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NOV. 16, 1863.
OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENCE.
secretary, and, naturally enough, being a travelling LONDON, 17th October, 1863. lecturer, he sticks to the title as a handle to his name. The great event of the last fortnight, in our Other persons, besides the “three tailors of Tooley publishing world, has been the absorption of the Street,” have also been planning a commemorabusiness of the well-known publishing firm of tion of this Tercentenary anniversary, and wiseParker, Son, & Bourn, into the leviathan house of ly, all three, for there were three different assoLongman & Co. Since the lamented death of the ciations for the purpose, have united forces younger Mr. Parker, last year, the surviving part- and formed themselves into one, and of this ners have been, it is said, not on the most sociable one Mr. Hepworth Dixon is the honorary secrefooting. By the present arrangement, Mr. Bourn tary. Now, Mr. Francis went into the provinces receives a very handsome retiring pension, which and posted bills on the walls of country towns, inust be quite satisfactory to him, and Mr. Parker, calling himself “ Honorary Secretary of the TerSr., retires into private life, with the asset price of centenary Committee,” which gave just offence stock, copyrights, and goodwill. The copyrights to Mr. Dixon, whose enlarged views, at present, include some of the most valuable in the trade, have made him oblivious of the past. Mr. Dixon such as “ Fraser's Magazine," and Froude's “ His- forgot that it is just possible that Mr. Francis has as tory of England,” of which Messrs. Longman & Co., great a right to seek to rise in the world as anybody in the “Reader" of to-day, announce vols. 7 and 8 else ; for he should not be ignorant that when he as nearly ready to be published by them in Pater- was employed to write-well, never mind whatnoster Row, being the 1st and 2d volumes of the for Mr. Madden, Mr. Francis'status was quite equal " Reign of Queen Elizabeth,” in which Mr. Froude to his own, if not above it. However, Mr. Francis' has made great use of the Sinancas Manuscripts, posters led Mr. Dixon to tell all the world, in print, with all the scandals they contain about “Good that he was the only “Simon Pure," the only “HonQueen Bess," many of which are only the repetition orary Secretary," and that the Committee ignored of those of Nicholas Saunders and Cardinal Allen, all knowledge of Mr. Francis, whereupon Mr. Franthe latter of which appeared in Pollini's “ Istoria cis rejoined that his election was prior to that of della Schisma d'Inghilterra,” published at Rome in Mr. Dixon's, and dated from the room above St. 1594, and the former in the libeller's book, “ De John's Gate, where Dr. Johnson used to screen his Origine Schismatis Anglicani,” published several poverty and dine on scanty fare, whilst writing times at Louvaine before 1580, when Saunders died articles for Cave to put into the “Gentleman's Magaa miserable death, in Ireland, from famine, having zine." As the fun got fast and furious, up jumps & joined the rebellion under Desmond. Other valu- leader in the “Standard,” beginning:“ A Mr. Hepable copyrights are: Buckle's “ History of Civiliza- worth Dixon and a Mr. Francis,” and strange retion,” Stuart Mill's “ Logic and Political Economy," ports float about, attributing that leader to one of Brewer's “ Exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles ;" the first writers of the day, whose daughter has revarious works of Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, Archbishop cently made her debut as a successful novelist, but Whately, Dean Trench, Charles Kingsley, Dr. Whew- whose book was spitefully cut up in the "Atheell, Mr. Massey, Mr. Helps, and others; but it næum.” Mr. Dixon is off to the East, but whether remains to be seen whether the future publications or no this great A was the cause, deponent cannot of Dean Trench, Charles Kingsley, and other kindred swear. spirits will be intrusted to the publishers of Bishop In fiction, since my last, we have had a whole Colenso.
