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14. The creation of a new heaven and a new earth—the holy Jerusalem and its inhabitantsthe river of water of Life-the tree of Life-end of the curse-general invitation to the thirsty_ conclusion. (Ch. xxi. and xxii.)
From what has been stated, respecting the language of the Apocalypse generally, it seems evident, that every attempt to produce a liberal or free translation of it, must fail in giving the true sense. This will appear still more manifest, when several important particulars respecting some Hebrew terms and their Greek representatives, and the definitions which the amanuensis has given of some of them, but which for convenience are reserved for the dissertations that follow, shall have been laid before the reader. When a translator undertakes a free version, he assumes that he understands his author perfectly,-not only his facts and statements generally, but his sentiments, and every phrase or expression that he employs--so as to be able to transfuse his very mind and soul into the translation: but who can affirm that he so understands the Apocalypse! The translator who is desirous to make the unlearned acquainted with its real contents, should aim at a version as servilely literal as possible, however uncouth it may appear.
Nor will this be found so easy a task as some may imagine. In point of fact, for the execution of such a version of this prophecy--if well exes cuted,-more knowledge of the original is required than for one having a smoother and more elegant appearance.
Respecting the structure of the Revelation, it seems evident, from so many of the details pointed out in the above summary, as all com: ing down to the same period, namely, the great earthquake, which, in its consummation, is styled the great day of wrath--the
finishing of the mystery of God, when time shall be no longer the sounding of the seventh trumpet—the time for the dead to be judged--the pouring out of the seventh vial, (which are all so many different expressions of the same termination,) that several of the series must and do synchronise with each other throughout a greater or less portion of their extent. In strict language each new exhibition may be called a distinct vision in itself; and, therefore, though the different exhibitions and communications of which the Apocalypse consists, do, and must, from the very necessity of the case, succeed each other in the narration, yet these do not constitute, as has been imagined by many, one contie nued detail of an unbroken series of events, which are each to be considered as distinct, and
which are all to take place in the order in which they are written. On the contrary, it exhibits repeated orderly details of certain predicted facts, relative to the church of Christ and the enemies of this church; each detail affording precisely that degree of light which suits the propriety of the symbols employed in each respectively; and the whole so managed, by means of the accompanying narrative, that every succeeding exhibition throws light upon, and receives elucidation from, all that have preceded: the instruction which the prophecy thus yields, being as the shining light, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day.
DISSERTATION THE FOURTH.
ON VARIOUS NAMES BY WHICH THE CREATOR OF THE UNIVERSE IS DESIGNATED IN THE SCRIPTURES, AND THE PROPER MODE OF TRANSLATING THEM.
By “Names,” in the above title, I mean at
I tributive nouns-qualities, titles, epithetsmemployed as Names; for in the received sense of the term, the Creator has no proper name in the whole scriptures — excepting 9, [JEHOVAH]. Indeed, anciently, not only the names of persons, but of animals,-nay, of all objects, -were attributives.
The terms to which I mean principally to direct the attention of the reader in this Dissertation, are pubs, [Elohim,) and other names of the same family : but a brief examination, previously, of the way in which the translators of the Common Version have rendered other attributives, applied to THE SUPREME Being, in the writings of the prophets, may tend to throw some light on the more immediate object of our
enquiry. To these, therefore, a short section shall be devoted.
§ 1. Of certain attributive Nouns employed in the
Old Testament to designate the Deity.
Y'IN [abir,] strong, powerful, is applied to the most excellent or best of its kind, whether men or brutes, as, “the chiefest of the herdmen,”
CHIEFEST 1 Sam. i. 15; “ MIGHTY men, ,
Lam. i. 15; “STRONG bulls,” Ps. xxii. 12. It is also employed to designate the most excellent of all beings, “ THE MIGHTY ONE of Israel," Isai. i. 24; “The Mighty one of Jacob,” Isai. xlix. 26; and so in other places :-nor have the Translators any where rendered this word “ God," though in three places, Gen. xlix. 24, Psal. cxxxii. 2, and 5, they have, improperly, added the word God to the word mighty,-putting
Mighty God” for“ MIGHTY ONE.”
773 [tzur], to bind up, enclose, encompass, for security-hence bulwarks, fortresses, places naturally strong, as a rock, for defence or protection, is applied, figuratively, to whatever performs this office, and so to him who is THE ROCK of Ages, Isai. xxvi. 4; “Jehovah is my defence, yea, my powerful one, the rock of my refuge,” Ps. xciv. 22; “ He only is my ROCK,” Ps. Ixii. 2. 6;