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atarrh (Gr. katarreo, 'I flow | irritation of the surfaces affected, and probably no

down'), à disease of great fre one of the little miseries of life is more prostrating
quency in temperate latitudes, and discouraging for the time than a bad cold in
especially in changeable moist the head. The tendency of catarrh to attack the
climates in the winter season. chest, and thus to pass into Bronchitis (9.v.) or
From its well-known connec Pneumonia (q.v.), or to lay the foundation of
tion with sudden falls of tem tubercular disease, constitutes almost its only
perature, and other epidemic or danger.

atmospheric causes (see INFLU The treatment of a cold is commonly a simple
ENZA ), as also from the chill often experienced at the matter, so far as the particular attack is concerned.
commencement of the disease, it is popularly called But so many colds disappear in a little time with-
a cold-a term, however, perhaps somewhat less out any special treatment that few persons, unless
definite in its meaning than catarrh, which word in delicate health, are willing to subject them-
is usually restricted to the case of a cold affecting selves to the confinement which is necessary to
the chest
, and attended with discharge of mucus

give any form of treatment a chance of success. by coughing. A cold in the head is termed, in | In the earliest stage a warm hip or foot bath, and strict scientific language, Coryza ; we shall, how a large opiate (Dover's powder especially) at bedever, keep both forms in view in the present article. time, if followed by confinement to the house, and, Catarrh, or cold, commonly begins with a feeling in severe cases, to bed or to the sofa for a day or of chilliness, which may or may not be tribut- two, light farinaceous diet, if the stomach able to external causes. Sometimes this is absent, and bowels are at all loaded, a dose or two of there being only a sense of languor and indisposi' some gentle laxative, will generally cut short the tion ; not unfrequently there is no sensation of an disease. In some persons it yields readily and unusual kind, until a stuffing is experienced in the quickly to spirit of camphor, five drops on a lump nostrils, or severe headache, or hoarseness with of sugar every half-hour; but in others no effect cough, or oppression of the breathing. It most is produced. Free bathing of the nose with commonly attacks the nostrils first, and afterwards hot water may relieve the irritability and disthe air-passages leading to the chest. But the charge. In most cases frequent sipping of warm mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth are often soothing drinks-gruel, harley-water, black-currant affected, as well as those of the nose, throat,

and tea, &c.-is grateful

to the patient ; sonietimes ice lungs; and the disease may begin in any of these gives more relief. Some persons cure their colds situations, and either spread to them all or leave by entire abstinence from food, and as much as one or more unaffected. When it habitually possible from drink; others by spirit of mindererus attacks the chest, without running through its and paregoric ; some even profess to carry out the ordinary course as indicated above, there is often popular maxim, "stuff a cold, and starve a fever, some special cause of delicacy in the lungs, or and maintain that a good dinner and a tumbler of some constitutional tendency towards Consumption whisky or brandy, toddy are the best specifics. 19.v.). The affected mucous membrane is at first That colds get well under all these methods need abnormally red and swollen, and its secretion not be denied ; but multiplied experience has diminished. But it soon begins to pour out a

shown that 'stuffing a cold' at its commencement discharge, at first watery, but afterwards glairy is by no means to be commended. In the later and of a yellowish colour, or purulent. The early stages, however, a more liberal diet than at first, stages of the disease are attended by considerable and in some cases even a moderate allowance of


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stimulants, affords considerable relief from the feeling of depression that remains for a time on

Catchfly, the name of the genus Silene, of

which many species produce a sticky secretion on the subsidence of a catarrh. The tendency to this the calyx, the joints of the stem, &c., which predisease, when habitual, and when not dependent vents the access of ants and other creeping insects on any form of constitutional disorder requiring to the honey, so preserving it for the bees or other special means for its cure, is best met by the daily flying insects by which alone cross fertilisation is use of the cold bath, with frequent exercise in the effected. Other Caryophyllaceæ, notably Lychnis open air, and proper ventilation of the sleeping. Viscaria, possess the same means of defence. The apartment; also by friction of the skin, and by Nottingham Catchfly is Silene nutans. The un. clothing which, without being oppressive, is com related Dionca muscipula is also sometimes called fortably warm. Exposure to draughts or sudden the Carolina Catchfly. See DioNÆA. chills when the surface is perspiring is to be avoided; but a close confined" air habitually

Catchpoll, a sheriff's officer or bailiff, who had breathed in a workshop or bedroom is a fruitful not as is suggested by the spelling catchpole from

power to arrest,

From catch and poll, “the head ;' predisposing cause of the disease. Catarrh or catarrhal inflammation is also used pole; though in various places a long pole was in

use for catching or holding criminals by the neck, in modern pathology of an inflammation with the having at the end of it an iron collar with a brane whatever ; we have, for example, catarrh V-shaped opening, occasionally armed with spikes

on the inside. of the stomach, intestines, bladder, &c.

