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Chap-books are little stitched tracts written that Whittington set out before daybreak on All-
for the people, and sold by chapmen, or travelling Hallows' Day, and before he got as far as Bunhill
pedlars, whose representative Autolycus is he heard Bow Bells ring out. Holloway replaced
vividly brought before our eyes by Shakespeare in Bunhill in the later versions, and hence arose the
Winter's Tale. The literary wares of the chapman myth connected with Whittington Stone on High-
were mostly ballads or other broadsides, but he also gate Hill.
dealt in these stitched booklets. Popular litera Hannah More's Repository Tracts, and after-
ture has naturally become scarce on account of the wards the publications of the Useful Knowledge
vicissitudes to which it is subject, and few of the Society, Chambers's Miscellany of Tracts, and the
older chap-books exist at the present day. Samuel growth of cheap magazines, greatly reduced the
Pepys collected some of considerable interest which popularity of chap-books; but Catnach, a London
he bound in small quarto volumes and lettered printer, kept up the supply in the early portion of
Vulgaria. Besides these he left four volumes of the 19th century, and even now chap-books are
chap-books of a smaller size which he lettered still produced in England and elsewhere.
Penny Merriments, Penny Witticisms, Penny Com The influence of chap-books can never have been
pliments and Penny Godlinesses. The small

quarto very great in Britain from the inferiority of their
chap-books are the descendants of the black-letter literary character. This has not been the case in
tracts of Wynkyn de Worde, Copland, and other other countries, and Mr Wentworth Webster has
famous printers, and were probably bought from discovered the curious fact that the Pastorales or
booksellers as well as from chapmen. With the Basque dramas owe their origin to the chap-books
18th century came in much inferior class of hawked about the country (see article BASQUES).
literature, which was printed in a smaller size, and A valuable and standard work on the chap-books of
forms the bulk of what is known to us now in France was published in 1854, entitled Histoire des
collections of chap-books. These tracts were Livres Populaires, ou de la Littérature du Colport-
printed largely in Aldermary Churchyard, and after age, by M. Ch. Nisard; but little has been done in
words in Bow Churchyard, as well as at Northamp- England for this class of literature. Mr J. 0.
ton, York, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Stokesley, Warring- Halliwell-Phillipps printed in 1849 Notices of
ton, Liverpool, Banbury, Aylesbury, Durham, Fugitive Tracts and" Chap Books and Descriptive
Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Coventry, White- Notices of Popular English Histories; Mr John
haven, Carlisle, Worcester, Penrith, Cirencester, Ashton published in 1882 a useful work on Chap-
&c., in England; at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Falkirk, books of the Eighteenth Century; and five of the
Paisley, Dumfries, Kilmarnock, Stirling, &c., in most interesting of the old chap-books have been
Scotland; and at Dublin. As ballads are frequently reprinted (1885) by the Villon Society, with intro-
reduced versions of romances, so chap-books usually ductions by Mr Gomme and Mr H. B. Wheatley.
contain vulgarised versions of populār stories. The For German chap-books, the reader should consult
subjects of the chap-books are very various ; first Karl Simrock, Die deutschen Volksbücher ( 55 parts,
and foremost are the popular tales, such as Berlin and Frankfort, 1839–67), and Gotthard
Valentine and Orson, Fortunatus, Reynard the Fox, Oswald Marbach, Altdeutsche Volksbücher (44 vols.
Jack and the Giants, Patient Grissel, Tom Thumb, Leip. 1838–47).
and Tom Hickathrift; then come the lives of
heroes, historical abridgments, travels, religious

Chapel (through Fr. from a late Latin capella, treatises , and abstracts of popular books like which, according

to Brachet, already in the 7th Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote. Besides these century had the sense of a chapel, but earlier meant there are the more modern inventions of hack

the sanctuary in which was preserved the cappa or writers. Dougal Graham (1724–1779), bellman to

cope of St Martin, and was next expanded to mean supposed to have done much to give a special public worship, but not possessing the full privileges the city of Glasgow, was a popular writer who is any sanctuary, containing relics). The term now

signifies a building erected for the purposes of character to Scottish chap-book literature. Motherwell has styled him the vulgar Juvenal of his places of worship erected by dissenters are now

and characteristics of a church. In this sense all age. His works were reprinted at Glasgow in 2 vols, in 1883.

called chapels in England, and the term is also The chap-books of the 17th century are valuable applied to supplementary places of worship, even as illustrations of manners; but little is to be though in connection with the established church learned from those of the 16th century, which are

such as parochial chapels, chapels of ease, free altogether of an inferior character.

