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change of which he speaks ? I venture to say more:– Those who can look at such passages and yet question the source, must be but little acquainted with the modes of quotation used by the Apostolical and evangelical writers.-" The “ LAST trumpet,” is an expression without meaning but as taken in relation to prior trumpets. The change of which the Apostle speaks was not to take place at the sounding of the First trumpet, or of any of the first six trumpets ; but at the sounding of the seventh,—THE LAST TRUMPET mentioned in the Apocalypse. To explain this passage in the Epistle to the Corinthians, as some have done, by “a great noise, to be made “ at CHRIST's descent, called the trumpet of “ GOD,” and to tell us that, “after the righteous " are raised, the trumpet shall sound A SECOND “ TIME ; on which account it is called here the last
trumpet, during the sounding of which, the
righteous who are alive on the earth, shall be “changed,” is to darken counsel by words ovid of knowledge. It is to give us pure unmixed nonsense, (for even very good scholars sometimes fall into this) instead of words that are in themselves so plain as to need, one would think, no explanation whatever.
The first Epistle having been written later than the Apocalypse, of course so must the second, which was still later. The direct allusions to
the Revelation in the second, are not, however, numerous. The 10th verse of Ch. v., “ We “must all appear before THE JUDGMENT-SEAT of “ Christ, that every one may receive the things done “in his body, according to what he hath done, whether “good or bad,”-bas evidently a reference to the GREAT WHITE SEAT of him from whose face the heaven and the earth flee away, when the dead, small and great, shall be JUDGED by the things written in the books, every man according to his works. Rev. xx. 11, 13. In this passage, as in Rom. xiv. 10, he employs for the Opóvos of the Revelations a term importing in itself the use to which the seat is applied, and also with the article-Toll Bópatos; and, besides employing the article, he points out the principle on which the judgment will proceed, in such a manner as to inform those to whom he writes, respecting the contents of the books out of which the dead are to be judged,-namely, that they record what every one hath done in the body, WHETHER GOOD OR
In 2 Cor. xi. 15, speaking of false Apostles, deceitful workers--ministers of Satan transformed as the ministers of righteousness—he says, their
, end shall be, xatà tà &pya autô, “ according to
. , κατά τα έργα αυτών, “their wor;ks;" which words are a verbal quotation from Rev. xx. 12 and 13, and therefore
be held as establishing the fact that, in ch, v. 10
of this Epistle, he had the same passage of the Apocalypse in his mind.
$ 9. The Apocalypse quoted in the Epistle of James.
As another proof of the early date of the Apocalypse the Epistle of James to the believing Jews, scattered abroad by the Roman wars, may be quoted. He reminds them that “the “ man is blessed who endureth temptation : for « when he is tried, he shall receive TÒN OTEPAVOV
tñs Swñs THE CROWN OF LIFE,” [ch. i. 12]: -what crown of life? “ That crown of life which
THE LORD HATH PROMISED to them that love “him." James does not here, by his own knowledge, as an inspired Apostle, inform those to whom he writes, that a crown of life is secured for those who endure trials, but reminds them, that the Lord, himself, had made this promise. Where then do we find such a promise made by the Lord himself ?- It is in the Epistle addressed to the church in Smyrna-“ Fear none of “ those things which thou shalt suffer.
Ye " shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful “ unto death, and I WILL GIVE THEE TÒ OTépavoy
tñs Swñs THE CROWN OF LIFE” [Rev. ii. 9, 10] —the very words employed by the Apostle James, and which prove incontestably that his
Epistle was written subsequently to the Apocalypse.
§ 10. Does the Epistle to the Galatians furnish any
evidence of its being of a later date than the Apocalypse?
The subject chiefly treated of in the Epistle to the Galatians, supposed to have been written before any of the other Epistles, (except perhaps those to the Thessalonians) hardly affords opportunity for allusions to the Apocalypse. There are, however, two passages in this Epistle which seem to have reference to the Revelation. The first is in ch.iv. 25, 26, where “ The Jerusalem “ which now is,” is put in contrast with “THE “ Jerusalem above." The presence of the article in this passage, which is omitted in the common version, indicates, pretty plainly, that the saints whom the Apostle addresses were already acquainted with the Apocalyptic Jerusalem—“the new Jerusalem, which cometh down
out of heaven,” (Rev. ïïi. 14)—“ the holy Jeru“salem, descending out of heaven from God,” (Rev. xxi. 10). The use of the article, I say, in this place, seems to intimate this; for it is not usual, in the New Testament, to employ the article when Jerusalem is mentioned. There are, indeed, two
passages which, at first sight, may appear to
present exceptions. In Luke xxi. 20, we read, in the Greek, “ When ye shall see the Jerusa“ lem compassed with armies, then know that the “ desolation thereof is nigh,” These words, it should however be recollected, were originally spoken in Hebrew (or in a dialect of that language). The name of the city, and the circumstances predicted respecting it, present a contrast in Hebrew which would have been put entirely out of view in the Greek, but for the Article introduced before the word “ Jerusalem.” The Apostles were informed, that The city of Peace (which is the meaning of the word “ Je"rusalem"] was to become the theatre of war, and a scene of desolation,-“ When ye shall see THE
CITY OF PEACE compassed with armies, then “ know that its desolation is nigh.” The presence of the Article was necessary here, the word “ Jerusalem" being employed not merely to indicate the city intended, but to mark, by contrasting with its name, the miserable state to which it would, ere long, be reduced by war, though now called the City of peace !—The other passage,
in which the name of this city occurs with the article, is in Acts v. 28; and there it seems to be employed for a reason similar to that which caused its insertion in Luke xxi.-—"Behold ye have filled THE Jerusalem (the