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§ 5. Of Allusions to the Apocalypse found in the Epistle to the Philippians.

In the second chapter of this Epistle there is a most remarkable passage, which, as bearing on the question now under discussion, deserves particular attention. The Apostle, speaking of the amazing condescension and humility of CHRIST JESUS, in making himself of no reputation, taking on him the form of a servant, and the likeness of men, and submitting to death, says, in verses 9, 10, 11, "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted *him, and given him a name which is above every "name; that at the name of JESUS every knee should

bow, of things in heaven and things in earth, and "things under the earth, and that every tongue should "confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of "God the Father." So runs the authorised version; but, for "a name," which is the reading of the common Greek text, the best manuscripts read To ovopa," the Name :"-a mode of speech which instantly suggests the question, What name? and the text not only furnishes the answer, rò rèp Taν ovoμa, "the one that is above every name;" but states the design or purpose, for which "the Name” was given, viz. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ, πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ ἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχ bovicov, "in order that at the name of Jesus



every knee should bend, of heavenly, and earthly, "and subterrene (creatures)." Have we not in the words just quoted the πᾶν κτίσμα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς, every crea"ture which is in heaven, and on earth, and under "the earth," which are ascribed to the Lamb, as his property, in Rev. v. 13. ?' But what is "THE NAME above every name," which is given to JESUS CHRIST, in order that he should be thus worshipped?" The name above. every name" is the name JEHOVAH: and therefore the Apostle proceeds," and every tongue should


confess ὅτι Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, THAT JESUS "CHRIST IS JEHOVAH (common version Lord), "to the glory of God the Father." In this passage there appears to be a reference, in the first place, to Jer. xxiii. 5, 6. "Behold the days come, saith "JEHOVAH, when I will raise up unto David a "RIGHTEOUS BRANCH, and a King shall reign and


prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in

'In the common version-indeed in all the versions that I have examined-these creatures are made to ascribe to the Lamb the blessing and honor, &c. at the end of ver. 13; but the Greek text speaks otherwise. These creatures, as well as the power and riches, &c. of ver. 12, are enumerated among the things which the Lamb is worthy to receive. Those who speak in ver. 13 are still the " many angels "round about the throne;" but there is an ellipsis in the



"the earth: in his days Judah shall be saved, and "Israel shall dwell securely: and this is his name by "which he shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR "RIGHTEOUSNESS." It was thus predicted that THE MESSIAH should be called "JE"HOVAH ;" and Paul says that to him is given "THE NAME which is above every name." -"The Name," was among the Jews a very usual substitute for "JEHOVAH," both in speaking and writing; and when this term was used, it was always understood to mean JEHOVAH. The Book of Ikkarim, cited by Buxtorf under the article, (Jehovah) in reference to this very passage, says, "The scripture calls the name of the MESSIAH, JEHOVAH OUR "RIGHTEOUSNESS,' to intimate that he "will be a mediatorial God; by whose hand we shall obtain justification from THE




NAME; wherefore it calls him by the name "of THE NAME." The Jews held it unlawful to utter the word JEHOVAH, and for that name substituted Adonai (as is still their practice) when reading the scriptures; but, in comments or disquisitions, it was often necessary that they should make known, in some way, that the word occurred in the text, and in such cases they employed "THE NAME" as the substitute, sometimes adding, as Paul does in addressing the Philippians, "which is above every


66 name." Nor is it any objection to this view, that the Jews were superstitiously scrupulous in employing 'THE 'NAME' instead of 'JEHOVAH,' and therefore it is not to be supposed that Paul would, on any occasion, adopt the same mode of speech; for this was a manner of speaking acknowledged by the Old Testament scriptures, as may be seen in Levit. xxiv. 11, where mention is made of the son of an Israelitish woman who ". blasphemed THE NAME "and cursed;" and also in v. 16, where it is commanded that every man who "blasphemeth THE "NAME shall be put to death." In both of these verses our Translators have added, as a supplement," of the LORD," but in the Hebrew "THE "NAME" alone is used. It was, probably, from this passage that Paul (as well as the Rabbins) took this mode of expression, and, having so used it here, I am led to conclude,-when he says,

"and every tongue should confess ŎTI Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός—that he uses the word xúpios not for Adonai (lord), but for JEHOVAH; conformable to John's definition of xúpios when employed to represent this glorious name [see the Fifth Dissertation]. And here it deserves to be noticed, that the Apostle, writing in Greek, was laid under the necessity of adopting either some circumlocution to convey his intention, or a substitute in Greek for the Hebrew word JE

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נאם יהוה לאדני

HOVAH, owing to the difference of the alphabets of these two languages; and in fact he does both, employing, in the first place, an expression well known to the Helenists, and other converts from among the Jews, "the Name "which is above every name," and then the Greek term xúpios (kyrios), commonly employed not κύριος only by the authors of the Septuagint, to represent the name JEHOVAH, but also throughout the New Testament: thus the words with which the 110th Psalm commences, “JEHOVAH said unto Adonai," (c. v. The LORD said unto my Lord), are, in the septuagint, and in Mat. xxii. 44, rendered, EiTev i Kúpιos T❤ xvgio uou. It may also be noticed, in passing, that where our Lord teaches his disciples to say "Hallowed be thy Name," the Name meant is evidently JEHOVAH; and which Name is appropriated to THE LAMB in Rev. i. 8, by the Greek term xúpios, accompanied with a definition of its meaning-past, present, and future existence, [see Dissert. Seventh, § 6.]


The passage before us has also reference to Isai. xlv. 23. "I have sworn by myself, "That unto ME every knee shall bow, every tongue "shall swear:" where, let it be observed, the speaker is JEHOVAH; and the Septuagint renders the word yawn (swear), by oμoλoyýσεтαι, the same word that occurs in Phil. ii. 11, and

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