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Omega; that the Alpha and the Omega is JehoVAH THE THEos; that the Alpha and the Omega, is also the First and the Last, the one who dictated the epistles to the churches, namely Jesus CHRIST, who is the Root of David, The LAMB in the midst of the throne : the former is therefore the proper rendering of this and all similar pasşages; for all these titles and appellations belong to the same individual, and to apply them otherwise, their identity having been proved, is to impose upon the Writer a meaning not only foreign to his sense, but which makes him contradict himself. I am not disposed to deny that such expressions as εκ του θρόνου του Θεού και Toũ åpviou, ch. xxii. 1. (C. V. out of the throne of God and of the Lamb) have, at first sight, very much an appearance of two persons being meant; and, undoubtedly, were toll ápriou (the Lamb) an Attributive as well as tol coll, in this case, by the rules respecting the Article and the Conjunction, they would indicate two, namely, the Theos and the Lamb ; but we have seen that the Theos, and the Lamb, are terms wbich indicate the same individual; and we have seen that Theos (God) is an Attributive, but that the Lamb is a Proper Name—and that too of a different language, the Hieroglyphical--and for this reason, if for no other, these terms do not come within the rules. By the evidence that has been adduced, they both refer to one person, and therefore cannot, without error, be represented as two'; and one of the terms being a Proper Name, while the other is an Attributive, they come not within the rules, as already said ; and therefore, this, and similar expressions, must be taken as predicating two distinct things, respecting the one person in the mind of the Writer-He who is the
THE OMNIPOTENT, and who is THE LAMB. The words quoted speak only of one throne-à single seat -and therefore but one person can be intended. There seems to be another peculiarity in the expression : by the order of the words it is “ the seat of the Theos”--he sits on it,--but we may conceive it to be the LAMB's seat in another point of view,--namely, his property, being the Theos,-though, in his character of the Lamb, he is not said to sit on but to be in the midst of the throne,-and it may be, that the necessity of not violating the propriety of the symbol was what dictated to the writer this form of construction, predicating by two distinct propositions, interposing the Conjunction between them, what might have been made evident, as to identity, by placing the terms in apposition, without the xai interposed ; but in this case, as already stated, the LAMB would have been said To SIT on the throne, an affirmation which the Writer seems carefully to avoid, when speaking of
JESUS CHRIST in this character. From these considerations the reader will see that it is impossible to render these words directly into English, so as to leave no ambiguity, without introducing expletives. The sense, as to identity merely, would be perspicuously given by rendering xal, even—“out of the throne of God, even of the LAMB;" and, in xxii. 1. this mode of rendering has been resorted to by Scarlet, the only translator, of all I have seen, who appears to
I have perceived the identity of the person indicated by the two terms here employed (yet in other places he has made them two): but though this translation yields the required identity (required, because John applies these and the other epithets that have been mentioned, to the same individual) it is liable to the objection already stated—that of making THE LAMB to sit, as The LAMB, which John seems to guard against. By putting in the expletives, “who is,” this is avoided; but, notwithstanding, the other method falls in so much more smoothly with the idiom of the English language, that, on the whole, I am inclined to prefer it, provided the reader be once warned, that by rendering xai “ even," he is not to understand the LAMB as being thereby represented, in that character, as sitting. This being kept in mind, let us see what a different aspect some other striking passages
in this book will exhibit from what they do as commonly translated, if we render them, as we are bound to do, so as to preserve the same identity which was in the mind of the Writer, as to the personage to which they refer.
We have seen already that the Kathēmenos on the throne, and the Lamb in the midst of the throne, in Ch. v., indicate the same person, but in different characters. In o. 13., for, “ Blessing and honour and glory and power be unto him that sitteth upon the throne AND (xal) unto the Lamb,” as in all the English translations, read “ Blessing,” &c.“ be to the Sitting one on the throne, EVEN the Lamb.”—1 hope I shall not be understood as meaning to object to the words, “ unto him that sitteth upon the throne;" for I have no such intention, as these words really express the true sense of the original. All I intend by preferring. at present, “the Sitting one on the throne,” is to keep in the mind of the reader that in this and all similar passages, the Greek presents the term xa)nuevos, to which, as a term of frequent recurrence, we have been obliged to pay particular attention, being really employed as an Attributive.
In ch. vi. 15, 16. “the Kings of the earth, and the great men,” &c. say to the mountains and rocks, “ Fall on us and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne (the Kathēmenos on the throne) and from the wrath of the LAMB”
read “even (xci) from the wrath of the LAMB : for the great day of his wrath is come.” The Kathēmenos, and the Lamb, as has been so often repeated (for repetition is necessary on a point which has been so little attended to), refer to the same individual, the MESSIAH—“ He shall speak
to them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore dis' pleasure...... Bewise now therefore, O ye Kings: “be instructed, ye judges of the earth ..... Kiss THE “Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish : when his “ wrath is kindled but a little, blessed are all they “that put their trust in him," Psal. ii.
The passage in Rev. vii. 10. has been already noticed" Salvation be to our God, the Kathemenos (the Sitting one) on the throne, even THE LAMB”_"UNTO the Lamb” is quite improper, as the Greek has here no Preposition. In v. 11. the angels, &c. worship thE OMNIPOTENT (C. V. God), meaning still the same person ; and so throughout the whole chapter, the terms being changed to answer the exigency of the context, or to suit the character in which the Writer exbibits the personage to whom he applies the terms ó Osos, THE OMNIPOTENT (i. e. God);tò dovíov THE LAMB,--the throne of THE OMNIPOTENT,--the KathEMENOS on the throne THE LAMB in the midst of the throne.
In Ch. xiv. those who sing the new song are those following the LAMB wheresoever he goeth”—