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atarrh (Gr. katarreo, “I flow down”), a disease of great frequency in temperate latitudes, especially in changeable moist climates in the winter season. § From its well-known connec

2. § perature, and other epidemic or :=:--------- atmospheric causes (see INFLUENZA), as also from the chill often experienced at the commencement of the disease, it is popularly called * fold—a term, however, perhaps somewhat less definite in its meaning than catarrh, which word is usually restricted to the case of a cold affecting the chest, and attended with discharge of mucus by coughing. A “cold in the head' is termed, in strict, scientific language, Coryza, we shall, howover, keep both forms in view in the present article. toh, or cold, commonly begins with a feeling of chilliness, which may or may not be attributable to external causes. Sometimes this is absent, there being only a sense of languor and indisposition; not unfrequently there is no sensation of an unusual kind, until a stuffing is experienced in the nostrils, or severe headache, or fioarseness with ough, or oppression of the breathing. It most ommonly attacks the nostrils first, and afterwards the air-passages leading to the chest. But the "ous membranes of the eyes and mouth are often

longs; and the disease may begin in any of these situations, and either spread to them aii or leave * or more, unaffected. When it habitually *cks the chest, without running, through its "nary course as indicated above, there is often * special cause of delicacy in the lungs, or **on litutional tendency towards Consumption (**) The affected mucous membrane is at first io red and swollen, and its secretion - i. ... But it soon begins to pour out a and * * first watery, but afterwards glairy of yellowish colour, or purulent. The early o disease are attended by considerable

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- CHAMBERS'S ENCYCLO PAE DIA

A DICTIONARY OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE

*cted, as well as those of the nose, throat, and .

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irritation of the surfaces affected, and probably no one of the little miseries of life is more prostrating and discouraging for the time than a bad cold in the head. The tendency of catarrh to attack the chest, and thus to pass into Bronchitis (q.v.) or Pneumonia (q.v.), or to lay the foundation of tubercular disease, constitutes almost its only danger. The treatment of a cold is commonly a simple matter, so far as the particular attack is concerned. But so many colds disappear in a little time without any special treatment that few persons, unless in delicate health, are willing to subject themselves to the confinement which is necessary to ive any form of treatment a chance of success. n the earliest stage a warm hip or foot bath, and a large opiate (Dover's powder especially) at bedtime, if followed by confinement to the house, and, in severe cases, to bed or to the sofa for a day or two, light farinaceous diet, and, if the stomach and bowels are at all loaded, a dose or two of some gentle laxative, will generally cut short the disease. In some persons it yields readily and quickly to spirit of camphor, five drops on a lump of sugar every half-hour ; , but in others no effect is produced. Free bathing of the nose with hot water may relieve the irritability and discharge. In most cases frequent sipping of warm soothing drinks—gruel, barley-water, black-currant tea, &c.—is grateful to the patient ; sometimes ice ives more relief. Some persons cure their colds § entire abstinence from food, and as much as possible from drink; others by spirit of mindererus and lo. some even profess to carry out the popular maxim, ‘stuff a cold, and starve a fever,’ and maintain that a good dinner and a tumbler of whisky or brandy toddy are the best specifics. That colds get well under all these methods need not be denied ; but multiplied experience has shown that ‘stuffing a cold' at its commencement is by no means to be commended. In the later stages, however, a more liberal diet than at first, and in some cases even a moderate allowance of

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stimulants, affords considerable relief from the feeling of depression that remains for a time on the subsidence of a catarrh. The tendency to this disease, when habitual, and when not dependent On § form of constitutional disorder requiring special means for its cure, is best met by the daily use of the cold bath, with frequent exercise in the open air, and proper ventilation of the sleepingapartment; also by friction of the skin, and by clothing which, without being oppressive, is comfortably warm. Exposure to draughts or sudden chills when the surface is perspiring is to be avoided ; but a close confined air habitually breathed in a workshop or bedroom is a fruitful predisposing cause of the disease. Catarrh or catarrhal inflammation is also used in modern pathology of an inflammation with the characters above described in any mucous membrane whatever; we have, for example, catarrh of the stomach, intestines, bladder, &c. Catarrhini, Old-World monkeys, with a narrow partition between , the nostrils, with a dental formula ####, and including two distinct sets of forms, (a) the lower ‘dog-like' apes (Cynomorpha), and (b) the higher “man-like' forms opomorpha). See APE, ANTHROPOID APE, ONKEY.

