Images de page

women; child, children; day, days; night, nights; horse, horses; town, towns; river, rivers ; field, fields; country, countries ; sea, seas; rook, rooks; drunkard, drunk. ards; &c. A singular noun is one thing. A plural noun "is two, or more things of the saine kind.

5. CASE.-Case means the state, in which a noun is. A noun is in the vocative case, when addressed ; as, “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,” “Lord low are they increased that trouble me?” “Lord who shall abide in thy taber. nacle?” “Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations.” Jerusalem, Lord, Lord, and Lord in the above examples, neither possess anything, nor have they existences ascribed to them; neither do they operate, nor does anything operate upon them ; nor are they related to anything, but they are simply addressed; consequently, they are in the vocative cases. A noun is an agent, when an operation of any kind is ascribed to it; and a noun is an agent, when an existence in any place, or in any state, is to it ascribed. Agents are sometimes called nominative cases. Ex.:"the Lord reigneth; praise waiteth for thee;" * God standeth in the congregation of the mighty;" “ the Sun ariseth ;” my knees are weak ;”

a soft answer turneth away wrath.” In the above examples, "reignethis ascribed to Lord ; "waitethis ascribed to praise; “ standeth is ascribed to God; and "ariseth" is ascribed to Sun; reigneth, waiteth, standeth and ariseth are four operations ascribed to the four agents, Lord, Praise, God and Sun. Are is a plural existence in a state of weakness, and it is ascribed to knees: then knees" is a plural agent. A noun is in the possessive case, when it possesses anything. Ex. : “Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son; for he is like a refiner's fire, and fullers' soap. king possesses son, and fullers possess soap, in these examples: then king and fullers are in the possessive cases. The apostrophe is before the s for king, because king is an individual possessor; but the apostrophe is after the s in fullers, because fullers is a plural possessor; the like of which is always the case, except the plural end without 6, as in men for example; “men's hearts failing them


for fear;" men, a plural, ends without s, consequently the apostrophe is before the ș. The little mark put hefore, or after the s, is an apostrophe.

Let possessors have the forms of possessors. Nouns are in their objective cases, when actions fall upon them, and they are called the objects of the actions, which fall

upon them.

Ex.: "I hate vain thoughts ; ” hate falls upon thoughts in the above example; then thoughts are the object of hate, and therefore in the objective case.

Being agents and objects, nouns have the same form; but being possessor's, nouns have an apostrophe before the s for the singular, and an apostrophe after the s for the plural—thus to the singular noun being a possessor, an apostrophe and an s are added, but to the plural noun being a possessor, only an apostrophe is added, except when the plural ends without s, then an apos trophe and an s are added like the singular.

6. ADJECTIVES.—All chararacters, qualities, and quan: tities, defiinte, and indefinite, are adjectves. An adjective is always added to a noun expressed, or to a noun understood. Ex.: “He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar; ' cloudy is the character of the pillar ; "a wise son maketh a glad father ; " wise is the character of the son; “but a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother ;" foolish is the character of the son ; “the wicked man travaileth in pain all his days; " wicked is the character of the man; “surely men of low degree are vanity, and men of high degree are a lie; " low is the character of the former degree, and high is the character of the latter degree.

"Two women shall be grinding at the mill; one shall be taken and the other left; or two women shall be grinding at the mill, the one woman shall be taken, and the other woman shall be left; one is the quantity of woman understood, and other is the quantity of woman understood : “ if we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him; ” all is the quantity of men.

7. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.—Adjectives admitting comparison have three degrees. Every adjective admitting increase, or diminution, admits comparison. The degrees of comparison are, the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. Of adjectives of one syllable, the comparative is formed by ending the positive with r, and the superlative by ending the positive with t, -as, large, larger, largest. When the adjective has more than one syllable, the comparative is formed by prefixing more to the positive, and the superlative by prefixing most to the positive, or by prefixing less to the positive, and least to the positive; as, more wicked, less wicked most wicked, least wicked. Wicked is the positive degree.

8. POSITIVE DEGREE.—The quality of a thing, neither compared by expression, nor implication, with the like quality of another definite thing, is an adjective of the positive degree. Ex.: A good man out of the good treasure of his heart, bringeth forth good things; but an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart bringeth forth evil things." Good and evil are qualities; but in none of the above instances is either of them compared with a like quality of another definite thing; then good and evil are adjectives of the positive degree.