Cateau, LE, or CATEAU-CAMBRESIS, a town Catarrhini, Old World monkeys, with

in the French department of Nord, on the Selle, narrow partition between the nostrils, with a

14 miles ESE. of Canıbrai. Pop. (1886) 9686. dental formula it, and including two distinct Here in 1559 the treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was sets of forms, (a) the lower dog-like' apes, (Cyno. concluded between Henry II. of France and Philip morpha), and (6) the higher man-like’ forms II. of Spain. (Anthropomorpha). See APE, ANTHROPOID APE, MONKEY.

Catechism, any compendious system of teachCatawba, a name of wines, both still and ing. drawn up in the form of question and answer.

It is derived, through low Latin, from a Greek sparkling, produced in various parts of the United word katēcheo, which means to resound, or sound States from the Catawba grape, the fruit of a

into one's ears; to instruct by word of mouth. variety of the Vitis Labrusca, a North American

Persons undergoing instruction in the principles of and Asiatic species, from which have been derived Christianity were hence called Catechumens (9.v.)

. most of the cultivated North American varieties of

Catechisms have long formed one of the principal the vine. It is often said that it was 'first found growing on the banks of the Catawba River’ (in truths and duties of the Christian religion. The

means employed for popular instruction in the North and South Carolina); but it is on record composition of the first catechisms was, in all that it was named by Major Adlum,

who found probability, suggested by the ordinary oral init growing wild near Washington, D.C., about struction of catechumens, and was intended for 1825. Catawba wines are of various grades, the the help both of teachers and pupils. It appears best being of very decided value. The vine is

to have been in the 8th and 9th centuries that the extremely prolific, the fruit being large, of a deep first regular catechisms were

compiled, of which coppery red, and very sweet. The Catawba grape that by Kero, a monk of St Gall, that of Notker does best on southern slopes, and on limestone

Labeo of St Gall, and that ascribed to Otfried of soils. Its slight musky aroma pervades the wines Weissenburg in Alsace, are among

the most noted. made from it, and causes some connoisseurs to

At later periods the use of catechisms prevailed reject all but the very choicest of the vintage from chiefly among the opponents of the hierarchy, as the catalogue of first-class wines.

among the Waldenses, the Albigenses, the WyclifCat-bird (Turdus or Galeoscoptes carolinensis), ites, and, above all, among the Bohemian Brethren. an American thrush, of the same group as the The term catechism appears to have been first emmocking-bird, which it resembles in its vocal ployed in its present

sense among the

latter. At powers. Its name refers to its mew-like cry

an early period in the history of the Reformation when disturbed. It feeds on many kinds of the Reformers began to avail themselves of this fruit and berries, also on worms and insects ; method of popular instruction, and their catechisms builds a large nest of dry twigs, weeds, &c., with became important instruments in that great religi: out any attempt at concealment, in a bush or

ous movement. After Luther published in 1520 tree, often in the immediate vicinity of human his primer of religion, entitled A Short Form habitations, and shows extraordinary boldness in of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the the defence of its young. It is a bird of passage, Lord's Prayer, several catechisms were prepared making its way northward in spring through by leading Protestant theologians, that of Brenz Georgia and Carolina as far as Massachusetts. (1527–28 ) being the most notable.' În 1525 Justus In winter it migrates southwards, and strayed Jonas and John Agricola had been intrusted with specimens have been seen as great rarities on the the preparation of a catechism, and Luther's visitacontinental coast of the North Sea.