host of trash, and, also, a few novels worth men“Passages of a Working Life during Half-a-Cen- tioning. Let us give the first place to Dutton Cook's tury" is the title of Charles Knight's literary biogra- “ Leo,” which, taken with allowance, is really phy, which is announced by Messrs. Bradbury & a clever, well-written book. Anthony Trollope's Evans. Having first appeared, as an author, in his “Rachel Ray" was, it is said, written for the “Sun. own "Quarterly Magazine,” to which Lord Macau- day at Home," but it was not pious enough for the lay, in his youth, was a contributor, and, having "Tract Society" standard. His keen satire continoriginated the penny periodicals by the publication ually crops up, and, though the least interesting of of the “Penny Magazine," and the “Store of Know- his novels, “ Rachel Ray" is a very readable book. ledge,” Mr. Knight, in his old age, is amusing him- “Tara, a Mahratta Tale,” by Captain Meadows Tayself by placing on record bis experiences from that lor, is likely to become popular with all acquainted early period to the present, in which he has just with India and Hindoo manners. Parts of it are completed his “History of England," a work sui as humorous as that quaint book: “The Strange, generis, and well suited for the class of readers for Surprising Adventures of the Gooroo Simple, and of whom it has been written, if not quite satisfactory his five pupils, Noodle, Doodle, Wiseacre, Zany, and to the student of English history. A man who has Foozle,” but a deep purpose pervades the whole, worked so hard, and so well, for forty years, in con- which gives it a charm and interest of its own. Of junction with some of the leading men of his times, graver literature, I have nothing to add since my cannot fail to have much to tell, which will not only last, but announcements promise plenty of material interest the reader of to-day, but also furnish ma- for my next. terials for the future writer of the literary history Your obedient servant,
N. of the reign of William the Fourth, and Queen Victoria, the most prolific period, if not the best, of OUR CONTINENTAL CORRESPONDENCE. English literature.
Paris, October 2, 1863. Mr. Hepworth Dixon, the editor of the “Athe ALFRED DE VIGny and Jacob Grimm have departe næum," has only come off second best in an en- this life. One, like most of his countrymen, fell counter about the secretaryship to the Tercentenary prematurely; the other, like Humboldt, and de Anniversary Festival of Shakspeare's birth. It ap- Savigny, and Creuzer, and the majority of his felpears that a small fry of authors and artists have low subjects, gently declined during a period of formed themselves into a club, at a tavern adjoin- years which considerably exceeded the span of ing St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, and originated a threescore and ten years allotted man on earth, committee among themselves to raise subscriptions and fell asleep rather than died-for the article of for a Shakspeare Testimonial, to be inaugurated on death raises in our minds ideas of struggles, and the coming anniversary of the poet's birth. They pains, and troubles, none of which found place in appointed one of themselves, Mr. Francis, honorary Jacob Grimm's last hours. As the child falls to
NOV. 16, 1863.
slumber in the secure arms of its nurse, so gently, he was old enough to bear arms the Empire fell. so easily, so imperceptibly “mammy” herself cannot He obtained through family influence (two of his discover where consciousness ends and sleep begins, uncles had emigrated and fought in the army of so Jacob Grimm sank to everlasting rest.