9. COMPARATIVE DEGREE.—The quality of a thing compared, by expression, or implication, with the like quality of a definite thing, and showing increase, or diminution, is an adjective of the comparative degree. Ex. : “And Ahab spake unto Naboth, saying, give me thy vineyard, that I may have it for a garden of herbs, because it is near unto my house, and I will give thee for it a better vineyard than it." Ahab compares the character of his vineyard with the like character of a definite thing, namely, Naboth's vineyard, and the character of Ahab's vineyard shows increase, when com,pared with the character of Naboth's vineyard ; then better is an adjective of the comparative degree. Naboth's is a good vineyard, but Ahab's is a better vineyard; positive, good; comparative, better; superlative, best. Having examined two dresses, of the one, you say this is the better, or this is the worse, or this is the neater, or this is the more beautiful, or this is the more handsome dress, and thus by implication, better is compared with good, worse is compared with bad, neater is compared with neat, more beautiful is compared with beautiful, and more handsome is compared with handsome. Neat and ncater are like characters, but neater shows increase of character ; good and better are like characters, but better shows increase of character; bad and worse are like characters, but worse shows increase of character ; beautiful and more beautiful arc like character, but nuore beautiful shows incrcase of character; handsome and more handsome are like characters, but more handsome shows increase of character. Also having been examined. the dress with whose character the character showing increase has been compared, is a definite thing; therefore, neater, better, worse, more beautiful, and more handsome, are adjectives of the comparative degree. Positive, mauy; comparatire, more ; superlative, most; positive, much; comparative, more ; superlative, most.

10. SUPERLATIVE DEGREE.—The character, or quality of a thing compared by implication, or expression, with two or more like characters, and showing nost increase or diminution of the character, is an adjective of the superlative degree. Ex. : “ That they may do evil with both hands earnestly the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward, and the great nian, hc uttereth his mischievous device, so thcy wrap it up." “ The best, or the best person of them, is as a bricr the most upright, or the most upright person of them, is sharper than a thorn hedge."

Best and most upright are adjectives of the superlative degrec, because they are characters having most of good, and most of upright, compared with the good, and com pared with the upright of two or more persons. The superlative degree of an adjective may not be used, when by implication or expression, fewer than three characters are compared with each other. As the character or quality of a thing necessarily adheres to a thing, so an adjective necessarily adheres to a noun, expressed or understood ; as—" the upright shall dwell in the land." or, “ the upright people shall dwell in the land."

Up right is thc character of people understood. And the perfect shall remain in it;" or," and the perfect people shall remain in it." Perfect is the character of people understoon!

11. A, A., and THE.-A distinguishes not the thing to

which a speaker alludes, from other things of the same kind. Ex.: “A fool is wiser in his own eyes, than ten men that can render a reason."

The, distinguishes a thing, to which the speaker al ludes, from other things of the same kind. Ex. : And Nathan said unto David, thou art the man."

A, points out the thing, to which allusion has, or had not been made. Ex.: And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines named Goliah, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.”

The, points out a thing to which allusion had been made Ex. : “David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling, and with a stone."

What is said of a thing not pointed out by a, an, or the, is said of every individual of that kind. Ex.: “Vain man would fain be wise." Man dieth and waisteth away.” “ Man giveth up the ghost.

A, and an point out nouns of the singular number, the points out nouns of both numbers. Ex.: A man,

the man, the men. An, points out nouns, whose first letters are a, e, i, o, and u.

A, points out nouns, whose first letters are the rest of the alphabet.

The, points out nouns, beginning with any letter. Ex. : An acorn, an eel, an inch, an onion, an uncle.

An, points out adjectives beginning with a, e, i, o and u. Ex.; An almighty friend, an evil heart, an ignorant man, an onerous task, an ugly creature.

A preceeds adjectives beginning with the other letters. Ex.: A bright star, a coarse piece, a dark night, a fierce dog, a good man, a high mountain, a just judge, a kind parent, a large town, a mighty king, a noble creature, a proud heart, a quick writer, a rough coat, a stupid person, a vile wretch, a wise statesman, a yellow dress, a zealous preacher.

The, preceeds adjectives beginning with any letter. Ex.: the amiable creature, the biblical student, the curious machine, the dangerous foe, the elementary les sons, the fine arts, the guilty rebels, the high look, the

« PrécédentContinuer »