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Ex.

ce que; by ce que, if what be the accusative; by ce qui, if it be the nominative to the verb. Je comprends CE QUE vous dites,

Nous savons CE QUI vous arrivera,

9. When this and that mean

I understand what (or that which) you say.

we know what (or that which) will happen to you.

this thing or that thing, this must be rendered by ceci, and that by cela. Ex.

CECI est bon et CELA et mau- this (thing) is good and that vais, (thing) is bad.

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

ON THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN.

What is a demonstrative pronoun ?

Mention the different classes of demonstrative pronouns. When is cet used?

When are celui and ceux used instead of ce and ces ? When are ci and là added to the demonstrative pronoun ? When are the English personal pronouns rendered by the demonstrative in French?

How is what rendered when it means that which?

How are this and that expressed when they mean this or that thing?

EXERCISES ON THE DEMONSTRATIVE
PRONOUN.

I. EXERCISE ON THE RULES 1 AND 2, p. 69.

This book has made (a great noise).-That history of fait beaucoup de bruit.

England is much esteemed.—The lady is my niece, and those

fort

admiré.

nièce

two children are her sons.-That man, that woman, and those

children whom you see

que

are foreigners.

étrangers.

walking along the river. voyez se promener le long de rivière, f. Take this apricot and this orange.-See abricot, m.

how those children are playing together.

comme

se jouent

ensemble.

orange, f. Voyez

II. EXERCISE ON RULES 3 to 6, p. 70.

She has brought her picture and that of her husband.—

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portrait, m.
library and that of the

bibliothèque, f.

mari

queen.

Your books, and those of your sister are torn.-I have found

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chambre, f. pouvez si and your sister's; but

my hat and my brother's in the room.-You may, if chapeau, m. you like, take your grammar voulez, prendre grammaire, f, leave mine and my friend's. Learn laissez so difficult as that.-I prefer this way difficile This room is much larger than that.—Which of the two

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She whom you saw at my brother's is not yet married.—

que

vítes chez

encore marié.

You punish him who is not guilty.-Men commonly

punissez

hate him whom they

haïssenti - que

ordinairement2

coupable. fear. She whom you hate craignent.

haïssez

is my best friend.-You have punished him who did not

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deserve it, and rewarded her who was guilty.--We ought

méritait

récompensé

devons

to pray for those who persecute us. Of all virtues that qui persécutent

which most distinguishes a Christian is charity.-This

qui le plus

distingue1

c'est

book and that which I lent you are the two best.-Those que ai2 prétés3 vous1

who seem to be happy are not always so.

qui paraissent étre

toujours

IV. EXERCISE ON RULES 8 and 9, p. 70 and 71.

I know what has happened.—Do you know what I think?

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fait peur

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-This pleases me; that frightens me.-May I know what

plaît

Puis-je savoir causes your grief, and sadness? Your father has chagrin, m. tristesse, f.

cause

(a great) friendship for you; for he never refuses beaucoup car ne jamais refuse you what you ask of him.

demandez

lui.

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You seem much

paraissez bien

Go and tell my dire à mon

Allez

father what has passed here; and do not forget what you

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have seen, and what you have heard.-Give me this, and

entendu.

take that. I prefer this to that.

prenez

préfère

OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

The relative pronouns are those which relate to a noun or pronoun previously expressed, which is called the antecedent. There are in French six relative pronouns :— qui, who, which, or that.

que, whom, which, or that.

lequel, which.

dont, whose, of whom, of which, from whom, from which. quoi, what.

où, d'où, par où, in which, from which, through which.

E

QUI AND QUE.

1. Qui, which is used for either gender or number, may, when it is not preceded by a preposition, relate to persons and things, and is the subject, or nominative, of the verb. Ex.

L'homme qui vous parlait;

Les arbres QUI croissent dans votre jardin ;

the man who was speaking

to you.

the trees which grow in your garden.

2. Que, which may also relate either to persons or things, is the object, or accusative, of the verb. Ex.

Le Dieu QUE j'adore;

Les livres QUE je lis;

the God whom I adore.

the books which I read.

3. The pronouns whom, which, that, are frequently understood in English, but must always be expressed in French. Ex.

L'enfant QUE vous aimez tant; the child you love so much.

4. Moreover, the relative pronouns qui and que must be repeated in French before every verb, though expressed only before the first verb in English.

Ex.

Le Dieu QUE nous aimons et the God whom we love and QUE nous adorons; worship.

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LEQUEL AND DONT.

5. It is a general rule that the relative pronoun should be placed immediately after its antecedent, in order to avoid ambiguity. When, from the nature of the sentence, that is not possible, and the use of qui or que, common to both genders and numbers, might leave a doubt as to the substantive to which they relate, the English relative pronoun must be rendered by lequel, which can leave no doubt as to its antecedent, as it must agree with it in gender and number. Lequel is thus declined:

SINGULAR.

MASCULINE.

PLURAL.

lesquels,

which, or whom.

Du quel or dont, desquels, or dont, of which, of whom, whose,

Lequel,

Auquel,

auxquels,

to which, or to whom.

FEMININE.

lesquelles,

which, or whom.

Laquelle,

De laquelle, or desquelles, or } of which, of whom, whose.

dont,

A laquelle,

auxquelles,

to which, to whom.

6. As has been observed above, lequel is used, instead of qui or que, only when the use of qui or que might create ambiguity. Ex.

Dieu qui a créé le ciel et la God who created heaven and terre; earth.

In the above sentence, qui following immediately its antecedent Dieu, there can be no doubt as to the word to which it relates; and to say Dieu LEQUEL would, therefore, be improper. But, in the following sentence,

C'est un effet de la bonté de la divine Providence, LEQUEL attire l'admiration de tout le monde ;

It is an effect of the goodness of divine Providence, which (effect) commands the admiration of all;

had qui been used, coming, as it would have done, immediately after Providence, it would have appeared as relating to that last substantive, and not to its real antecedent, effet; but by using lequel, which is masculine, like effet, there cannot be any ambiguity.

7. Whenever the English pronoun which, relating to animals or to inanimate objects, is preceded by a preposition, it must not be rendered in French by qui or que, but by lequel, duquel, &c. Ex.

Le cheval AUQUEL il donne à the horse to which he is boire m'appartient; giving some drink belongs

La table sur LAQUELLE VOUS

écrivez :

to me.

the table upon which you are writing.

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