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the like, preceding a noun of weight or measure, day, week, month, or year, is rendered into French by à, or by au, à la, à l', aux, according to the gender and number of the following noun.



Je ne vends rien à la livre
Il achète toujours à l'aune ;
Nous travaillons à l'heure, ou
à la journée ;

I sell nothing by the pound.
he always buys by the ell.
we work by the hour, or by
the day.


If you buy tea by the pound, and not by the ounce, you will get it cheaper.—I never buy my cloth by the ell, but by the piece. How do you sell your brandy? We sell it by the gallon, and not by the bottle.—He sells his wine by the ́ dozen. I sell eggs by the hundred.-How do you measure

your cambric? by the ell, or by the yard?—Does that man batiste, m.

work by the week or by the month? He works by the year.

3rd. By, immediately following the verbs to kill, to wound, to knock down, and the like, is rendered into French by d'un coup de, when it expresses the effect, blow, thrust, stroke, firing, &c. of an instrument, by which a man was either killed, wounded, &c. provided the blows have not been repeated: if the blows have been repeated, we make use of à coups de, in which case it is most commonly rendered in English by with. Ex.

Il fut blessé d'un coup de flèche; he was wounded by an arrow. Ils l'assommèrent à coups de they knocked him down with a báton; stick.


Achilles was killed at the siege of Troy by an arrow,


which Paris, king Priam's son,

(let fly) (at his) lui décocher, v.



talon, m.


At last

the king, having broken his battle

Enfin, adv. hache and sword, was knocked down by a stone, and renversé, p. p.

d'armes, f. taken prisoner.-William the Second was killed by an fait, p. p.

arrow in the New Forest.-My brother was wounded by a

gun, and my cousin was killed by a cannon - ball.—Edward fusil, m. canon, m. boulet. the First was wounded in Palestine with a poisoned

He is so strong, that with his fist he could


dagger. poignard, m. knock down an ox.-He threw my brother down, and


par terre,

(kicked him to death).-They killed

peu s'en fallut que, 313 tuer à coups de pied. him, not with stones, but with arrows.


From, preceding the name of a person, or one of the personal, possessive, relative or interrogative pronouns, after the verbs to go, to come, to send, &c. is generally rendered in French by de la part de, or de ma, de sa, de notre part, de votre part, &c.


Allez de ma part chez M. D.;
Je viens de sa part;

go from me to Mr. D.
I come from him or her.


Go from me to Miss Dunkin's, and tell her I shall be

glad aise de

to see her. From whom do you come? said she to me.-Madam, replied I to her, I come from my parents,

who sent me.- -Send from me to Mr. Lucas's, and desire pret. ind.

him to send me the books which I have ordered


(of him).

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1st. In is rendered by dans and en. It must be observed that dans is always used in the restricted sense of within, into, and is followed by the definite article, when the following word admits of it; whereas en, on the contrary, is used in an indeterminate sense. It is placed, generally, before

names of countries.


Il est dans la maison;
Elle est en Angleterre ;

he is in the house.
she is in England.


He always keeps himself shut up in his room.-Take all se tenir

the linen which I shall want in our journey, and put linge, m. falloir, 235-3 pendant

it into my box.-Walk into the parlour.-We live in the


county of Surrey.-Is there a good fire in the room?-Ovid,

one of the finest poets of the Augustan


age, expired in

Auguste, m. siècle, m.

the seventeenth year of our Lord, at Tomi, near Varna, on

sur, p.

the western coast of the Black Sea, whither he had occidental, adj. cote, f.

been banished by the emperor Augustus.-Is your sister in

France? No, madam, she is in Spain.-How long (do you 258-5 avoir

intend) to stay in town?-Sir, do you keep a house?

l'intention de No, we live in (ready-furnished lodgings).-Your eldest son


behaved like a hero.—In what does human happiness con

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sist? If you wish to be happy and esteemed in this world,

live like a man of honour and

en o



2d. In the arm, in his arm, &c. In phrases like these, after words denoting pain, hurting, &c. in is rendered by au, à la, aux, according as the case requires, and the possessive pronoun is suppressed in French.

In is not expressed in French before matin, soir, but always before matinée, soirée.

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he was wounded in his arm, and
not in his leg.

you will always find him at
home in the morning.
come in the evening.


My brother has constantly a pain in his head, and I have

a mal

very often a pain in my teeth.-My companion, in jumping


par dessus

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a form, (fell down), and was much hurt in the

banc, m. tomber, v.

shoulder. My brother was wounded in the arm, but not

dangerously. My master comes generally in the morning. -I will call upon you in the afternoon, and in the evening I will go to the play. He was in the country with us on à

the day that it rained so much.



These prepositions are rendered by de after the verbs to depend, to live, to subsist, and the like; and also after the verb to play, preceding the name of an instrument. Before the days of the week, and the names of the months, preceded by a numeral adjective, the preposition on must not be expressed. Ex.

Il vit de pain et d'eau ;
Vous jouez du violon, et il joue
de la flute;

Cela arriva le dix-huit du mois
dernier ;
Venez mardi soir;

he lives on bread and water.
you play on the violin, and he
plays on the flute.

that happened on the eighteenth

of last month.

come on Tuesday evening.


A good end generally depends on a good beginning.-What do you live upon, you who never eat any meat? In winter

I live on milk and vegetables; and in summer I live upon légumes;

bread and butter, cheese, and all sorts of fruits.-Upon what

instrument does your sister play ?-She plays very well on


the piano, and she is now learning to play on the harp.— pincer

Come on Friday early.-Why did you not play on the violin jouer

on Wednesday last.-On the third of June, 1664, the Eng

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This preposition is commonly translated in French by sur; but it must be rendered by the participle past of the verbs finir, passer, achever, when it denotes an action ended.


Il a l'avantage sur vous;

Votre frère partit dès que la your brother set out as soon as

pluie fut passée;

Le diner est-il fini?

he has the advantage over you.

the rain was over.

is dinner over?


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