Condé) a place in the Royal Life Guard, and when Count Alfred de Vigny was less blessed. Bed- the first of the Hundred Days drove Louis XVIII. ridden for two years, chained as it were to Death by to Ghent, Alfred de Vigny followed him to the fronknowledge that each minute might usher him into tier. After the imperial bubble burst, Alfred de eternity, the victim of inexpressible pains at the Vigny re-entered the Royal Life Guards (in which vital point, at the mistress of the whole frame, he young Alphonse de Lamartine was likewise en“faltered forth his soul" in long anguish. He died rolled), in which he remained until after the Spanas Frédéric Soulie, as Pradier, as de Balzac, as ish expedition (in which he in vain sought to take Eugene Sue, as Scribe, as Romieu died-of a dis- part); seeing that no laurels were to be gained dureased heart. He died in consequence of a refusal ing the Restoration, he resigned his commission, to recognize the canons nature has decreed for the and devoted himself to literature. conditions of human life: those diversions of labor It had long been his solace. Whenever garrison and recreation, of watchfulness and slumber, of duties left him master of his time, he would hasten fallow and cultivation, which must succeed each to one of the public libraries of Paris, and study for other under penalty of death, or of—which is worse hours. Like all great writers, he did not intentionthan death-madness. No men more than literary ally make letters his profession. He was forced into men should reverently harken to the warning Fes. his avocation by a power which, though slow, was tina lente which nature breathes from her slow oaks irresistible. His first effort in verse was a paraand slower mountains. Alfred de Vigny mocked phrase of some passages of St. Augustine's “Conat her ordinances. He jeered : “ The necessity of fessions,” which made a deep impression on him. prolonged sleep is a paradox invented by fools who The lines fell under the Abbé Gaillard's eye, who, have nothing to say, and by sloths who have no- delighted with them, showed them to Madame de thing to do. Is it not robbing one's self, is it not Vigny. The mother's heart throbbed with joy, and swindling life of precious moments, to sleep long she hailed her son with—“Alfred, you will be a hours ?" He laughed at the sun and its effulgence; poet, won't you, darling ?” The boy of thirteen for him the day had no hours except "the adored blushed : “A poet! I a poet, mother dearest? No silence of the dusky hours.” She wreaked cruel | -no-no-I mean to be a red lancer!" Glamis, Vengeance upon him.
and Cawdor, and Duncan, and Banquo still lived, Alfred de Vigny was born at Loches, on the and the boy could not conceive the catastrophe by twenty-seventh of March, 1799. He issued from a which they should all disappear from the theatre of noble family, illustrated on the maternal side by human affairs. The boy could not then know that gallant deeds on the ocean (she was a daughter of a Waterloo was at hand which would close all fields Admiral de Baraudin, and a near kinsman of Admi- of military distinction and restore to French letters ral de Bougairville, the eminent circumnavigator of a de Lamartine, a Victor Hugo, and an Alfred de the world, who discovered the fate of La Peyrouse, Vigny, who, otherwise, had, like many other French and brought back to France many relics of this ill- youths, proved mere food for powder-the modern fated sailor), and on the paternal side by gallantry Moloch to whom so much blood is ignorantly sacrion the field. His father was a retired cavalry cap- ficed to make scheming politicians and crazed fanatain, who took a gallant part in the Seven Years' tics immortal! In 1815 Alfred de Vigny wrote two War. He was denied a father's care ; the prema- imitations of Theocritus, which he entitled “La ture loss of her husband threw the whole burden of Dryade,” and “Syméta." He caught, young as he her son's education upon Madame de Vigny. She was, a considerable portion of the grace and ingenufaithfully discharged the duties ; for the excessive ousness of the original. These were followed (some zeal with which she pressed her son forward in his years, however, first elapsed) by “Le Bain d'une studies, although it may be censured as a lack of Dame Romaine;" "La Somnambule;" “ La Femme judgment, was evidence of the interest she took in Adultère ;” “La Neige;" “L'Ode au Malheur;" “La her boy's advancement. He was never out of mas- Fille de Jephté;"“Le Trappiste;" “La Prison," and ters' bands. When the school hours were over at 66 Dolorida." The more important poems, “Le M. Hix's Academy (long known as the best private Déluge,” “Moïse,” and “Eloa,” came afterwards. school in Paris), the Abbé Gaillard or the drawing- He drew them from the Bible which, all his life master (who was nobody else than Girodet Trioson), long, was his favorite book. “I knew the Bible by or the fencing-master or the dancing-master took heart,” he says somewhere. “This book and I were possession of him and kept him until late hours of so inseparable, that during my longest marches it the night. His mother excused herself, when never quitted me.” “ Eloa" is the brightest jewel warned by her family that she was killing the boy, of his poetical coronet; it is the story of the love of by sadly saying: “I know that excessive labor is an angel and a lost spirit; there are many beautiful wearing away his body and making his cheeks pale, passages in it. It and “
Moïse,” “Le Déluge,” and but now-a-days a man must complete his education Dolorida” were written in 1823; they were not before his seventeenth year, since after this age the published until some years afterwards. "Héléna,” Emperor takes him to his battle-fields, and books ** Le Cor,” “Madame de Soubise,” “La Frégate," and often his parents-never see him again." "Les Amants de Montmorency,” and “ Paris" were When one remembers Alfred de Vigny's youth and written between 1825 and 1831. His admirable manhood, the wonder is, not that he died so early, novel “Cinq Mars” (from which Sir E. B. Lytton but that he lived to attain his three-and-sixtieth drew something of “ Richelieu," as he states in the year.