tion of the Saxon churches in 1528 led to his preCatch, a species of musical composition peculiar paring his Larger and Smaller Catechisms (1529), to England, written generally in three or four which found a place among the standards of the parts, and in the canon form. It was origin- Lutheran churches. The Larger he meant to be ally synonymous with the Round (q.v.), but the for teachers, the Smaller for the people. The name has been appropriated to a species of it to latter has been constantly reprinted, and is very which an absurd or humorous effect is given by extensively used at the present day. A number of the successive entries of the parts, interrupting catechisms were published also by the theologians or distorting the sense of the words into a new of the Reformed churches. The most noteworthy and unexpected meaning. They abounded in the are the Geneva and Heidelberg catechisms, and Restoration period, when, as may be surmised, those of Ecolampadius (Basel, 1526), Leo Judæ they often had a more than questionable coarse (Zurich, 1534), and Bullinger (Zurich, 1555). The ness. Hayes, Webbe, and Callcott, towards the Geneva catechisms, Larger and Smaller, were end of last century, were fertile composers in this the work of Calvin. form. The Catch Club' was founded in 1761.

The latter was published in French in 1536 (Lat. ed. 1538); the former

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appeared in French in 1541 or 1542 (Lat. ed. 1545), The catechism called the Orthodox Confession
was speedily translated into various languages, and of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church,
became an acknowledged standard of the Reformed was prepared about 1640 by Peter Mogilas,
churches, not only in Switzerland but in the Low metropolitan of Kief, and received symbolical
Countries, in France, and in Hungary. The First authority from a synod at Jerusalem in 1672.
Book of Discipline of the Scottish Church (1560) | It is often called the Larger Russian Catechism,
directs that the children be taught this catechism to distinguish it from the Smaller Catechism pre-
-'which catechism is the most perfect that ever pared by order of Peter the Great in 1723. These
yet was used in the kirk'-every Sonday' after were practically superseded by the catechisms of
noon in the presence of the people. The Church of Platon, metropolitan of Moscow (first published in
Geneva has set aside the authority of Calvin's cate 1762), and of Philaret, also metropolitan of Moscow,
chisms. The Heidelberg or Palatinate Catechism which has since 1839 been in general use in the
is of greater importance, however, than any other schools and churches of Russia. — Besides these cate-
as a standard of the Swiss Reformed churches. It chisms, which have a historic interest, or are of
was compiled by the Heidelberg theologians, Caspar importance from their symbolical character, there
Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus, at the request of have appeared at all periods, since the Reforma-
the Elector Frederic III. of the Palatinate ; it was tion, many others, both Protestant and Roman
published in 1563, was approved by several synods, Catholic, some doctrinal, some controversial, some
and recognised as a symbolical book by the Synod devoted to particular subjects, as the sacraments,
of Dort in 1619, and has been translated into all or to particular purposes, as the preparation of can-
the languages of Europe. It is the standard of the didates for admission to the Lord's Supper, some
Dutch and German Reformed churches of America. | adapted to the mental capacity of very young
A tercentenary edition of this catechism was children, &c. The opinion, however, has become
published in German, Latin, and English at New prevalent, that doctrinal abstracts are not the
York in 1863.--King James said at the Hampton | best form in which religion can be presented to
Court Conference that in Scotland every one who | the young, and the use of catechisms has accord-
was the son of a good man' thought himself com ingly been in some measure relinquished in favour
petent to write a catechism, The catechisms of of other methods of instruction.
the Scottish Reformation must have been numerous. The catechism of the Church of England with
The most popular, until it was superseded by the which we are most familiar is the smaller one
Westminster Catechism, was John Craig's Smaller published in the Book of Common Prayer. It is
Catechism (Edin. 1591 ; edited by T. G Law, 1883). in two parts: the first contains and explains the
- The doctrines of the Socinians are embodied in Baptismal Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Com-
the greater and smaller Racovian Catechisms mandments, and the Lord's Prayer; the second
(Polish ed. Racow, 1605; Latin ed. 1609). Besides explains the two sacraments, Baptism and the
a catechism of 1660, in the form of a conversation Lord's Supper. It is not known with absolute
between father and son, said to have been written certainty who was the author of the first part;
by George Fox, the Quakers have that of Robert probably Cranmer and Ridley had the principal
Barclay (1673), in which the answers are in the hand in framing the questions and answers. It
language of the Bible, the distinctive peculiarities was originally put forth in the reign of Edward VI.,
of the sect being involved in the questions.

