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being of a God is a truth of itself clearly and deeply engraven on the heart of every one, so it is not without good reasons, as formerly mentioned, that some have even doubted if such Atheists can exist without feeling their own consciences condemn them, for uttering such blasphemy. With Atheists also, we must class those who call this world, or any part of nature, God.

2. Polytheists. Such were the Heathens, who, by an inconceivable kind of error, believed in a plurality of gods, and assigned to each different parts of creation as placed under their government; thus, Jupiter was supposed chief in heaven, Pluto in hell, Bacchus they revered as the god of drunkenness, and Venus the goddess of sensuality and incontinence. And according to the words of Paul," They changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds and four-footed beasts, and creeping things." Rom. i. 23.

3. Epicureans. Those are usually called Epicureans, who, though they confess the being of a God, yet deny his providence; refusing to admit, that every thing in the world takes place according to the purpose and infinite wisdom of God's government; ascribing all to some blind chance, or to a certain kind of necessity which they call fate. There are also people who, in

words, confess the providence of God, but in deeds reject it; that is, who live as if they had not the least expectation of a distribution of rewards to the righteous, and of punishments to the wicked after death.

4. Sorcerers or witches, who, by the muttering of certain words, promise to confer happiness, or to remove disease; who, in an unknown way, work intrigues, and injure people by some sort of devilish agency, or by the traces on the hand profess to foretel events, or who, by hanging certain amulets or written papers about the neck, pretend to secure against any kind of evil, and who make use of many other devilish inventions to deceive the common people. But those do not less transgress against this commandment, who repair to them, and expect any kind of assistance from them. For all these things are contrary to the providence of God, and are like so many attempts to exclude God from the government of this world.

5. The superstitious, who make trifling remarks on certain objects or appearances, or ascribe to them some kind of powers. Such are those who interpret dreams, and believe in them; who lay great stress on accidental coincidences, and mark particular days, which are ominous for un

dertaking any important concern.* But those are most grossly superstitious, who place their hope of salvation in external acts; namely, who offer up long and hypocritical prayers, in order to be respected as holy, or who, though they pray without hypocrisy, have more fluency of speech than contrition of heart, and think, notwithstanding, that they thereby do God service. In the gospel, the Pharisees are considered as such. Those also belong to this class, who suppose that there is some kind of sanctity in wearing certain kinds of dress, or cutting their hair in a peculiar manner, or who make a difference between old and new books. Again, that superstition is not less destructive, which leads men proudly to place dependence on their own works. For though we ought, by all means, to do good works; yet at the same time we are to place our hope of salvation alone on the mercy of the Saviour.

Superstition is opposed to this commandment, because it leads men to place their hope on something else than on God and on his truth.

6. Heretics and Schismatics, who, to the truth

* The common people in Russia, as might be supposed, are much given to superstitious practices, such as those to which our author particularly refers, and are much under the influence of imaginary fears. They firmly believe in the fascination of the eyes, the agency of evil spirits, &c. to which allusions are even made in different parts of their religious services.


of God, add their own pernicious opinions; and by this means dishonour the majesty of God, and lead others from the paths of truth.

7. Those who reject the Holy Scriptures, or who receive them, and pry with a vain curiosity into them; that is, desire to know the hidden mysteries of God's decrees, the secret causes, and means by which he operates; or those who doubt of some parts of the faith, or laugh at certain pious, ceremonies of the church, and attach a wrong meaning to them. All such, in a certain way, reflect dishonour on the majesty of God.

8. Such as place their hopes in riches, in power, or in their own wisdom! Those also transgress against this commandment, who put their confidence in riches, or trust in their own or another's power, or depend upon their own wisdom or devices, and do not acknowledge the almighty providence of God; but flattering themselves in these human aids, promise themselves every kind of safety and happiness. And hence the prophet of God wrote: "Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord;" Jerem. xvii. 5. But in short, all those sin against this commandment, who entertain opinions which are clearly in opposition to the will of God, or who hold sentiments that cannot be reconciled with the honour of the di

vine Majesty, or who attach themselves to any creature, so much as to place in it their chief hope, and derive from it their supreme happiness.

The invocation of saints is not contrary to this commandment.

We do not transgress against this commandment, when we invoke departed saints; for this invocation, as understood by our holy church, is very different from the invocation of God. We call on the name of God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, as the Supreme Lord and Almighty Upholder of all things, and we address the saints as his servants, but who with him inhabit a blessed eternity. The invocation of God consists in the most humble subjection of spirit to the divine Majesty, and in founding all our hopes upon him; but the invocation of saints consists in uniting our prayers with theirs. In support of this, it is sufficient to observe, that the saints, while still upon the earth, prayed for others, and required others to pray for them, as we clearly see from Rom. xv. 30, "Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ's sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that ye strive together with me in your prayers to God for me." See also 2 Cor. i. 11. Phil. i. 4. Acts xii. 5. And now that they are

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