Catawba, a name of wines, both still and sparkling, produced in various parts of the United States from the Catawba grape, the fruit of a variety of the Vitis Labrusca, a North American and Asiatic species, from which have been derived most of the cultivated North American varieties of the vine. It is often said that it was ‘first found growing on the banks of the Catawba River' (in North and South Carolina); but it is on record that it was named by Major Adlum, who found it growing wild near Washington, D.C.; about i825. Catawba wines are of various grades, the best being of very decided value. The vine is extremely prolific, the fruit being large, of a deep coppery ... and very sweet. The Catawba grape does best on southern slopes, and on limestone soils. Its slight musky aroma pervades the wines made from it, and causes some connoisseurs to reject all but the very choicest of the vintage from the catalogue of first-class wines.

Cat-bird (Turdus or Galeoscoptes carolinensis), an American thrush, of the same group as the mocking-bird, which it resembles in its vocal powers. Its name refers to its mew like cry when disturbed. It feeds on many kinds of fruit and berries, also on worms and insects; builds a large nest of dry twigs, weeds, &c., without any attempt at concealment, in a bush or tree, often in the immediate vicinity, of human habitations, and shows extraordinary boldness in the defence of its young. It is a bird of passage, making its way northward in spring through Georgia and Carolina as far as, Massachusetts. In winter it migrates southwards, and strayed specimens have been seen as go rarities on the continental coast of the North Sea.

Catch, a species of musical composition peculiar to England, written generally in three or four parts, and in the canon form. . It was, originally synonymous with the Round (q.v.), but the name has been appropriated to a species of it to which an absurd or humorous effect is given by the successive entries of the parts, interrupting or distorting the sense of the words into a new and unexpected meaning. They abounded in the Restoration period, when, as may be surmised, they often had a more than questionable coarseness. Hayes, Webbe, and Callcott, towards the end of last century, were fertile composers in this form. The ‘Catch Club’ was founded in 1761.

Catchfly, the name of the genus Silene, of which many species produce a sticky secretion on the calyx, the joints of the stem, &c., which prevents the access of ants and other creeping insects to the honey, so preserving it for the bees or other o insects by which alone cross fertilisation is effected. Other Caryophyllaceae, notably Lychnis Viscaria, possess the same means of defence. The Nottingham Catchfly is Silene mutans. The un: related Diomaea muscipula is also sometimes called the Carolina Catchfly. See DIONAEA.

Catchpoll, a sheriff's officer or bailiff, who had power to arrest. From catch and poll, ‘the head; ' not as is suggested by the spelling o: from pole; though in various places a long pole was in use for catching or holding criminals o the neck, having at the end of it an iron collar, with a V-shaped oning, occasionally armed with spikes on the inside. Cateau, LE, or CATEAU-CAMBRESIS, a town in the French department of Nord, on the Selle, 14 miles ESE. of Cambrai. Pop. (1886), 9686. Here in 1559 the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was concluded between Henry II. of France and Philip II. of Spain. Catechism, any compendious system of teaching drawn up in the form of question and answer: It is derived, through low Latin, from a Greek word katached, which means to resound, or sound into one's ears; to instruct by word of mouth. Persons undergoing instruction in the principles of Christianity were hence called Catechumens (q.v.). Catechisms have long formed one of the principal means employed for popular instruction in the truths and duties of the Christian religion. The composition of the first catechisms was, in all probability, suggested by the ordinary oral instruction of catechumens, and was intended for the help both of teachers and, pupils. . It appeo to have been in the 8th and 9th centuries that, the first regular catechisms were compiled, of which that by Kero, a monk of St Gall, that of Notker i.abeo of St Gall, and that ascribed to Otfried of Weissenburg in Alsace, are among the most noted At later periods the use of catechisms prevailed chiefly among the opponents of the hierarchy,so among the Waldenses, the Albigenses, the Wyclifites, and, above all, among the Bohemian Brethren. The term catechism appears to have been first em. ployed in its o: sense among the latter. At an early period in the history of the Reformation the Reformers began to avail themselves of this method of popular instruction, and their catechisms became important instruments in that great religious movement. After Luther published in 1520 his primer of religion, ...i. A Short Form of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord’s Prayer, several catechisms were pre ared by leading Protestant theologians, that of Bren% (iş27–28) being the most notable. In 1525 Justus Jonas and John Agricola had been intrusted with the preparation of a catechism, and Luther's visitar tion of the Saxon churches in 1528 led to his preparing his Larger and Smaller Catechisms (15%), which found a place among the standards of the Lutheran churches. The flarger he meant to be for teachers, the Smaller for the people. The latter has been constantly reprinted, and is very extensively used at the present day. A number of catechisms were published also by the theologians of the Reformed churches. The most noteworthy are the Geneva and Heidelberg catechisms, an those of o (Basel, 1526), Leo Judæ (Zurich, 1534), and Bullinger (Zurich, 1555). The Geneva catechisms, Larger and Smaller, were

