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Y means to it, to them, in speaking of things; but is chiefly used in the sense of there, here, in reference to a place antecedently named.

Nous y mettrons un verre,
Elle y sera demain,

Ex.

we will put a glass to it.
she will be there to-morrow.

13. Yand en always are placed before the verb, except in the first and second person of the imperative affirmative. 14. When these pronouns occur with others in the same sentence, they follow them, en being always the last.

Il vous EN demande,

Je vous Y EN enverrai,

he asks you for some.

Ex.

I will send you some there.

15. Moi is never used before en; but oi is cut off, as, donnez M'EN, give me some.

ON THE SUPPLYING PRONOUNS, LE, LA, LES.

16. These pronouns are often used in French, to prevent the repetition of one or more words, or to supply their place. Ex.

Etes-vous la nièce de mon ami?

Oui, je LA suis;

Il est riche, mais je ne LE suis pas,

are you my friend's niece? Yes, I am (his niece).

he is rich, but I am not.

17. If the word thus rendered be a substantive, le, la, or les, must be used according to its gender and number. Ex.

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QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

What are pronouns ?

How many sorts are there?

What are personal pronouns ?

How many persons have they?

How many classes of personal pronouns are there?
What are they?

What is to be observed of se and soi ?

How are it and they rendered in French?

Where are personal pronouns placed in French?

Is there any exception ?

How often must the nominative pronoun be repeated? How are I, thou, he, and they, rendered in French? What is done if the pronouns, used in the same sentence, are of different persons?

What if they are of different cases?

When is the pronoun en used ?

When is y used ?

What place do y and en occupy in a sentence?

In what peculiar manner are the pronouns le, la, and les used?

How often must the objective pronoun be repeated?

EXERCISES ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

I. EXERCISE ON RULES 1 TO 4, p. 53 AND 54.

I love and adore the God of all goodness who created

adore

de

aime me. We too often forget the nous1 trop souvent1 oublions2

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old;

but it is well

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painted. The house which I have bought is well situated,

peint

que

ai achetée

située

but I assure you that it cost me much. The books

assure

que coûte me beaucoup.

Which is understood after the word benefits; but in this, and similar cases, it must be expressed in French, and translated by que.

which you saw in my library are good books; but they vites ma bibliothèque

que

are badly bound.

My hat is quite new; but it is too sont mal relié. Mon

tout neuf

trop

si était

large. Their coach is old; but it is as good as if it were grand. Leur voiture, f. vieux new. You speak of my cousin, do you know him?

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-I see her and speak to her (every day). - I find him tous les jours

vois

parle

trouve

more reasonable than his sister.-Believe me, go and

raisonnable

sa

Croyez

allez

speak to them.-Lend him your slate.-Your brother parler votre ardoise. votre

Prétez

bought yesterday a very good book, and after having read acheta hier après avoir lu it, he gave it to my sister.-I give you this penknife, but

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ce canif mais do not lend it to your little brother.-Send it to-morrow,

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II. EXERCISE on rules 5, 6, 7, and 8, p. 54.

I complain, and shall continue to complain, of the imprucontinuerai de me plaindre

me plains dence of your conduct, (unless I see) you follow conduite, f. à moins que je ne voie que vous suivez my advice. I believe you, and thank you (for it).—

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and

remercie

en

saw peaches, plums,

vímes

pears, and we gathered the finest.-A good dog pays

cueillimes

no attention (to those) people who ne1 aucune attention aux

friends nor foes, ni ennemis

are

gens qui ne sont

fait neither

ni

and declares war against those who déclare la guerre ὰ ceux

are troublesome by profession: he knows them (by their)

importuns par état

connaît

aux

clothes, their voices,

habits, à la voix

their manners, and keeps them at a
à leurs gestes
tient les ὰ

proper distance.-Your sister does not resemble you; convenable distance, f.

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ressemble

she is neither informed, nor anxious for information; she jaloux de s'instruire

instruit

neither reads nor writes. We neither love nor esteem

ne

lit

écrit.

aimons

Miss Turner; she (speaks ill) of every body.

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estimons

III. EXERCISE ON RULES 9, 10, AND 11, P. 54 AND 55.

Who (was calling) me?
Qui appelait me

It was not I.-The boy

Ce

wants (to speak) to you.—It is I, who am to be rewarded désire parler 6

qui dois

récompensé instead of him.-My father commanded the cavalry, and I commandait cavalerie, f.

au lieu

commanded the infantry. My brothers, sisters, and I,

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went yesterday to the concert.-You and your sister allámes

invité à dîner

are engaged to dine to-morrow with Mr. D.- How darest Comment oses thou answer thy master in so insolent a manner? thou répondre à ton de si3 insolent 1 manière2, f. whom he loves, thou for whom he takes so much pains? que pour qui prend tant de peine, f. It is I who wrote the letter; but it is he who carried it.— ai écrit lettre, f.

aime

a portée la. (It is neither) I, nor thou, nor he, who have broken the Ce n'est ni

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windows; but it is they who have done it.

fenêtre, f.

ce

ont

fait le.

IV. EXERCISE ON RULE 12, p. 55.

My brother (will send) them to you, or he (will bring)

enverra

apportera

them to you himself.-I asked yesterday a favour of

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our gracious king, and he granted it to me.-Have you accorda

bon

montre, f. dont

parlátes

2

1

bought the watch (of which) you spoke to me last week? acheté Yes, I have bought it.-Will you show it to me? Very achetée Voulez

montrer

me

willingly; my daughter (will go for it).-Emma, my watch ira la chercher

volontiers
is in the next room; bring it to me.
dans voisin

(Here it is), mother. La voici,

-Give it to me.— How do you know that he

Comment

vous savez1

house*? We showed it to him last Monday.

fimes voir

dernier2 Lundi1.

the book; carry it to them.-If they

ma mère. likes my

(Here is) Voici

ask a favour,

demandent

will you refuse it to them?-Where is your sister?

refuserez

She

is in the garden.-Take this fan and carry it to her.

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V. EXERCISE ON RULES 13, 14, and 15, p. 56.

ne vous

never (will consent) to it; and I neither will speak ne1-jamais consentirai2 ne1-ni3 veux2 parler nor write to him†.-Believe me, go and see them, do not ni écrire Croyez allez confide (in it.)—We have forced them to it.—I (will take) my fiez pas y brother thither.-He (will carry) them to you thither him

y

avons forcés

portera

mènerai

self.-Did you think of what you had promised me?

Avez-vous pensé à ce que

aviez promis

No,

Non

but I (will think of it).—It is a good book; we read excel

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lent things (in it).—Our orchards are very fruitful, we see

penserai y

chose, f. y

all sorts of fruits (in them). –

Since

fertile on voit those people have

sorte

fruit, m. y

Puisque

ces gens

Nos verger, m.

* Turn the sentence thus: that my house pleases him; que ma maison lui plaît.

The pronoun lui (to him) must be repeated before écrire.

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