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associated, more frequently toilet preparations, and sweets. vivid image of the Indian market at Durban, and the hum of voices, was experienced in one case. Another subject remembered a particular purple sweet, offered as a bribe to overcome some sulkiness, and a large constellation was visualized which could be relegated to an exact date (1907).

Sandalwood Oil. The odor of this essential oil was unfamiliar to a large number of the subjects, and the associative urge, as it were, was directed towards objects and events linked with substances of a similar nature, such as pencil (via cedarwood oil), or "a lump of camphor." One subject, who was tested on several occasions, gave no associative reaction the first time, and on subsequent occasions gave the first test or the laboratory associations. There was shifting of the affect from to -+and+ which returned to a final verdict of +. Subjects who had experience of Oriental travel, gave such associations as a street through an Indian bazaar, Singapore, or India. Less expanded associations were given in which figured objects, such as boxes made of sandalwood, or a sandalwood fan at home. subjects were reminded of flavors of some condiment.

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Terebene. The usual association was connected with the flavor of lime juice cordial, and expanded as well as contracted associations were recorded. The reaction word "Armistice Day," and symbolizing a very large association content, was given by one subject, who, on introspection, remembered an incident connected with lime juice as having occurred on that day. Associations via other terpenes were common. In one case, a sawmill in British Columbia and the sound of the saw was recalled, as it also could be on stimulation with pine or cedarwood oil. "Lime juice" or "lemon squash" were the usual association reactions, however, as were certain sweet-meats, and confectioner's shops.

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Tonka Bean. As has been mentioned before, this odor is a landscape smell," being that of a new mown hay, also similar to that of cherry-wood. The latter resemblance was responsible

for the association with the Manchester tobacconist, who had sold the subject concerned a cherry-wood pipe, and the association given by another subject of cherry trees. The former association may have been due, however, to the smell of snuff. Burnt sugar, marzipan, smell of almond skins, licorice, lavender, heather, and South African stinkwood, were given as associations. A naked Kaffir and his kraal were vividly visualized by a subject whose reaction word was "kraal." Owing to the widespread use of tonka bean or coumarin in the soap industry, "soap" and "washing hands" were among the associations given to this osmyl.

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Ferric Valerian. This unpleasantly smelling drug is liable to drag up unpleasing associations dealing with stercoraceous matThe usual association given in the experiments was Gorgonzola, or Limburger cheese. As with asafoetida and carbon bisulphide, some subjects were reminded of the lessens on "stinks" of their school days, which were, according to the subject, more or less visualized. One subject was reminded of a visit to a sugar refinery, another of an old vault, another of the odor of veratrin. An ash heap, a dead rat, cats, sour milk curd, fertilized fields, the kelp works near Oban, and locust beans in a granary, were among the associations given.

Vanillin. The usual content of associative reactions to vanillin were custard, chocolate, toffee, etc., and the majority of the associations were of a very contracted type. One subject visualized a meadow and flowers, another a bag of rice in a grocery store.

Xylol. Much that has been said about benzole also applies to xylol. The odor is familiar to students working in laboratories, and various university departments were visualized by different subjects. Motor car associations were also frequent.

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

A number of considerations arise from the experiments made, and while further experimental investigation is needed with regard to the various problems mentioned, it is possible to draw certain definite conclusions.

Each odor causes a feeling of pleasantness or of unpleasantness, an affect characteristic of the stimulus, and which may be expressed by the mean of the affective reactions given by an adequate number of subjects. The degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness may also be expressed by the percentage of the number of pleasant affects recorded.

The affect is dependent on many factors, partly connected with the osmyl, such an concentration and chemical stability, and partly connected with the subject, such as health, sex, and the affective tone of associations. These factors are to a large degree interdependent, as when catarrhal or catamenial and other conditions influence respiratory air currents and thereby intensity of the stimulus.

While (no sexual differentiation was marked in the reactions to the majority of stimuli used in the experiments, such a differentiation may be observed in the case of a few osmyls, such as cedarwood oil, camphor, menthol, musk, and valerian.

While each odorous stimulus possesses an affective power characteristic of the stimulus, each subject has an olfactory affective syndrome characteristic of the subject. Marked deviations in a subject, from the mean affect to any given odor, are symptomatic of special physical or mental (e.g., associative) conditions, transitory or permanent.

Although the sense of smell was not specially educated in the majority of subjects, a large number of associations revealing the correct appreciation of olfactory sensations were given.

It was found expedient to classify olfactory associative reactions in the six categories: synæsthetic, contracted, expanded,

indirect, egocentric, and doubtful. More detailed classifications based on the paths of association, or strictly conforming to Jung's classification of associations, are possible, but difficult (e.g., are some associations, like cedarwood oil, pine oil, sandalwood oil, not comparable to clang reactions in certain cases?).

The ratio between contracted and expanded reactions varies considerably in response to the different osmyls, as well as in the different subjects.

It is possible to use smell-word associations for analytic purposes in the same way as word-word associations, in suitable subjects. Owing to the pervasiveness of odors, suitable stimuli associated with most phases of human life could be selected to recall specific places, events, or persons, directly or indirectly.

An odor constitutes a more effective way of characterizing an object or place than a verbal description; however, the absence of a vocabulary of olfactory sensations raises difficulties.

Association time and psychogalvanic phenomena can be utilized with associative reactions to odors, as with reactions to words.

The purely affective nature of many associative reactions to odors is indubitable, and is indicated in the case of various associations usually interpreted in another way.

The fact that most olfactory associations are formed unconsciously makes their investigation one of some considerable practical importance, especially when linked up with the olfactory associations occasionally recorded in dreams.

It is desirable that the mean affect due to as many different odors as possible, as well as different intensities of the same odor, should be determined in different races, also the nature and extent of the associations formed.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1673 BOYLE, R. Essays of the Strange Subtility Determinate Nature Great Efficacy of Effluviums. London. Printed by W (illiam) G(odbid) for M (oses) Pitt, at the Angel near the North Door of St. Paul's Church. 1747 CHARISIUS, C. E. De olfactu deficiente. Gryphiswaldiae.

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