and condemned as heretical in the reign of Mary, In the Church of Rome there were several and underwent several modifications from 1549 to catechisms published in Germany and elsewhere | 1661. It must not be confounded with Cranmer's before the Tridentine settlement of doctrine. A Catechism (1548), which was a larger work, differScottish catechism, known as Archbishop Hamil. ently arranged, and probably translated chiefly from ton's, was issued by authority of a provincial the Latin catechism of Justus Jonas. This first part council in 1552, and was ordered to be read in of the church catechism was formerly spoken of as church by the parish priests. But in 1563 the

the Shorter Catechism. There was a larger church Council of Trent in its twenty-fourth session catechism compiled also in the reign of Edward determined to compose and prescribe for the whole VI. by Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, and pubchurch an authorised form of catechism, which the lished, together with the 42 Articles, in 1553, and it bishops were to have translated into the vulgar corresponds in some degree with the smaller work tongue, and expounded to the people by the above described. It was afterwards revised and curates. The work was, however, not carried enlarged by Dean Nowell, and published in 1570; through by the council itself, and Pius IV. in- and, though never officially promulgated by the trusted its completion to a commission of four church, it has some authority from having been theologians. Eminent scholars were also appointed approved by the lower house of Convocation. At to perfect its latinity, and when finished in 1564 the Hampton Court Conference (1604), the Shorter it was once again submitted to a new commission Catechism was considered too short, and Nowell's under Cardinal Sirletus. It finally appeared in larger one “too long for novices to learn by heart;' 1566 under the title Catechismus Romanus ex decreto accordingly, at James I.'s suggestion, an addition Concilii Tridentini Pii V. Pontinax jussa editus.

was made to the former of that explanation of the In form it is not catechetical, and it is addressed, two sacraments which now forms the second part of not to the people, but to the curates as a guide to

the church catechism. This is attributed to Dean them in their instructions. It possesses very high Overall

. The whole is a work much esteemed by authority, but is ill adapted for popular use.

For all sections of the church as remarkable for its ay teaching it has fallen into desuetude, and has simplicity, truth, and catholicity. It, however, been superseded by various catechisms of more states sacramental doctrine in a way that is not private origin. The most popular of these were very acceptable to the extreme Low Church party, prepared by the Jesuit Peter Canisius. His larger Hence, the Prayer-book put forth by the Church work, entitled Summa Doctrinæ et Institutionis of Ireland, while leaving the catechism otherwise Christiance, was published in 1554, and the shorter untouched, ingeniously interpolates an additional (1556) reached more than 400 editions, and was question and answer (based on Article XXVIII.), used in the schools of all countries. In the which, in the opinion of many, tends to modify the present day, as a general rule, each diocese pos ideas suggested by the catechism concerning Holy sesses a catechism of its own approved by the Communion.

Modifications occur, too, in the bishop. In England the short · Penny Catechism Catechism of the American Episcopal Church. is used by authority of all the bishops in concert.

The rubrics in the Common Prayer-book enjoin

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the teaching of the catechism in the church on Ca'techu, a substance employed in tanning Sundays and holidays after the second lesson at and dyeing and medicinally as an astringent. The Evening Prayer; and the 59th canon contains a catechu of commerce is obtained chiefly from two like injunction, imposing penalties on the clergy East Indian trees (Acacia Catechu and A. Suma), who neglect this. The custom of catechising in The former is common in most parts of India, and the church had fallen into almost universal disuse, also in tropical East Africa, and the latter grows in but in many parishes it has been revived with Southern India, Bengal, and Gujerat. Catechu is excellent results.