preface) he wrote in the Pyrenees; he had asked When he was twelve years old he could read as a favor to be transferred to one of the regiments Thucydides and Tacitus, spoke English and Italian, ordered to Spain during the armed intervention of was a good historian, and no bad mathematician. France to restore the Bourbons to the Spanish In those imperial days mathematics were the royal throne; his regiment was, unfortunately for his road to favors, for the whole bent of education was tastes, placed in the reserve corps; to occupy the to make military men.
dull hours of camp life he wrote “Cinq Mars." Alfred de Vigny longed to achieve military dis Just before he published this admirable picture tinction. He was destined to the army. But before | (such it is, although Richelieu is painted with too
NOV. 16, 1863.
dark colors) of the reign of Louis XIII., Count Al- | suaded this generous lover of letters so to modify fred de Vigny married an English woman. She was his foundation as to make it bi-annual. A sum of a lady of gentle blood; one of her uncles was 3,000f. is now awarded, once in every two years to recently the Governor of Jamaica. French poets a deserving poet in distress. I should have menhave paid striking homage to the virtues of the fair tioned that in 1833 Alfred de Vigny wrote a one sex of England. You remember that M. de Lamar- act comedy for Mme. Dorval's benefit. The theme tine's wife was an English woman. Béranger was of “Quitte pour la Peur” was that the immoral deeply in love with an Englishwoman, and fled from husband has no right to punish the faithless wife. the town in which she lived to avoid marrying her This comedy was revived in 1849, to please the late -he was afraid of marriage. Chateaubriand would Mme. Rose-Cheri, who shone in the wife's part ; have married an English woman had he not been it was received with great favor, but, after running married. Gudin the painter's wife was an English- fifty-two nights successively, the government interwoman. Count de Montalembert married an Eng- dicted it on the score of immorality. “Chatterton" lishwoman. And as for the diplomatists, soldiers, was his last appearance as a candidate for dramatic and statesmen of France who have gone across the honors. Channel to find a wife, there is literally no end to He wrote in 1836 his “ Servitude et Grandeur Militheir number.
taires," to demonstrate how fatal military instituIt was not until after he had published “Cinq tions are to a nation's true glory and freedom. He Mars” that he met M. de Lamartine and M. Victor was elected a member of the French Academy upon Hugo. They were introduced to each other in the the death of Etienne. Count Molé replied to his drawing-room of M. Alexandre Soumed. They were ception speech," and was deemed by his friends to extremely cordial to each other, and the acquaint- have defended Richelieu's memory with unwarrantance ripened into an affectionate friendship, which able asperity. Alfred de Vigny refused to pay to lasted between all three of them until Alfred de Louis Philippe the visit of usage paid by every Vigny's death. As they parted that night M. Victor new member of the French Academy. In 1813 he Hugo said to him: “Je vous repète ici combien published in the “Revue des Deux Mondes” his j'aime Eloa :
Et fratres Eloze, lucida sidera." “ Poèmes Philosophiques," which were coldly reAlfred de Vigny's next effort was to introduce ceived by the public. Their reception discouraged Shakspeare to his countrymen. He translated him, and he never published anything more. It is “Othello," and it was played at the French Comedy, said he leaves a great many works in MS., which with a most wretched cast. The truth is, the will now be published. He labored incessantly, French cannot play Shakspeare. They shine, for chiefly at night; for years he never went to bed it suits with their genius, in comedy, which is but until sunrise. No author ever labored more assid. conversation in court dress, and at royal levee; uously than he did to secure authors' rights in but sparkling, babbling, shallow French nature their works; and