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believe, who has taken a part in this controversy, his reasoning—for he has produced no new facts-shall be briefly examined.

“ There is (says he) no appearance or proba“ bility that the seven churches ..... had exist“ence so early as in the reign of Claudius ; “much less that they were in that established

and flourishing state, which is described or “ inferred in the Saviour's address to them. For “ Claudius died in the year 54, some years be“fore the Apostle Paul is supposed, by the “ best critics, to have written his Epistle to the

Ephesians, and his first to Timothy. But “ from these Epistles we collect, that the church

“ of Ephesus was then in an infantine and unElden? " settled state. Bishops were then first apWher fiz "pointed there by St. Paul's order.

But at “ the time when the Apocalypse was written,

Ephesus, and her sister churches, appear to “ have been in a settled, and even flourishing “ state; which could only be the work of time. “ There is, in the address of our Lord to them, " a reference to their former conduct. Ephesus " is represented as having forsaken ber former “ love, or charity ; Sardis as having acquired a "name, or reputation, which she had also for“ feited; Laodicea as become lukewarm, or in“ different. Now changes of this kind, in a whole

body of Christians, must be gradual, and the production of many years. Colosse and Hie“rapolis were churches of note in St. Paul's “time; but they are not mentioned in the Apo

; calypse, although they were situated in the

same region of Proconsular Asia, to which it “ was addressed. They were probably become “ of less importance. All these changes require

a lapse of time; and we necessarily infer, that “such had taken place between the publication “ of St. Paul's epistles and of the Apocalypse." (p. 9).

“ From the time of CLAUDIUS to the end of “ Nero's reign, we count only fourteen years. “ The date of the First Epistle to Timothy is

placed, by MICHAELIS, about ten years before “Nero's death ; by FABRICIUS, Mill, and “other able critics, much later. The Epistle to " the Ephesians has certainly a later date. So " that it may still be doubted whether changes “ which appear to have taken place in the “churches of Lesser Asia, between the date of “these epistles and that of the Apocalypse, could “ well be brought about in so short a period of “ time, as must be allotted to them, if we sup

pose the Apocalypse to be written in the time of “ Nero. But suppose this argument not to be “ insisted upon, to what will the concession "amount? The question in favor of the Apo

calypse having been written in Nero's reign,

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“ will gain no internal evidence positively in its favor.” (p. 13.)

Afterwards the same argument is thus repeated: “In the three first (first three] chapters of the

Apocalypse, the churches of Asia are described “ as being in that advanced and flourishing state “ of society and discipline reasonably to be ex“pected; and to have undergone those changes “in their faith and morals, which might have “taken place in the time intervening between “the publication of St. Paul's Epistles and the “concluding years of Domitian.” (p. 24.)

I will not attempt to discover what may be the precise ideas meant to be conveyed by this author, when he employs the terms, “established “and flourishing state,”—“settled and even flou

rishing state,"_"infantine and unsettled state," “-churches of note,”-“churches of less im

. “portance,”—“advanced and flourishing state “of society and discipline,” as applied to these churches; because they are relative terms, and he has given us no clew by which to discover the standard to which he refers them. The same remark applies, with equal force, to the indefinite way in which he speaks of time. His general inference, however, is intelligible; and it will be sufficient to show that it cannot be admitted.His whole argument may be reduced to this—“The “churches of Christ could not, so early as the

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“reign of Nero, depart in any measure from any " of the institutions or doctrines delivered to them “by the Apostles.” Why not so early? Why should it be less possible that the seven churches in Asia, mentioned in the Apocalypse, should fall into errors and evil practices, than for those churches which are reproved in the epistles addressed to them for similar departures from the truth, before the death of Nero ? " Changes “ of this kind, in a whole body of Christians,

must,” says Mr. Woodhouse, “ be gradual, ; " and the production of many years.”—That is, before the death of Nero a sufficient number of years had not elapsed for such changes ;-yet we see like changes in other churches, in the life-time of Paul, who died before Nero! May it not be asked too, why Mr. Woodhouse extends our Lord's censures to the whole body," marking the words also in Italics, to give them greater force ? Our Lord in fact commends them for many things; but the change, to suit Mr. Woodhouse's argument, must be one that would require “ many years," and therefore the whole body of the believers in Asia must be calumniated.—“Many years !" How many would this writer think sufficient for the establishment of Christianity in the world ? Few or none of the Apostles, who effected this stupendous work, except John, survived Nero.

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“Colosse and Hierapolis,” says Mr. Woodhouse, were churches of note in St. Paul's "time; but they are not mentioned in the Apo

calypse. .. They were probably become of " less importance.” Can no other reason be assigned for these Asiatic churches not being mentioned in the Apocalypse? How could they be named in a book written before they had existence? There were but seven churches in Asia at the time when the Revelation was given. The words ταϊς επτά εκκλησίαις, ταϊς εν τη Ασία-to the seven churches, to the [churches] in Asia (Rev. i. 4), by the common construction and usage of

the Greek, includes every church in the district

et named They are enumerated in the 11th verse; Iz leta hangoltantly

and, in the 20th, the seven stars are declared to be A . . άγγελοι των επτά εκκλησιών––the Angels of the

the church 表 She seven churches. These passages prove that the Home Apocalypse was written before there was a

church at Colosse or at Hierapolis ; for Mr. Woodhouse has not ventured to state that these churches had ceased to exist at the date he assigns to the Apocalypse.

As to these churches having “ probably be“come of less importance," Mr. Woodhouse must have been inconsiderate at the moment when he suggested this, as a reason for their not being named in the Apocalypse ; for he cannot surely believe, that the great shepherd and bishop


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