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over the dead body of her father.-In going to London,

did you


go over Westminster bridge?

Yes, but in

le pont de

passer coming back, I passed over Blackfriars bridge. They

disbanded the army as soon as the campaign was over.— disperser

In France, they drink coffee as soon as dinner is over.—


le café

You may go and walk now the rain is over, and it is se promener

dry under foot. les routes sont sèches.

was soon over.

pret. def.

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They fought well, and the battle bravement,


1st. With must be rendered by de after the following verbs, to starve, to die, to do, to dispense, to meddle, to encompass, to load, to cover, to strike, and those denoting fulness: likewise after the following adjectives, endowed, charmed, pleased, displeased, and all others expressing pleasure or displeasure. Ex.

Elle meurt de froid et de faim; she starves with cold and hunger. Je suis content de ce que j'ai; I am pleased with what I have.

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starve with hunger

Des fuinéans comme cela, devoir, v. 154 mourir

and cold.

The winter was so severe, that I was starving pret. def. rude

with cold. They are so rich, that they do not know what to


do with their money.-Do not meddle with my affairs, med

se mêler

dle with your own.-(It is reported) on all sides that Paris

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is to be encompassed with walls.-That waggon doit étre chariot, m. loaded with goods. He was overwhelmed with grief:accablé, adj.

The enemy, struck with terror and astonishment, ran away. s'enfuir. -Honour me with your commands.-I have filled my celordres.

lar with good beer and excellent wine.-Narcissus, seeing

himself in a clear fountain,

(fell in love) devenir, v. amoureux, adj.

with his

own person.-As to us, little satisfied with his answers, we

behaviour of your son Thomas?—You would (be wrong)

took other measures.

Are you not pleased with the

avoir tort de

well in that

se conduire, v.

to be dissatisfied with him; for he behaved

mécontent, adj. affair.-My mother will be glad * if you succeed in your



2nd. With is rendered by contre after words denoting anger or passion and before nouns denoting the matter, instruments, tools, or expressing how and in what manner a thing is done, it is rendered by one of the following articles, au, à la, à l', aux, according to the gender and number of the following noun. Ex.

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My brother was in such a passion with me, that I en2 si1 6 colère, f.

thought he would have beaten me.—I was very angry with

her, when she told me she would not do it. I live near faire, cond.

the river; and if you come to see me, we will fish with a

net, filet, m.

or a line.
ligne, f.


Did Miss Arnold show you the picture

she has drawn with Indian ink? No; but she showed

Chine, f.

me her mother's picture done with chalk. I assure you

it is very

blades. lame, f.

her. I bought a penknife with two

like ressemblant, adj. Š

3d. With is not to be expressed after some verbs, such as, to meet with, to trust with, to supply with, to reproach with, &c. It is likewise to be suppressed where it expresses the situation, position, &c, of a person, or when it is used in the sense of having, holding, &c.

Il a essuyé bien des chagrins;
Nous lui fournirons tout ce dont
il aura besoin ;
Il se promène toujours un livre
à la main;


he has met with many troubles. we will supply him with every thing he wants.

he always walks with a book in his hand.


He met with so many mortifications

essuyer, v.

sons, that through grief he fell ill
de chagrin tomber malade1

from his de la part de

and died. When

you meet with a (poor man), never reproach him with his rencontrer, v. malheureux,


poverty, but endeavour to furnish him with the means


confier à


moyen, m. de getting out of his misery.—I have trusted Mr. N. with my se tirer son's education, in the firm confidence that he will answer confiance

my expectation.-The New River supplies London with all fournir à

attente, f.


the water of which the inhabitants (stand in need).-I avoir besoin, v. reproached her with her ingratitude towards her benefac


tors. He often walks round the garden with a stick

báton, m.


his hand.-Never speak to any body with your hat on your




SANS, without.

Were it not for, but for, had it not been for, before a noun or a pronoun, are rendered by sans, in French. Ex.

Sans vous, je ne sais ce que je deviendrais ;

if it were not for you, I do not know what would become of


Sans lui, mon frère aurait été had it not been for him, my puni; brother would have been


Sans elle, je serais mort de but for her, I should have faim;



Without the assistance of divine Providence, what are we?

secours, m.

-According to what you tell me, and what I have heard


before, she has a great deal of merit; and,

ai oui dire

but for that



scar which she has in her forehead, she grand, adj. cicatrice, f.

would be very handsome.-Had it not been for the help of

good and honest people, what

could cond. past.

you have done ?—

If it had not been for me, he never would have paid you.—

Were it not for rich and charitable persons, what (would


become of) the poor and needy ?-Our neighbour fell into devenir, 193 voisin, m. the river; and but for my father, who was passing that way,

par là,

he would have been drowned.-Were it not for emulation,

se noyer, v.

(every thing) would languish in the world.

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On the Prepositions de, à, pour, before the Infinitive.

It must have been observed, during the course of these exercises, that different prepositions are used before the infinitive they are generally the same as would be used before a noun, and they depend upon the preceding verb. Some rules are here given on that subject.

1. The infinitive, which is not governed by another verb, has no preposition before it. Ex.

Nourrir des sentimens de vengeance, est indigne de vous;

to entertain sentiments of revenge is unworthy of you.

When there is a preposition, it must be repeated before each verb. Ex.

he learns to read and write.

Il apprend à lire et à écrire ; 2. Aller, croire, devoir, faire, falloir, savoir, valoir mieux, venir, pouvoir, oser, vouloir, and penser, (to be on the point of,) require no preposition before the following infinitive.


(To know how) to give seasonably is a talent which every

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