a great deal of regret was felt in shows nothing but the arid sands at bottom when literary circles that his name did not appear in the it tosses by those passions which Shakspeare de- recent proceedings, held under the auspices of the picts. Alfred de Vigny translated the "Merchant government, for the better protection of authors' of Venice," but, though it entered upon rehearsal at property. He was then too ill to attend the meetthe Porte St. Martin Theatre, it was never played. ings of the commission chosen to inquire into this I believe the government vetoed it; I know not subject; but it was felt that some reference should upon what ground of reason. He appeared at the be made to the name of so long and zealous a laborer Odeon Theatre with an original drama on the 25th in the harvest of copyright. No man ever upheld of June, 1831 ; this was “La Maréchale d'Ancre” the dignity of letters more pertinaciously than he (Concini's wife, Leonora Galigaï). He next pub- did ; literary men were his brethren; his purse, his lished “Stello," and, at Mme. Dorval's request, he advice, his influence were always at their service. dramatized the episode of “Chatterton" which was It was he who procured M. Théodore de Bancontained in it. The piece had great success, which ville a pension of $300 from the government. It was was owing to the pathetic acting of Mme. Dorval understood that the government was anxious to give (whose power over the springs of tears greatly ex- him a seat in the Senate, but his work, “Servitude ceeded that possessed by any modern French ac- et Grandeur Militaires," is generally rumored to tress), and the then revolutionary excitement and have stood in his way. He had the misfortune to craving for some vague ideal. It was a generous lose his wife last year. He was most tenderly atdream of society, that is, of government playing a tached to her, and the pain of bereavement seemed parent's part to youthful poets, and giving them bread doubly acute from their separation at these last while they were mastering their lyre-as if poets hours. He was too ill to be moved to her dying had a blue spot on their foreheads to distinguish them chamber. No children issued from their marriage. from rhymesters of doggerel verse. The piece was He was buried without official speeches at the grave. revived four or five years ago at the French Comedy; There were few literary men at his funeral, and it is true poor Marie Dorval was in her grave, and those who were there were the unknown young men her successor did not fill her place; but even had of letters. This was shameful neglect; he made it the original Kitty Bell appeared I do not believe the a point of duty to attend the funeral of the humaudience would have found the piece less vapid blest man of letters, even though the funeral was and false. The play had one species of success held at a hospital gate. Alfred de Vigny was which is rarely attained by any except religious every way a noble man. works, and even by these rarely: it led to the foun M. Jules Janin has already appeared as a candidation of a purse for the relief of a distressed poet. date for his vacant seat in the French Academy. “I have just seen • Chatterton,''
," wrote M. de Maillé The length to which this sketch of the career of de la Tour Landry to one of his friends. “M. de the late Count Alfred de Vigny has reached comVigny is right. When a poet arises we should mands me to be brief in my mention of Jacob secure him his daily bread for at least one year, to Grimm's life. There is no need of great space to give him the time to try his powers, to exhibit tell the course he ran. German life is not that them, and to win public suffrage. I am just from chronic fever which Paris life is. He was born on my notary's office. I have instituted for that pur- the 4th January, 1785; he died on the 20th Seppose a foundation of 1500f., which the French Acad-tember, 1863, at Berlin. Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm, emy shall award." The French Academy per- two brothers, devoted their whole lives to the eluci
NOV. 16, 1863.