known in India by the name kát or kut. Cutch is The Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which, with another form of one or other of these names, and the Westminster Confession of Faith, constitute is a common commercial name. The trees are cut the standards or symbolical books of the Presby: down when they are about a foot in diameter, terian churches throughout the British empire and and according to some accounts only the heartthe United States of America, were compiled by wood is used, but other reports say that the the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (q.v.): whole of the woody part of the trunk is utilised. the Shorter Catechism to be a directory for The catechu is obtained by cutting it into small catechising such as are of weaker capacity;' the chips, and boiling it in water, straining the Larger, ‘for catechising such as have made some liquid from time to time, and adding fresh supproficiency in the knowledge of the Christian plies 'of chips, till the extract is of sufficient conreligion.' The Larger Catechism was presented to sistence to be poured into clay moulds; or when the English House of Commons on 22d October of the thickness of tar, it is allowed to harden for 1647; the Shorter on the 25th November 1647— two days, so that it will not run, and is formed into and both, with proofs added, on or before the balls about the size of oranges, which are placed on 14th April 1648; and in July 1648 both received husks of rice or on leaves, and appear in commerce the sanction of the General Assembly of the enveloped in them. Catechu is of a dark-brown Church of Scotland - the General Assembly, in colour, hard and brittle, and when broken has a the act approving of the Larger Catechismi, de- shining surface. It possesses an astringent taste, claring it to be a rich treasure for increasing but no odour. It is a very permanent colour, and knowledge among the people of God,' and that is employed in the dyeing of blacks, browns, fawns, (they bless the Lord that so excellent a catechism drabs, &c. Ordinary commercial catechu or cutch has been prepared.' The Shorter Catechism has, is composed of catechu-tannic acid, which is soluble however, been far more generally used for the in cold water, and catechin or catechuic acid, which purpose of instruction than the Larger, which has is nearly insoluble in cold but soluble in boiling been generally felt to be too minute in its state water. The latter can be separated in the state ments, and too burdensome to the memory to be of minute, acicular, colourless crystals. It is often employed as a catechism. Even the Shorter Cate adulterated with earthy substances, but its ready chismis regarded by many, who substantially solubility in water and alcohol should at once show adhere to its doctrine, as carrying the statement the presence of such by leaving them behind in an of dogmatic theology beyond what is proper for insoluble state. Areca or Palm Catechu, sometimes elementary instruction, whilst it has been long called Ceylon Catechu, differs wholly from the felt to be unsuitable for the very young and the above. It is got from the ripe nuts of the Betel very ignorant, and its use is now almost always palm, which yield, by boiling, a black, very preceded by that of catechisms more adapted to astringent extract, resembling true catechu, but their capacity. Its influence, however, has been of inferior quality. This substance is rarely very great in forming the religious opinions, and exported from India (see ARECA, BETEL).—Gambir in exercising and training the intellectual faculties, (q.v.) may be regarded as a kind of catechu. Terra wherever Presbyterianism has prevailed; for it has Japonica, or Japan Earth, is an old name for been, and still "is, in almost universal use among catechu, not quite disused, given in mistake as to Presbyterians speaking the English language, and its nature and origin. About 6000 tons of catechu to a considerable extent among Independents or or cutch are annually imported into Great Britain Congregationalists both in Britain and America. from India. In Holland also, a translation of it has been much Catechu'mens (Gr. katēchoumenoi, persons used. It is very, generally regarded, by those undergoing a course of instruction; see CATECHISM), whose doctrinal views are in accordance with it, the appellation given, in the early Christian church, as an admirable compend of Christian doctrine and to those converted Jews and heathens who had not duty. * The older I grow,' said Carlyle, and I yet received baptism, but were undergoing a course now stand upon the brink of eternity—the more of training and instruction preparatory to it. They comes back to me the first sentence in the cate had a place assigned them in the congregation, but chism which I learned when a child, and the fuller were not permitted to be present at the dispensaand deeper its meaning becomes : “What is the tion of the Lord's Supper, which from the end of the chief end of man ?-To glorify God, and to enjoy 2d century was regarded as a sacred mystery. The Him for ever. ."'-Catechisms without number had name Catechumens first occurs as the designation been issued by Puritan divines in England between of a separate body in the time of Tertullian, and 1600 and 1645. A large proportion of the members their distribution into different classes or grades of the Westminster Assembly had previously pub: according to their proficiency, is first referred to lished catechisms of their own. The authorship of by Origen. The most famous catechetical school the Assembly's Catechisms has been the subject of the early church was that of Alexandria, which of much debate, or at least the authorship of the had Pantænus, Clement, Origen, Dionysius and first drafts of them; it being admitted that they others among its teachers. The only extant speciwere prepared with great care by committees of

mens of the ancient catechetical teaching (which the Assembly, But the probability appears to be, was not necessarily by question and answer) are that their authorship is to be ascribed entirely to twenty-three lectures by "Cyril of Jerusalem (348), these committees; and that, like the Westminster and Ăugustine's De catechizandis Rudibus. - The Confession of Faith, they are thus the result of term Catechumens was afterwards employed to the joint labours of many. See Ehrenfeuchter, designate young members of the Christian Church Geschichte des Katechismus (1857); Niemeyer, Col who were receiving instruction to prepare them lectio Confessionum (1840); Schaff's History of the for confirmation or for the Lord's Supper, and it Creeds of Christendom (3 vols. New York, 1876 ; is still often used in this sense. See DISCIPLINA Lond. 1877).


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