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Observations.-1. The conjunction si, if, instead of being repeated in a sentence, is more elegantly rendered by que, with the verb following in the subjunctive mood: thus, instead of saying,

Si vous venez chez moi, et si vous if you call upon me, and do ne me trouvez pas ; not find me at home.

It is more elegant to say,

Si vous venez chez moi, et que vous ne me trouviez pas, &c.

2. Que must also be repeated before every verb which it governs, in the same sentence. Ex.

Dès que je l'aurai vu et que je
lui aurai parlé, je vous le ferai
Quoiqu'il soit plus riche que vous,
et qu'il ait de meilleurs amis ;

as soon as I have seen him
and spoken to him, I will
let you know it.
though he is richer than you,
and has better friends.

always be expressed in

3. The conjunction que must French, contrary to the English custom of omitting that. Ex.

Je crois qu'il viendra; I think he will come.


If your father do not arrive to-day, and if you


want money, I will lend you some.-If you (should avoir besoin de voir, pres. see) your sister, and speak to her, &c.-If you study and


take pains, I assure you that you will learn the (French


language) in a very short time.—Whether you eat or drink, çais, m.

en o

sing, dance, or play, do every thing with grace and atten

tion.-If men were wise, and would follow the dictates lumière, f. of reason, they would save themselves many sorrows.

s'épargner, v.

-If you meet my brother, and he ask you where I am, do

not tell it him.-Though you have good relations, though

parent, m.

your merit be known, and you do not want

manquer de


your projects will not succeed without your brother's as

sistance.-As soon as I have

dressed myself and breakfuture comp.

fasted *, I will go to see him.-While you play and lose

your time, your sister is learning her lesson.

Play on the piano, while I read my brother's letter and

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answer him.-Beside that he never studies, and is always in fut. y

the country, he has not so much talent as his sister.—I will

explain to you every difficulty, (in order that) you may take courage, and learn well.-Though you should have the best Quand

master in England, and learn all the rules of the grammar, ď

if you do not put them in practice, you will never speak good French.-Whether God raise up thrones, or pull


élever a

abaisser, v.

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princes, or withdraw it (from them), and only leave them

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retirer, v.



their own weakness; he teaches them their duty in

de, P.


sovereign manner. -Your brother told me he was but twenty years old when he was made a captain; I think he


was better informed, and had more experience than you

*Turn, and that I shall have breakfasted.

have. I can assure you, that both our officers and soldiers


have behaved nobly, and performed prodigies of valour. se conduire


All verbs expressing an act, or a disposition of the mind, require the conjunction que after them, and it is never omitted.


Je pense que vous avez raison ;
Nous savons qu'il a refusé;

I think you are right.
we know he has refused.

It is most important to remember, that when these verbs express doubt, fear, apprehension, gladness, regret, the subjunctive mood must be used. It is also the case generally, when they express negation and interrogation. Ex.

Croyez-vous qu'il soit honnéte?
Je doute que vous le fassiez ;
Je ne crois pas qu'elle vienne;

do you believe him to be honest ? I doubt your doing it.

I do not believe she will come.

The particle ne is used before the subjunctive mood after craindre, and all others expressing fear, apprehension. Ex.

Nous craignons qu'il ne nous we are afraid of his betraying trahisse;



You wish him to pay you: he has no money, I am obliged

to lend him some every day.-I do not believe that your


de mother will arrive to-day.-She wishes you may succeed


in all your undertakings.-I fear she (will go away)

craindre, v.

s'en aller, v. without speaking to me.-I much fear he will come sooner


than you expect

n'attendre, v.

him. Do you not say you are surprised

that William has not spoken to you (about it).-For my part,


Quant à moi,

I am not surprised at it, for he (is always sulky).—Do you bouder toujours


think he will succeed and obtain the place * he aims at?

aspirer, v. If you believe him to be your friend, why then do you not follow his advice?-You must go to him, and assure falloir aller trouver

him, that you are very thankful


We do not fear + his coming.

for all his

If you see her, and she speak to you, do not answer her.


croire, v.


-Order her to do it.-Do you think it is possible for Ordonner que you to (bring it about) ?-It is just we should suffer, since

en venir à bout, v.


we deserve it. He (was afraid) lest you should come while craindre, v. que


he was gone out.-Our master has ordered that we should

sortir, v.


get up to-morrow morning early.-You did not think that lever penser

she wanted to deceive you when she told you that.—I vouloir, v.

wonder you should doubt it.—Do you think my mother étre surpris, v. douter en.

will let us go to the ball next week?


Were Mr. S. discreet and willing to undertake that affair, I would communicate it to him immediately. It will be valoir better for you to go and speak to him yourself, while he is mieux que

in town, because I have no doubt of his undertaking it ‡.—I entreprendre


douter que

*Turn, to which he aims.

When fear is in the negative, the particle ne is not used.

Turn, I do not doubt THAT he WILL UNDERTAKE it. (Pres. subj.)

am certain that he will satisfy you. Your uncle is very glad


you have written to your father. I will give you no rest, laisser de repos


unless you are reconciled with your mother.-I do not que ne s'étre réconcilié believe it is she who has done it. My brother is not well, que ce étre elle

and I doubt very much his coming to see us before next

spring. Do you think he is on the road ?—I doubt whether

en 60

he will come before next week.

1st. The verb to have, used in English after will, would, is not expressed, but the following verb is put in the subjunctive.

2d. When the sign of the future tense, shall, refers to the will of a person, and means I choose, I do not choose, do you choose, &c. it must be rendered in French by the present tense of the indicative mood of the verb vouloir, according to the number and person of its subject with the following verb in the subjunctive mood. Ex.

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is impossible. I will have your father know what you have

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he come.-Your jusqu'à ce que

mother would have you come directly; why do not you


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