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proved in its proper place, means the Kings of the Earth, and particularly the Kingdoms of Europe-the body, or proper territory of Daniel's fourth beast. But if CHRIST be the Prince of the Host, Antiochus Epiphanes can by no possibility be the one who made himself his equal, cast down his sanctuary, and took away the daily [service] (Dan. viii. 11); nor can the "Sanctuary," and


Daily" alluded to, be the daily sacrifice, and the Temple at Jerusalem; and the whole of the fabric, that has been reared by the numerous commentators and expositors who have gone upon this system, must fall to the ground. But

to return

As the book of Daniel is the sealed book that was opened in the days of John, it follows that the same relation subsists between the writings of these two Prophets, as between a lock and its key. They are adapted to each other, and, if we would understand the words that were closed up and sealed till the time of the end, we must use them together; attending at the same time to what has been written upon the same subject by other Prophets and Apostles-for all scripture is given by inspiration of GOD, and is profitable for instruction (2 Tim. iii. 16). If we wish to profit by them, we must take the result which they may offer, even if it should reprove and censure what we may have been taught to re

spect and venerate. If we hearken to the reproof, we shall find that the same Scriptures also point out what is necessary to be attended to for the correction of those things which they condemn, and give ample instruction in every thing that regards our faith and practice. Instead of following the Jewish and antichristian interpretations of the Book of Daniel, which have been the principal causes that have prevented him from being understood, let us carefully attend to the explanation that has been given of this Prophet by "THE FAITHFUL AND TRUE WIT"NESS," as recorded in the Apocalypse; in which the seals are removed from that book; the time for which the vision, and the Prophet who saw it, were to continue sealed, having expired.


The Apocalypse being, as I persuade myself has been proved, quoted in every Epistle in which the subjects treated of could possibly admit of it, it follows, that this Prophecy was delivered · before these Epistles were written; nor is this a matter of trivial import, as viewed in connexion with rightly understanding the New Testament record. The very knowlege of the fact serves to account for many expressions

which seem abrupt, and as it were insulated, in the Epistles; and their import, for that very reason, not always very apparent. The quotations, in fact, often carry with them the supposition, that the reader will consult the context, in the book whence they are taken; for it would have been contrary to that plan of brevity which seems purposely to have been made to pervade the New Testament, to swell it out by large quotations from either the Old Testament Prophets or the Apocalypse. It is admitted on all hands, that when the Law or any of the Prophets is quoted, it is often indispensable that the context of the quoted words should be examined; and now that it is known to be no less certain, that the Apocalypse is in like manner quoted by the writers of the Apostolic Epistles, the propriety and necessity of attending to that book will be held to be equally indispensable.

I am well aware that, the circumstance of quotations from the Apocalypse being found in the Epistles of the New Testament having been scarcely even suspected, many may be disposed to question the fact entirely. Let such persons first take due pains to examine the alleged quotations. In the examination they may, perhaps, find reason to reject, as not sufficiently evident, some of the instances that have been offered; but I humbly apprehend that no person, acquainted with the antient modes of quotation

and reference, will be able to reject them all; and such is the nature of this evidence, that if but a single instance, out of the many that have been offered, shall be found to be, indisputably, a quotation from, or an allusion or reference to, the Apocalypse, the argument for an early date will remain unimpaired, and the fact incontrovertible, that the book was written at least as early as the reign of Nero, or more probably that of his predecessor.

I have supposed it possible that some of the alleged instances of quotation may be thought not sufficiently obvious to allow of their admission; but, on the other hand, I have to state, what I doubt not will be the result, a sufficiency being found to establish the general inferenceand one indisputable quotation is as effectual for this as fifty would be-that other passages will be found, by those who turn their attention to this subject, which the author has not noticed; for it would be singular indeed if, in such an inquiry, none should have escaped his search. The issue I doubt not will be, that, on this subject, much will yet be discovered by the diligence of future enquirers; nor will its important uses, in illustrating those passages in which such allusions are found in the Epistles, escape the attention of such as study the scriptures with an earnest desire to comprehend their true meaning.



§ 1. Of the Verbal Language.

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IN N reading the New Testament it should be constantly recollected that, though written in Greek, it is a record of doctrines and precepts delivered originally in Hebrew, or in a dialect of that language, and of events which had been predicted in the Hebrew scriptures; and also, that the principal speakers and actors were Jews. No new terms were invented; nor could this be necessary, in showing that what was now transacted was simply a fulfilment of Old Testament prophecies. It follows, that, in the Greek scriptures, (and this applies to the Septuagint translation so far as it gives a correct version of the Hebrew), other ideas, or shades of mean

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