In former times it was

chapels, and the like. of this may be taken from the story of Dick applied either to a domestic oratory, or to a place

of worship erected by a private individual or a which has come down to us is a small quarto tract body corporate. In the latter sense we speak of entitled The Famous and Remarkable History of

chapels in colleges. But its earliest significaSir Richard Whittington, three times Lord Mayor tion was that of a separate erection, either within of London, who lived in the time of King Henry ately dedicated, and devoted to special services

or attached to a large church or cathedral, separthe Fifth in the year 1419, with all the remarkable passages

, and things of note, which happened in his see CHANTRY), Chapels had no burying-ground time with his Life and Death.' It is without a

attached to them, and the sacrament of baptism date, but was probably published about 1670. In

was not usually administered in them. The name this the historical character of the subject is fairly union of the workmen in a printing-office-said to

is also given to a printer's workshop, hence to a kept up, although the dates are somewhat mixed, and to this the widespread folk-tale of the cat is

be so applied because Caxton set up his press in a added. In the later chap-book versions the historischapel at Westminster. cal incidents are ruthlessly cut down, and the ficti Chapelain, JEAN, a somewhat curious figure tious ones amplified. The three chief points of the in the gallery of French authors, was born in 1595, story are (1) the poor parentage of the hero, (2) his and died in 1674. He was a learned, industrious change of mind at Highgate Hill by reason of hear writer, who passed for a time as a poet, and was ing Bow Bells, and 3) his good fortune arising accepted as the dominant authority in the world of from the sale of his cat. Now these are all equally French letters between the literary dictatorships of untrue as referring to the historical Whittington, Malherbe and of Boileau. He produced one of the and the second is apparently an invention of the abortive epics which it was the fashion to write 18th century. In the 17th-century story we learn during the regency of Mazarin. This work, the

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£1000 a year.

Pucelle, dealt with the story of Joan of Arc, in An ARMY CHAPLAIN, in Britain, is a clergyman twenty-four books. Its appearance covered its not having charge of a parish, especially comauthor with ridicule. Chapelain was gibbeted in missioned to do duty with troops. The office, the satires of Boileau, and the critic's severity which has existed for many years, was at one was in this case amply justified by the dullness time regarded as a saleable perquisite; but the and grotesque absurdities of the work which he system was reorganised and improved in 1796. attacked. Chapelain also wrote a number of odes, The Chaplains' Department, a branch of the one of which, composed in honour of Cardinal Military Department of the War Office, consists Richelieu, is not without merit. An edition of of a Chaplain-general, ranking as major-general; part of the Pucelle (1 vol. folio) was published in 16 Chaplains to the Forces of the first class, 1656. The last twelve books still remain in manu ranking as colonels; 10 of the second class, script in the Bibliothèque Impériale.

ranking as lieutenant-colonels; 18 of the third Chapel Royal, in England, consists of a dean, class, ranking as majors; and 35 of the fourth sub-dean, forty-eight chaplains, ten priests in class, ranking as captains. Of these, 13 are Roman ordinary, and a numerous lay choir, styled gentle

Catholic and 6 Presbyterian. Their pay, which in men of the chapel, with a clerk of the closet, and

the fourth class is 10s. a day, rises to 228. 6d. in deputy-clerks of the closet, and an organist. The

the highest rank, the chaplain-general receiving chaplain's duty is preaching, a certain number

