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usage of those writers whose native tongue was the Greek. Dr. Wordsworth says (p. 132.) “ I “ have observed more, I am persuaded, than a “ thousand instances of the form ó Xpctòs xal “ Ogos (Ephes. v. 5.); some hundreds of instances « of the form o μέγας Θεός και Σωτήρ (Tit. ii. 13.); « and not fewer than several thousands of the “ form o Ocòs xal Ewryp (2 Pet. i. 1.); while in no

single case bave I seen (when the sense could “ be determined) any one of them used but only “ of one person."

In addition to what we have seen declared by the Inspired Penmen of the Epistles of the New Testament, respecting the Divinity of our Lord, I shall only add, that I have purposely avoided noticing other passages in which the same doctrine is taught, only because in these the more common modes of construction are followed in the original, and Translators in general have found no difficulty in rendering them correctly into the respective languages in which they have delivered themselves. I may also notice, in passing, that, in many places in the New Testament, where ecos (God) stands alone, and is therefore commonly understood to mean God the Father, the term, when the context is properly understood, will be found to have reference not to The Father but to our God and Lord Jesus Christ.

I should next proceed to examine some of the passages in the Apocalypse, which, when rightly translated, teach the same doctrine that we have seen established in the Epistles; but as these, and matters connected with them, will necessarily occupy a considerable space, it is thought better that they should form the subject-matter of a separate Dissertation.



It has already been noticed (in Dissert. iii. 9. 1.) that, by means of the Septuagint translation, a Greco-Hebrean idiom-the same that was employed by the Elders among the Greek Jews, in teaching the law of Moses and expounding the Prophets,--had been established and

perpetuated, and with which it is indispensably necessary that biblical students who apply themselves to the original should make themselves well acquainted; and that, in the Apocalypse in particular, we have this idiom, under a divine sanction, and adapted to the Christian dispensation. But there are other circumstances connected with the Apocalypse in reference to this idiom, that call for particular attention, because, at first sight, they seem to stand at variance with the rules of the Greek language.

On account of the Hebraisms (as they are called) which abound in this book, some critics

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have assigned it a Hebrew Original. This I have no doubt is the fact; but not in the sense in which they use the term. They conceive the Greek to be a translation from a Hebrew manuscript. I consider the Greek, on the contrary, to be the original writing, but, as is evident from the book throughout, to be, nevertheless, in a great measure, a real translation: that is, I conceive the language used in the Vision to have been the Hebrew; and the fact is, I think, proved, by the Hebrew terms which occur in the book, and to which the Amanuensis has frequently thought it necessary to add an explanation; and, therefore, in committing the things seen and heard to writing, and doing this in the Greek language, he was necessarily obliged to perform the office of a translator. In either case the inference is the same;-that those peculiarities which mark the Greek of the Synagogue should be found to abound in the Apocalypse.

The following causes also have contributed not a little to perplex critics, and therefore demand particular attention :

First.-Effects produced by the introduction of Definitions, and of translations or explanations of terms, employed in the narrative; and

Secondly.The employment of Hieroglyphical



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or Symbolical terms, of personal description, in some other way than as Attributive Nouns.

To these, and some other particulars connected with our present subject, it may be well to devote distinct Sections.

1. Of Definitions and explanations of terms

furnished by the Writer of the Apocalypse.

Of the introduction of Definitions I have already had occasion to take some notice in Dissertation iii. § 1., and more particularly when treating of the name JEHOVAH in Dissertation v. But it is necessary that we should here bestow some farther attention upon this

. subject, as the change of construction with which these Definitions and explanations are accompanied, has led Critics, who were not aware of their existence and use, to charge the inspired penman with violations of grammar. In Rev. i. 4. John wishes the benediction of grace and peace to the seven Churches in Asia, árò toll my και ο ήν και ο ερχόμενος,-rendered in the Common Version, From him which is, and which was, ,

, and which is to come.” The Greek reader will at once perceive that the Preposition anò, which never governs any Case but the Genitive, after being here followed by an Article in the Genitive, is followed by three Articles in the Nomi

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