dation of Folk Literature, to the preservation and “The Ambrosian Library at Milan has just sufcomprehension of those legends of Germany in which fered a heavy loss. An entire case, containing the so much of the past comes down to us. He-or autograph correspondence of the Medici with the rather they, for the two brothers were but one, Dukes of Milan, from 1496 to 1510, has disappeared battled stoutly and steadily until they reached a from the very study of Dr. Gatti, the keeper of the vantage ground and won possession of it. Their library. All the Milan newspapers have spoken of most powerful enemy was August Wilhelm von this robbery, committed with strange effrontery and Schlegel, who regarded ancient German lore as his address. It is impossible to say what has become own estate, and challenged rudely enough the right of this packet of precious documents, but as it is of the new comers. They vanquished him, and probable they may be conveyed either to France extorted from him continual expressions of admira- or England for sale, I request of you to give, tion, especially for Jacob Grimm: “I cannot naine through your intelligent publication, notice to amahim without expressing my admiration for his great- teurs and dealers, who will certainly not suffer ness.” If Schlegel opposed them, they were sus- themselves to become accomplices in the theft. The tained by Frederick de Savigny, the eminent law directors of the Milan Library are determined to writer and historian, to whom, indeed, they owed attempt the recovery of the autographs by all legal the direction given their studies. Jacob Grimm, means. Please to apprise your brother of this fact. speaking of de Savigny, says: “What can I say of de He will be the first to aid ihe directors of the AmSavigny's course of lectures, unless it be that they brosian Library in their researches. M. Panizzi, had the most powerful interest to me, and that they of London, will be on the watch on his side. I exercised on my life and studies a decisive influence? have just been informed of this deplorable incident In 1802 and 180 I regularly attended his several by one of your constant readers, the Marquis d'Adda, lectures on The True Legal Method, Obligations, In- of Milan, one of the greatest amateurs in Europe, stitutes, etc. De Savigny then had the habit of whose library, certainly one of the most remarkable proposing to his pupils the solution of some difficult and richest in scarce and valuable books, I had the point of law. He would examine the dissertation pleasure of visiting last year. Please, etc. given him, and make a report on it at the next lec
F. FEUILLET DE CONCaes.” ture. One of my first dissertations was relative to the collatio, and I was fortunate enough to resolve An interesting law-suit has challenged our attenthe question. One may conceive the delight I felt, tion. It was brought by the heirs of the late M. and how much encouraged I was to labor. These Moquin Tandon against M. Baillière, the welldissertations brought me in social commerce with known publisher of works on medicine and natural de Savigny. I saw in his library, which even then science. M. Moquin Tandon was an able physician, was large and select, several works foreign to the an excellent naturalist, a writer of no mean powers, science of the law; among others, Bodmer's edition and his various talents won for him a seat in the of the German Minnesingers,' which were after- French Institute and in the Academy of Medicine, wards to occupy so large a share of my life.” and a professor's chair in the Paris Medical School.
Wilhelm Grimm says: “My brother and I were He was the author of a “Monographie des Sangues," admitted to de Savigny's house, and we had the and a “Histoire des Mollusques Terrestres et Flugood fortune to be advised by him. He made us viatiles de France," which have become standard understand the value of historical studies, and the works upon their respective subjects. He was the importance of method. These are kindnesses for author likewise of a “Zoologie Médicale," and of which I cannot sufficiently express my obligations, “Eléments de Botanique,” which met with a consias, were it not for de Savigny's kindness, I might derable sale. He delivered at the Marseilles never, perhaps, have given a good direction to my Athénée the first course of lectures on comparative studies. In how many things did he not rouse our physiology given in France. When de Candolle, interest! How many books did he not lend us from the eminent botanist, died, he designated M. Mohis library!"
quin Tandon as the fittest person in France to aid the After the death of William, Jacob Grimm retired former's son to terminate his “Prodrome du Règne in a great measure from the world, but he did not Végétal ;” the thirteenth volume of this great work abate his zealous labors. Death found him busily is almost entirely from the pen of M. Moquin Tanengaged in the preparation of his great “German don. You see this gentleman had attained a consiDictionary ;' and although he lived to see it appear derable position in the scientific world; he was an only as far as “Fromm," he has left so rich a store authority ; he was one of the grave dignitaries of of materials behind him as to make the completion natural science. But in his leisure hours he of the dictionary an easy task. He was a liberal amused himself by making excursions into the in politics.
