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DONT.

8. Dont, which may relate to persons and to things, is used instead of duquel, de laquelle, desquels, which can never be used immediately after the substantive to which they relate.

Les livres DONT vous parlez; Ces dames DONT vous connaissez les aimables qualités ;

the books of which you speak. those ladies, whose amiable qualities you know.

QUOI, où, d'où, par où.

9. Quoi, meaning the thing which, can of course never be used when speaking of persons, and is always preceded by a preposition. Ex.

Dites-moi à quoi vous pensez;

Je ne sais DE QUOI vous vous plaignez ;

tell me what you are thinking of.

I do not know of what you complain.

10. Où, d'où, par où, which signify where, in which, to which, from which, through which, always relate to inanimate objects. Ex.

Voilà la maison où il est né; this is the house in which he

was born.

Dans les villes PAR Où vous in the cities through which avez passé; you came.

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

What are relative pronouns ?
How many are there in French?

When is qui used, and when que?

Which of these two pronouns is used as the subject, or nominative, and which as the object, or accusative, of the verb ?

Can the relative pronoun be omitted in French?
How often must it be repeated ?

When should lequel be used instead of qui?

When should dont be used instead of duquel, &c.
When is quoi used?

In what sense are où, d'où, and par où used?

EXERCISES ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

1. EXERCISE ON RULES 1-4, p. 74.

I know a man who (is to go) and see the

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read the letter you have sent me. The lady of whom

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dame

personne, f.

you speak is not handsome.-The person to whom I parlez wrote last year has answered me this morning.-He écrivis passée l'année1, f. répondu matin, m. Celui who was with you related to me (every thing) that had était a raconté tout ce qui s'était passed. She will not hear of the lady whom he passé. veut entendre parler

(is going) to marry.—Who was with you? It was a gen

va

épouser.

était avec

tleman whose name I know not *.

sieur

nom, m.

sais

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-The man whom I

caresse

sent to you was honest.-The man who caresses and ai envoyé flatters us is the most dangerous being I know. The letplus (32-3) étre que je connaisse.

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well written.—The woman to whom I have lent so much

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money, and spoken so often, is dead.- Servants are men

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Turn the sentence thus: OF WHOM I know not THE name.

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II. EXERCISE ON RULES 5—7, p. 74 and 75.

A sovereign who fears God, who respects his laws, and

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causes them (to be) respected; who, an enemy

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lois,

to war,

de la guerre,

loves peace and maintains it in his dominions; who always

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has the good of his people at heart, should,

if possible, bien, m. son peuple à cœur, devrait, s'il était possible, be immortal.-God, who has created us, who (every day) immortel. tous les jours grants us new benefits, commands us to love him.—The accorde (16-2) bienfait, m. commande

trade

commerce, m.

créés

to which you apply,

vous vous appliquez,

de

and the profession

profession, f.
- (Is that)
Est-ce là

to which he is devoted, are very honourable.

dévoué,

the horse for which you

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is a vice for which young people ought to have

gens doivent

Lying Mensonge, m. the greatest horror.-The table upon which you write is horreur, f. table, f.

écrivez

broken. The reasons upon which you ground your cassée, p. p.

raison, f.

satisfaisant.

appuyez

system are satisfactory.-Charity, the exercise (of which) systéme, m.

pratique, f. dont1 is so often commanded in the Holy Scriptures, is one of the

recommandé

noblest virtues.

Ecriture,

III. EXERCISE ON RULES 8-10, p. 76.

The child of which you (are speaking) is my youngest son.

parlez

-The sacred religion of which you (so boldly) attack si hardiment attaquez

saint religion, f.

T

R

VA

the principles, has been sealed (by the) blood of its divine principe a été scellée du

founder. Do you know of what your sister complains? fondateur.

se plaint -Could you tell me of what he is guilty?-(There is)

coupable? Il n'y a

The town to which he is

Pourriez dire nothing for which he is not fit. à quoi ne soit propre. gone is precisely the same place through which we passed allé précisément méme place, f. par

passames in (coming up) to London.-(This is) the door through

venant

Voici

which the thieves came into the house. The prison in voleur entrèrent dans

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There are five of these pronouns, which, as their name implies, serve to ask questions: they are qui, quoi, que, quel, and lequel.

Qui, who and whom, is used only when speaking of perEx.

sons.

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Que and quoi are used when

whom do you seek?
of whom do you speak?

quoi is always preceded by a preposition. Ex.

Que voulez-vous?

De quoi parlez-vous?

speaking of things; and

what are you speaking of?

what do you want?

Quel is always followed by the noun to which it relates, and with which it agrees in gender and number.

Ex.

what books do you choose?

Quelle personne voulez-vous

what person do you mean?

Quels livres choisissez-vous?

dire?

Lequel is generally used to distinguish one out of several

objects of the same nature, and agrees with it in gender and number.

Ex.

Laquelle de ces gravures pré- which of these engravings do férez-vous? you prefer?

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they?-Who was the first king of France? Pharamond,

fut

(according to) the opinion of the most respectable histosuivant

rians *.—Who can give credit to a young man who does peut ajouter foi, f.

not speak the truth?-Of whom (were you speaking) when dit

verité, f.

parlez-vous I came in ?-To whom did you lend my slate?-Whom do avez prété ardoise, f.

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suis entré? you seek?-Who told it to you?-From whom do you cherchez?

savez

a dit

faites-vous

know it? What (are you doing) ?—What do you say?— 6 dites? What do you ask of me?-One of your cousins is arrived 6 demandez cousin, m. arrivé from the continent; which is it?-An aunt of yours t

continent, m.

est-ce?

ouï dire

was ill last week; which was it? I have heard était malade dernière2 la semaine1, f. that two horses of yours were

tell me which.

lost;
étaient perdus; dites

My brother writes to me that two of your sisters (are going)

écrit

to learn French; which are they?

apprendre le Français;

6

6

*Turn, of the historians the most respectable.
Turn, one of your aunts.

vont

Turn, two of your horses.

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