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INSTANT FUTURE.

Is there or are there going to be? va-t-il y avoir :

CONDITIONAL.

PRESENT.

Should or would there be ? y aurait-il ?

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.

Should there have been? y aurait-il eu ?

INTERROGATIVELY AND NEGATIVELY.

INDICATIVE.

PRÉSENT.

Is or are there not? n'y a-t-il pas ?

PRESENT ANTERIOR, OR IMPERFECT.
Was or were there not ? n'y avait-il pas ?

PRESENT ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR PRETERITE.

Was or were there not? n'y eut-il pas ?

PRESENT POSTERIOR, OR FUTURE.
Shall or will there not be ? n'y aura-t-il pas.?

PAST, OR COMPOUND OF THE PRESENT.
Has there or have there not been ? n'y a-t-il pas eu ?

PAST ANTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE IMPERFECT.

Had there not been? n'y avait-il pas eu ?

PAST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF THE

PRETERITE.
Had there not been ? n'y eut-il pas eu ?

PAST POSTERIOR, OR COMPOUND OF THE FUTURE.

Shall there not have been? n'y aura-t-il pus eu ?

PAST JUST ELAPSED.

Has there or have there not just been ? ne vient-il pas d'y avoir ?

FUTURE INDEFINITE.

Is there or are there not to be? ne doit-il pas y avoir ?

INSTANT FUTURE.

Is there or are there not going to be? ne va-t-il pas y avoir ?

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Such other verbs as are conjugated in the third person singular are called impersonals ; but this denomivation, which was intended to characterize those verbs, is improperly applied,

for the word impersonal means what is without person, which is not the case with respect to those verbs, which admit of the pronoun il, and this word re. presents a subject understood, which must exist ; for verbs have been iptroduced to speak of the existence of subjects, together with an attribute. When we say, for instance, il pleut, it rains, it represents such a subject as heaven, sky, atmosphere, weather, &c.; and the expression it rains inplies that the heavens or skies issue or pour rain. Had the Romans, when they used the word pluit, been asked, what rains? they would have readily replied, cælum. The term impersonal can only be given to the infinitive mood, which is indeed without person. Wailly and Beauzée are, therefore, very correct in denominating the infinitive the impersonal mood.

FAMILIAR PHRASES

ON IL Y A, THERE IS, THERE ARE, SOME, MANY, &c. Is there a stage from Philadelphia (Y a-t-il une voiture publique de to Charleston ?

Philadelphie à Charleston ? There are now about twenty-five Il y a maintenant environ vingt

millions of souls in France, cinq millions d'anies en France. There are but nine in Spain. Il n'y en a que neuf en Espagne. There is a gentlemau below who Il y a un monsieur en bas (ou là wishes to speak to you.

bas) qui désire vous parler. There was a great fire yesterday. IL

y eut bier un grand incendie. Was there any body killed ? Y a-t-il eu quelqu'un de tué? No: but there have been above Non: mais il y a eu plus de vingt twenty people hurt.

personnes de blessées. There will be a grand display of Il y aura un grand feu d'artifice fire-works next week,

la semaine prochaine. There will be no bonfire on ac- Il n'y aura pas de feu de joie count of this news.

pour cette nouvelle. I thought there would have been Je croyais qu'il y aurait eu plus more people.

de monde. Some people have seen him. Il y a des gens qui l'ont vu. Some authors pretend that Homer Il y a des auteurs qui prétendent was born at Smyrna.

qu'Homère naquit à Smyrne. Many pbysicians are of this opi- ny a bien des médecins qui sont nion.

de cette opinion. Many lose our esteem on a close Il y a bien des gens qui perdent à acquaintance.

l'examen. Voltaire died thirty-nine years Il y a trente-neuf ans que Volago.

taire est mort. I did it ten years ago.

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y dix ans que je l'ai fait. Where were you six months ago? Où étiez-vous, il y a six mois ? I have not been there these five Il y a cinq ans que je n'y ai été.

years. She arrived there six weeks ago. Il y a six semaines qu'elle y est

arrivée. How far is it from Versailles to Combien y a-t-il de Versailles à Paris?

Paris? It is four leagues.

Il y a quatre lieues. How far is Lisle from Paris? Combien y a-t-il de Lisle à Paris ? It is one hundred and fifty miles. Il y a cent cinquante milles. How many regiments are there in Combien y u-t-il de réginiens dans the army?

l'armée ? There are thirty-seven.

Il y en a trente-sept. How many houses were burnt? Combien y a-t-il eu de maisons de

brûlées ? There were twelve.

Il y en a eu douze.

a

Nine years.

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How long have you been in Ame- Combien y a-t-il que vous êtes en rica?

Amérique?

N y a neuf ans. How long is it since you saw Combien y a-t-il que vous him?

l'avez vu? Three months.

Il y a trois mois. How long have you been learning Combien y a-t-il que vous appreFrench?

nez le Français

? I have been learning it these six ny a six mois que je l'apprends.

months.

Note. There is, or there are, may be rendered, in French, by voilà, as follows, viz. There is a fine shop.

Voilà une belle boutique. There are some handsome women. Voilà de belles femmes. There are some fine horses.

Voilà de beaux chevaux.

CONJUGATION OF THE

ABSTRACT AND AUXILIARY VERB, ETRE, TO BE.

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PRESENT.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
I am, je suis.

We are, nous sommes. Thou art, tu es.

You are, vous êtes. He or she is, il ou elle est. They are, ils ou elles sont. One, any body, &c. is, on est. We, people, they, &c. are, on est.

PRESENT ANTERIOR, OR IMPERFECT.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL
I was, j'étais.

We were, nous étions. Thou wast, tu étais.

You were, vous étiez. He or she was, il ou elle était. They were, ils ou elles étarient.

PRESENT ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR PRETERITE.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
I was, je fus.

We were, nous fúmes. Thou wast, tu fus.

You were, vous fútes. He or she was, il ou elle fut. They were, ils ou elles furent.

PRESENT POSTERIOR, OR FUTURE.
SINGULAR

PLURAL.
I shall or will be, je serai. We shall be, nous serons.
Thou shalt be, tu seras.

You shall be, vous serez.
He or she shall be, il ou elle sera. / They shall be, ils ou elles seront a

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PAST ANTERIOR PERIODICAL, OR COMPOUND OF THE

PRETERITE.

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