domain of letters, and, to shield the scientific man Señor Rivadeneyra is on the eve of bringing out from the old reproach of being “ Jack of all trades, a new edition of “ Don Quixote,” edited by Señor, master of none,” whenever he went gypsying or rather Herr Hartzenbusch, a profound Spanish in the Republic of Letters, he would muffle himscholar, to whom the Peninsula is indebted for self up in a thick domino, and pull down a good admirable republications with notes of the works of mask over his face-the domino and mask of pseuCalderon and of de Vega. He has collated the donym. His first literary adventure was piquant. forthcoming edition with the first printed editions, A native of Provence, and familiar from his cradle and with some rare manuscripts to be found in the with the langue d'oc, his youthful spirits relieved Escurial and National Library of Madrid. The the exuberant flow in the composition of a mediaforthcoming edition will be printed in La Casa de val chronicle, “ Carya Magalonensis” (the MaguelMedrano, at Argamasilla, a village of La Mancha, onne Walnut-tree). Under this Græco-Latin title that is, in the very place where Cervantes was im- he published what purported to be a faithful conprisoned, and where he wrote his immortal work. temporary chronicle in romance language of the Señor Rivadeneyra has transported to this place a manners, habits, and customs of the barony of printing-office thoroughly appointed. The edition Montpellier, in the early part of the fourteenth ceuwill appear in two sizes, and will be an exceedingly tury. The imitation of the style, language, and insmall one; every copy will be numbered.
genious, credulous prolixity of those old chroniclers It is with very sincere regret I copy the following was so perfect as to deceive even M. Raynouard. note, which is going the rounds of the press here: (who had detected the forgery in the poems attri.
NOV. 16, 1863.
buted to Clotilde de Surville). The learned author yet sold in sufficient numbers to cover their cost of of the “Romance Grammar and Dictionary” wrote publication, complained of his “ deplorable idea" to M. Moquin Tandon a letter of the warmest con- to feign the discovery of “ Carya Magalonensis," a gratulations upon discovering so valuable a trea- work “without interest or value;" so M. Moquin
The work appeared with the name of André Tandon's first literary effort was one of those acts Fredol de Maguelonne as its author. Whenever which, after having been turned to profit by MacM. Moquin Tandon gypsied in literary fields, it pherson, the editor of Ossian's pretended poems, was disguised as André Fredol. He contributed eventually covered him with deserved ignominy. above a huudred articles to reviews and magazines These are too common frauds. Have we not seen and articles innumerable in the newspapers with an actor (Rowley) hissed from the London stage this signature. He published “L'Histoire d'une pretend to discover a manuscript play of ShaksSouris Ecrite par Elle-même” over this signature. peare, and a pseudo German scholar give us the At his death he left the manuscript of a work ready complete catalogue of the Alexandrian Library ?! for the press, and sold it to M. Baillière, entitled When M. Moquin Tandon was appointed to the “Le Monde de la Mer ;” and a question arose upon chair of botany in the Paris Medical School, this the author's name which should figure on the title- literary fraud raised great opposition to his appointpage. The family insisted that it should be André ment. “Le Monde de la Mer" was to have appearFredol. M. Baillière contended that it should be ed as an octavo volume of 400 pages, with 22 plates Moquin Tandon. Unable to terminate their differ- and 200 wood-cuts, and when suit was brought M. ences amicably suit was brought. This is the suit Baillière had expended on the book 22,859f. 450., whose proceedings I would report to you.