the work of Calvin. The latter was published in French in 1536 (Lat. ed. 1538); the former

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CATECHISM 3

appeared in French in 1541 or 1542 (Lat. ed. 1545), was speedily translated into various languages, and became an acknowledged standard of the Reformed churches, not only in Switzerland but in the Low Countries, in France, and in Hungary. The First Book of Discipline of the Scottish Church (1560) directs that the children be taught this catechism —‘which catechism is the most perfect that ever yet was used in the kirk’—every ‘Sonday” afternoon in the presence of the people. The Church of Geneva has set aside the authority of Calvin's catechisms. The Heidelberg or Palatinate Catechism is of greater importance, however, than any other as a standard of the Swiss Reformed churches. It was compiled by the Heidelberg theologians, Caspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus, at the request of the Elector Frederic III. of the Palatinate; it was published in 1563, was ;..." by several synods, and recognised as a symbolical book by the Synod of Dort in 1619, and has been translated into all the languages of Europe. It is the standard of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of America. A tercentenary edition of this catechism was ublished in German, Latin, and English at New ork in 1863.−King James said at the Hampton Court Conference that in Scotland “every one who was the son of a good man’ thought himself com: petent to write a catechism. The catechisms of the Scottish Reformation must have been numerous. The most popular, until it was superseded by the Westminster Catechism, was John Craig's Smaller Catechism (Edin isol edited by T. G. Law, iss3). —The doctrines of the Socinians are embodied in the greater and smaller Racovian Catechisms (Polish ed. Racow, 1605; Latin ed. 1609). Besides a catechism of 1660, in the form of a conversation between father and son, said to have been written by George Fox, the Quakers have that of Robert Barclay (1673), in which the answers are in the o: of the Bible, the distinctive peculiarities of the sect being involved in the questions. In the Church of Rome there were several Catechisms published in Germany and elsewhere before the Tridentine settlement of doctrine. A Scottish catechism, known as Archbishop Hamilton's, was issued by authority of a provincial council in 1552, and was ordered to be read in hurch, by the parish priests. But in 1563 the Council of Trent in its twenty-fourth session determined to compose and prescribe for the whole ‘hurch an authorised form of catechism, which the bishops were to have translated into the vulgar tongue, and expounded to the people by the curates. The work was, however, not carried through by the council itself, and Pius IV. inousted its completion to a commission of , four theolo Eminent scholars were also appointed to perfect its latinity, and when finished in 1564 it was once again submitted to a new commission under Cardinal Sirletus. It finally appeared in !ounder the title Catechismus Romanisex decreto oilà Tridentini Pii V. Pontina, jussa editus. Inform it is not catechetical, and it is addressed, not to the people, but to the curates as a guide to them in their instructions. It possesses very high *uthority, but is ill adapted for popular use. For lay teaching it has failén into désuetude, and has been superseded by various catechisms of more private origin. The most popular of these were * by the Jesuit Peter Canisius. His larger York, entitled Summa Doctrinae et Institutionis oistiana, was published in 1554, and the shorter (lo) reached more than 400 editions, and was in the schools of all countries. In the present day, as a general rule, each diocese posi. a catechism of its own approved by the bishop. In England the short ‘Penny Catechism' *used by authority of all the bishops in concert.

