qui ne soit aussi le votre ?

is at your disposal?

have I a protector, a friend but is not also yours?

3. When jamais, never, personne, no body, aucun, none, are used.

Ex.

Il n'est personne que j'estime plus que Monsieur votre père; Ne lisez jamais des livres im

moraux;

there is no one I esteem more
than your father!
never read immoral books.

4. After prendre garde, meaning to take care, when followed by the conjunction que, which conjunction governs the following verb in the subjunctive. Ex.

Prenez-garde que votre ami ne take care that your friend does commette cette imprudence; not commit this imprudence.

5. After the verbs which follow the conjunction que, governed by plus, more, moins, less, meilleur, mieux, better, or pire, worse, in sentences expressing a comparison.

Votre sœur est beaucoup plus

instruite qu'on ne pense; Vous êtes moins prudent que je ne croyais;

Il écrit mieux qu'il ne faisait;
Elle est plus sage qu'elle n'était;

Ex.

your sister is much better in

formed than it is thought. you are less prudent than I thought.

he writes better than he did.
she behaves better than she did.

6. When the English words nothing but, only, are translated by ne-que; for in that case the negative indefinite pronoun RIEN is understood in French before the conjunction que.

Ex.

Il ne fait que lire du matin au he does nothing but read from soir;

Il n'a que six ans ;

Je ne veux que votre bonheur;

morning till night.

he is only six years old.
I have nothing but your happi-
ness at heart.

7. After the interrogative particle que, used at the beginning of a sentence, in the acceptation of pourquoi? Why? Ex.

Que n'étes-vous venu plutót? why did you not come sooner?

8. After depuis que, since, or il y a-que, it is-since, when the verb following que is in the preterite indefinite or

preterpluperfect, and the sentence expresses the time since which an action has not taken place.

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Ex.

since we have gone to France.

I have not seen him these two years.

I had not seen your sister for three months.

9. When two negatives are joined by the conjunction ni, or when this conjunction comes before two nouns substantive or adjective, two pronouns, or two adverbs. Ex.

Je n'aime ni n'estime Monsieur I neither love nor esteem Mr. B. B. Ni le pauvre ni le riche ne sont neither the poor nor the rich exempts de la mort ; are exempt from death.

10. After the verb which follows the conjunction que, governed by the verb douter, to doubt, or nier, to deny, whenever these are used negatively. Also before the verb that follows the conjunction que, when this is preceded by the verb craindre, or by one of these expressions,-de crainte que, de peur que, for fear that, if we do not wish that the action expressed by the following verb should take place. Ex.

Je ne doute pas, je ne nie pas
qu'il ne soit arrivé;
Nous craignons, or de crainte
qu'il ne soit malade;

I do not doubt, I do not deny that he is arrived.

we fear he is ill, or for fear he should be ill.

Observation.-If we wish that the action expressed after the conjunction following craindre, or de crainte, de peur, should take place, then pas or point must be expressed. Ex. Nous craignons qu'il ne soit we fear he is not arrived. pas arrivé:

NE-PAS, NE-POINT.

1. Whenever the verb is in the present of the infinitive, either both parts of the negation ne pas or ne point may be

placed before the verb, or the verb may be placed between them. Ex.

Afin de n'être pas, or de ne pas in order not to be importunate. étre importun;

Pour ne pas souffrir, or ne not to suffer his insults.

souffrir pas ses insultes ;

2. If the verb is in any of the simple tenses, ne must precede the verb, and pas or point come after it.

Je ne parle pas ;

I do not speak.

Ex.

3. When the verb is in a compound tense, ne is to be placed before the auxiliary verb, and pas comes after it. Ex. Je n'ai pas parlé ; I have not spoken.

PAS and POINT are not to be used indiscriminately.

It is very proper to observe that point denies more strongly, and is more exclusive than pas. For example, if I say, Ce jeune homme ne parle POINT, it may be understood that he is dumb; but if I say, Ce jeune homme NE PARLE PAS, I mean, and it is understood, that at this moment he is not speaking. If I say of such a person, il ne dort PAS, it will be understood that he is not at present asleep; but if I say, il ne dort POINT, every body will understand that he cannot get any sleep.

EXERCISE ON THESE ADVERBS.

Do you see that tree yonder ?—Thence, I went to France,

and, soon after, to Germany.-If you go that way, you après, p.

may

(call at) Mr. H.'s.—We are yet far from our pouvoir, v. passer chez

house. I saw him yesterday, but it was at a distance.—You

made me wait a long while.-From that time, I began

commencer à

to

speak to him.—Does your son behave ill now ?—When I

se conduire

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