and was under contract for other work. It is folly The advocate counsel for the family showed to assert that M. Moquin Tandon desired to publish the great favor the pseudonym had enjoyed in the work anonymously. There is but one really modern times. Rabelais disguised himself under anonymous work in the world—“Junius's Letters:" his anagram Alcofry bas Nasier; the monk Folengo but when Ovid, exiled by a tyrant's caprice, sent placed the pseudonymn Merlin on the title-page of his melancholio verses to Rome, his naine all of his satirical or light works ; the Lancelot, known to every oneArnault, and other recluses of Port Royal published
Ut titolo careas ipso noscere colore, their excellent works of erudition and philology
Dissimulare velim, te liquet esse meum. under arbitrary initials ; so did the Benedictines M. Moquin Tandon's family offered to repay M. and Oratorians; the grave President Montesquieu Baillière up all the money he had expended on the would never have published “Les Lettres Persanes” work upon condition that he should annul the conhad he been unable to eclipse himself behind the tract between him and the late author. Just as the philosophical Usbeck; Walter Scott for years, in- cause was about to be left in the hands of the court deed until the Ballantynes' bankruptcy tore the of decision, M. Baillière accepted the offer, and the disguise off of him, was only “The Author of Wa- suit came to an end. It is reported that Messrs. verley;” Sterne reserved his name for his sermons, Hachette & Co. will publish the work. and gave Yorick to the title-page of his lighter You may have some idea of the immense number works; President de Brosses published his admi- of plays which are annually written here by the rable letters upon Italy without any name upon the number brought out at the different theatres; but title-page ; de Touy wrote over the Signature L'Er- had you any conception that we have twelve theamite de la Chaussée d'Antin; Mme. de Girardin trical copyists with ten scribes each, and together concealed herself under the pseudonym of the Vis able to turn out (and they rarely turn out less) comte de Launay; M. de Cormenin, under the 43,800 acts a year? pseudonym of Timon. Indeed, so wide-spread is Yours, sincerely,
S. the use of pseudonyms that Barbier says in the Discours Préliminaire of his “ Dictionnaire des
AUTHORS AT HOME. Pseudonymes :" “ It cannot be denied that good
AUTHORS IN BERKSHIRE.-“ It argues an insensiwriters have disdained to place their name on the bility,” in Elia's phrase, to enjoy Nature without first of their vigils, and eminent scientific men whom remembering Humanity; and whoever can dwell, we still have the good fortune to possess have pub- at this auspicious season, amid the radiant but lished nearly all of their works anonymously. It fading glories of an autumn in Berkshire, and not would be easy for me to demonstrate that in every sometimes think of the intellectual benefactors library composed of useful works at least one-third associated with the scene, lacks the very key-note of its contents are without the real name of the author.” to the harmonious festival of the year; for, in the Is there any crime in publishing a work anony- last analysis, it is as the inspiration of the poet and mously, or with a pseudonym? None whatever. the thinker that nature's appeal becomes signifiLalande, the eminent astronomer, said: “If an
cant and divine. It was in a gorge of these autumnanonymous work is successful, it owes its success tinted hills that Bryant's Murdered Traveller" to real merit; it is the odor of the violet which rises was found; and “Monument Mountain," a rocky from the grass-hidden bank.”. M. Moquin Tandon precipice, now wreathed with yellow chestnut was extremely anxious that his work “Le Monde boughs and crimson creepers, whose Indian legend de la Mer” should appear under the pseudonym of he has immortalized, looms in the distance. Near André Fredol. He wrote to a friend, M. Berthelot, by this delightful village is Fanny Kemble's once the French Consul at Canary Islands, with whom he beloved cottage ; while at different points among had written “ La Flore des Iles Canaries,” to excuse the hills and along the valley may be seen the himself for not dedicating his new book to him, the past or present abodes of those who “live in the former, saying: “When one does not sign his name and's language.” to a book, one dedicates it to nobody.” He wrote
At Sheffield, a little agricultural town just within to another friend: “I desire my pseudonym may the borders of Massachusetts, dwells the Rev. Dr. prove of good fortune to my work, and that it may Dewey, in the old farm-house of his childhood. be regarded in thirty years from now as a master- Since he retired from active professional life to the piece." The counsel of M. Baillière, after com- salubrious air and quiet sequestration of Berkshire, plaining that M. Moquin Tandon's “ Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques,” and “ La Zoologie Médicale,” counsel never hear of Michel Angelo's pseudo antique statue ?
· This is most unwarraptable severity. Did the learned and "Les Elémens de Botanique Médicale,” had not M. Moquin Tandon's was a mere bit of sport.