Chaplains are sent on active service being appointed beforehand to take duty each with the troops, and in peace are allotted to the month of the year; the liturgical oflices are per

various military stations. Their duties are to conformed by the dean, sub-dean, and priests in duct divine service in camp or barracks, officiate at ordinary. The establishment is bound to attend burials, baptisms, and churchings, visit the hospital the sovereign wherever the court happens to be; and barrack-rooms, give religious instruction in the but in fact the services of the chapel are confined schools, and generally treat the soldiers and their to London-formerly to the chapel at Whitehall, families as though they were their parishioners. destroyed by fire after the Restoration, more

Where the number of troops is smals

, the parish recently to the small oratory in St James's Palace. clergyman is appointed acting chaplain, performs The earliest records concerning the Chapel Royal

these duties, and receives head-money. Soldiers date from the reign of Edward IV.

who do not belong to the Church of England are The CHAPEL ROYAL OF SCOTLAND was an ancient

marched to the nearest place of worship belonging foundation originally located in Stirling Castle,

to their denomination, and head-money is granted founded by Alexander I., and liberally endowed to the minister in charge. In the United States by his successors. In the reign of Queen Mary the army, regimental chaplains and post-chaplains may Chapel Royal was transferred to Holyrood House. be of any of the regular denominations. They After the Reformation ‘the minister of the king's

mostly have the rank of captain. household' conducted service in it, and the chapel

NAVY CHAPLAIN. Every large ship in commiswas used as their parish church by the people of

sion has a chaplain. The Navy Estimates provide the Canongate. It was endowed with the feinds

for above 100 commissioned chaplains, at stipends of various churches, and the revenues of the abbey

varying from £219 to £401 per annum. The Chapof Dundrennan. During the period of Episcopal

lain of the Fleet has an income (with allowances) church government the Chapel Royal of Holyrood

of £759 a year.

The chaplains perform divine was presided over by a dean, generally one of the service at stated times on shipboard, visit the sick bishops, and served by a number of chaplains (see

sailors, and assist in maintaining moral discipline HOLYROOD). After the Revolution the revenues

among the crew. The estimates of 1887–88 included of the Chapel Royal were bestowed on various

also £3400 for “allowances to ministers of religion,' ministers and chaplains. In accordance with the besides the salaries of chaplains. In the United report of the University Commission issued in States navy, chaplains on the active list are of 1863 the whole revenues have latterly been taken

various relative ranks, from that of lieutenant to to augment the income of several professors of

that of captain. divinity, among whom they are divided. The Chapman, a trader, but popularly applied in a present Dean of the Order of the Thistle is more limited sense to a dealer in small articles, appointed by his commission from the crown the

who travels as a pedlar or attends markets. Our Dean of the Chapel Royal of Scotland. The other familiar chap, 'a fellow,' is a mere shortening of members of the chapel are the chaplains in ordinary, the name, which is derived from A.S. ceáp, 'trade,' six in number, who are appointed during the seen in Cheapside, Eastcheap, and in cognate form pleasure of the crown. Neither the dean nor the in Copenhagen. See CHAP-BOOK. chaplains receive any of the revenues of the Chapel Royal, which have been all disposed of in the Chapman, GEORGE, dramatist and translator of manner stated, and their duties are purely honorary. Homer, was born near Hitchin, Hertfordshire, about

1559. He is supposed to have studied at Oxford Chaperon, a hood or cap worn by knights of

University, and to have afterwards proceeded to the Garter. Such a hood was at one time in general

Cambridge. From a passage in his earliest poem, use, but was latterly appropriated to doctors and

The Shadow of Night ( 1594), it has been somewhat licentiates in colleges. A person who acts as a hastily inferred that he served as a volunteer under guide and protector to a lady at public places is

Sir Francis Vere in the Netherlands. To Lawrence called a chaperon, probably from this particular

Keymis's Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana piece of dress having been used on such occasions.

(1596) he prefixed a spirited poem, De Guiana, The name was also applied to devices which were

Carmen Epicum. His earliest extant play, The placed on the heads of horses at pompous funerals.