The catechism called the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church, was prepared about 1640 by Peter Mogilas, metropolitan of Kief, and received symbolical authority from a synod at Jerusalem in 1672. It is often called the Larger Russian Catechism, to distinguish it from the Smaller Catechism prepared by order of Peter the Great in 1723. These were practically superseded by the catechisms of Platon, metropolitan of Moscow (first published in 1762), and of Philaret, also metropolitan of Moscow, which has since 1839 been in general use in the schools and churches of Russia. Besides these cate. chisms, which have a historic interest, or are of importance from their symbolical character, there have appeared at all periods, since the Reformation, many others, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, some doctrinal, some controversial, some devoted to particular subjects, as the sacraments, or to particular purposes, as the preparation of candidates for admission to the Lord's Supper, some adapted to the mental capacity of very young children, &c. The opinion, however, has become revalent, that doctrinal abstracts are not the est form in which religion can be presented to the young, and the use of catechisms has accordingly been in some measure relinquished in favour of other methods of instruction. The catechism of the Church of England with which we are most familiar is the smaller one published in the Book of Common Prayer. It is in two parts : the first contains and explains the Baptismal Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Commandments, and the Lord's Prayer; the second explains the two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper. It is not known with absolute certainty who was the author of the first part ; o Cranmer and Ridley had the principal and in framing the questions and answers. It was originally o: forth in the reign of Edward VI., and condemned as heretical in the reign of Mary, and underwent several modifications from 1549 to 1661. It must not be confounded with Cranmer's Catechism (1548), which was a larger work, differently arranged, and probably translated chiefly from the Latin catechism of Justus Jonas. This first part of the church catechism was formerly spoken of as the Shorter Catechism. There was a larger church catechism compiled also in the reign of Edward VI. by Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, and published, together with the 42 Articles, in 1553, and it corresponds in some degree with the smaller work above described. It was afterwards revised and enlarged by Dean Nowell, and published in 1570; and, though never officially promulgated by the church, it has some authority, from having been approved by the lower house of Convocation. At the Hampton Court Conference (1604), the Shorter Catechism was considered too short, and Nowell's larger one ‘too long for novices to learn by heart;’ accordingly, at James I.'s suggestion, an addition was made to the former of that explanation of the two sacraments which now forms the second part of the church catechism. This is attributed to Dean Overall. The whole is a work much esteemed by all sections of the church as remarkable for its simplicity, truth, and catholicity. It, however, states sacramental doctrine in a way that is not very acceptable to the extreme Low Church arty. Hence, the Prayer-book put forth by the Church of Ireland, while leaving the catechism otherwise untouched, ingeniously interpolates an additional question and answer (based on Article XXVIII.), which, in the opinion of many, tends to modify the ideas suggested by the catechism concernin oly Communion. Modifications occur, too, in the Catechism of the American Episcopal Church. The rubrics in the Common É.k enjoin

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4 CATECHISM

CATECHUMENS

the teaching of the catechism in the church on Sundays and holidays after the second lesson at Evening Prayer; and the 59th canon contains a like injunction, imposing penalties on the clergy who neglect this. ... The custom of catechising in the church had fallen into almost universal disuse, but in many parishes it has been revived with excellent results.

The Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which, with the Westminster Confession of Faith, constitute the standards or symbolical books of the Presbyterian churches throughout the British empire and the United States of America, were compiled by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (q.v.): the Shorter Catechism ‘to be a directory for catechising such as are of weaker capacity;” the Larger, ‘for catechising such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the Christian religion.’ The Larger Catechism was presented to the English House of Commons on 22d October 1647; the Shorter on the 25th November 1647– and both, with proofs added, on or before the 14th April 1648; and in July 1648 both received the sanction of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland — the General Assembly, in the act approving of the Larger Catechism, declaring it to be “a rich treasure for , increasing knowledge among the people of God,” and that “they bless the Lord that so excellent a catechism has been prepared.’ The Shorter Catechism has, however, ". far more generally used for the urpose of instruction than the Larger, which has i. generally felt to be too minute in its statements, and too burdensome to the memory to be employed as a catechism. Even the Shorter Catechism is regarded by many, who substantially adhere to its doctrine, as carrying the statement of dogmatic theology beyond what is lo for elementary instruction, whilst it has been long felt to be unsuitable for the very young and the very ignorant, and its use is now almost always preceded by that of catechisms more adapted to their capacity. Its influence, however, has been very great in forming, the religious opinions, and in exercising and training the intellectual faculties, wherever Presbyterianism has prevailed; for it has been, and still is, in almost universal use among Presbyterians speaking the English language, and to a ...}. extent among Independents or Congregationalists both in Britain and America. In Holland also, a translation of it has been much used. It is very generally regarded, by those whose doctrinal views are in accordance with it, as an admirable compend of Christian doctrine and duty. “The older I grow,” said Carlyle- and I now stand upon the brink of eternity—the more comes back to me the first sentence in the catechism which I learned when a child, and the fuller and deeper its meaning becomes: “What is the chief end of man?–To glorify God, and to enjoy Him for ever.””—Catechisms without number had been issued by Puritan divines in England between 1600 and 1645. A large proportion of the members of the Westminster Assembly had previously pub: lished catechisms of their own. The authorship of the Assembly's Catechisms has been the subject of much debate, or at least the authorship of the first drafts of them; it being admitted that they were prepared with great care by committees, of the Assembly. But the probability appears to be, that their authorship is to be ascribed entirely to these committees; and that, like the Westminster Confession of Faith, they are thus the result of the joint labours of many. See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschächte des Katechismus (1857); Niemeyer, Collectio Confessionum (1840); Schaff's History of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols. New York, 1876; Lond. 1877).

Castechu, a substance employed in tanning and dyeing and medicinally as an astringent. The catechu of commerce is obtained chiefly from two East Indian trees (Acacia Catechu and A. Suma). The former is common in most parts of India, and also in tropical East Africa, and the latter grows in Southern India, Bengal, and Gujerat. Catechu is known in India by the name kót or kut. Cutch is another form of one or other of these names, and is a common commercial name. The trees are cut down when they are about a foot in diameter, and according to some accounts only the heartwood is used, but other reports say that the whole of the woody part of the trunk is utilised. The catechu is obtained by cutting it into small chips, and boiling it in water, straining the liquid from time to time, and adding fresh supplies of chips, till the extract is of sufficient consistence to be poured into clay moulds; or when of the thickness of tar, it is allowed to harden for two days, so that it will not run, and is formed into balls about the size of oranges, which are placed on husks of rice or on leaves, and appear in commerce enveloped in them. Catechu is of a dark-brown colour, hard and brittle, and when broken has a shining surface. It possesses an astringent taste, but no odour. It is a very permanent colour, and is employed in the dyeing of blacks, browns, fawns, drabs, &c. Ordinary commercial catechu or cutch is o: of catechu-tannic acid, which is soluble in cold water, and catechin or catechuic acid, which is nearly insoluble in cold but soluble in boiling water. The latter can be separated in the state of minute, acicular, colourless crystals. It is often adulterated with earthy substances, but its ready solubility in water and alcohol should at once show the }. of such by leaving them behind in an insoluble state. Areca or Palm Catechu, sometimes called Ceylon Catechu, differs wholly from the above. It is got from the ripe nuts of the Betel palm, which yield, by boiling, a black, very astringent extract, resembling true catechu, but of inferior quality. This substance is rarely exported from India (see ARECA, BETEL).-Gambir (q.v.) may be regarded as a kind of catechu. Terra

aponica, or Japan Earth, is an old name for catechu, not quite disused, given in mistake as to its nature and origin. About 6000 tons of catechu or cutch are annually imported into Great Britain from India.

Catechu'mens (Gr. katēchoumenoi, persons undergoing a course of instruction; see CATECHISM), the appellation given, in the early Christian church, to those converted Jews and heathems who had not yet received baptism, but were undergoing a course of training and instruction preparatory to it. They had a place assigned them in the congregation, but were not permitted to be present at the dispensation of the Lord's Supper, which from the end of the 2d century was regarded as a sacred mystery. The name Catechumens first occurs as the designation of a separate body in the time of Tertullian, and their distribution into different classes or grades according to their proficiency, is first referred to by Origen. The most famous catechetical school . the early church was that of Alexandria, which had Pantanus, Clement, Origen, Dionysius and others among its teachers. The only extant specimens of the ancient catechetical teaching (which was not necessarily by question and answer) are twenty-three lectures y Cyril of Jerusalem (348), and Áugustine's De catechizandis Rudibus.-The term Catechumens was afterwards employed to designate young members of the Christian church who were receiving instruction to prepare them for confirmation or for the Lord's Supper, and it is still often used in this sense. See DISCIPLINA ARCANI.

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