Blind Beggar of Alexandria, which has little Chaplain, originally an ecclesiastic who accom merit, but was very popular, was produced in panied an army, and carried the relics of the patron February 1595–96, and printed in 1598. The excelsaint (see CHAPEL). It now signifies a clergyman lent comedy, All Fools, printed in 1605, was probemployed to officiate at court, in the household of ably produced in 1599; and about this time he a nobleman or bishop, in prisons, with troops, and wrote other plays, which have perished. In 1599 on board ship. Such officials appear first in the he completed Marlowe's unfinished poem, Hero and palaces of the Byzantine emperors. For the royal Leander. The first of his Homeric translations

For chaplains in Britain, see CHAPEL ROYAL. was Seven Books of the Iliads of Homer (1598). It prison and workhouse chaplains, see PRISON, POOR. is a translation of books i. i. vii.-xi., and is

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written in rhymed verses of fourteen syllables. The Magazine, and soon became known to a literary
dedicatory epistle to the Earl of Essex admirably circle, including Richardson ; but she is now chiefly
illustrates the writer's dignified temper. Later in remembered by her Letters on the Improvement
1598 he published Achilles' Shield, translated from of the Mind (1772), which went through many
the eighteenth book of the Iliad. In this transla- editions. She married an attorney in 1760, but
tion he used rhymed verses of ten syllables, the next year was left a widow ; she herself died at
metre that he afterwards employed in his render- | Hadley, 25th December 1801. See her Works with
ing of the Odyssey. It was not until 1610 or there. | Life (4 vols. 1807).
abouts that he published Homer, Prince of Poets :

Chapped Hands, a form of inflammation of translated according to the Greeke in twelve Bookes the skin of the back of the hands characterised by of his Iliads, with a fine dedicatory epistle in verse abnormal dryness and roughness, with the formato Prince Henry. The complete translation of The tion of cracks or fissures. It is caused by exIliads of Homer, Prince of Poets, in rhymed verses posure to cold, and can generally be prevented or of fourteen syllables, appeared in 1611. In the cured by carefully drying the hands after they Preface to the Reader he states that the last twelve

are washed, and applying glycerine, vaseline, or books had been translated in less than fifteen

other simple ointment. The hands should also be weeks. Having finished the Iliad, he set to work protected in cold weather by warm gloves. on the Odyssey, and in 1616 appeared The Whole

Chappell, WILLIAM, F.S.A., the author of Works of Homer, Prince of Poets, in his Iliads and the most learned work on ancient English music, Odysseys, which was followed (about 1624) by The

was born November 20, 1809. Most of his life he Crowne of all Homer's Workes, Batrachomyomachia, lived in London, where he was for some years a or the Battaile of Frogs and Mice: His Hymns and member of a great music publishing house. His Epigrams. In spite of all harshnesses, obscurities,

first work of importance was A Collection of and conceits, Chapman's translation of Homer is a

National English Airs, consisting of Ancient noble achievement. He was not a profound scholar, Song, Ballad, and Dance Tunes (2 vols

. [1838-40]). and has often missed the sense where a schoolboy This work, which contained 245 airs, ultimately could set him right. But the work is instinct with

grew into the greater and entirely rewritten work, life, full of heat and energy. By his contemporaries containing over 400 airs

, re-harmonised on a con-Jonson, Drayton, Daniel, and the rest—it was sistent plan by Macfarren, Popular Music of applauded, and in later days it has never lacked

the Olden Time; a Collection of Ancient Songs, admirers. Pope acknowledged its merits ; Coleridge declared that it was such a poem as 'Homer Ballads, and Dance, Tunes

, illustrative of the

National Music of England (2 vols. [1855–59]). might have written if he had lived in England in

The first volume, itself containing 200 airs, forms the time of Elizabeth ; Lamb admired it enthusi

a complete collection of English airs, so far as astically; and Keats wrote a famous sonnet in its

known, down to the reign of Charles I. ; the praise. While he was busy with his Homeric second' is rather a selection, containing, however, fabours, Chapman was also writing for the stage. all the more interesting or important airs of later He joined Jonson and Marston in the composition date. Mr Chappell took a principal part in the of Eastward Ho (1605), and in 1606 published a foundation in 1840 of the Musical Antiquarian graceful comedy, The Gentleman Usher. In 1607 Society and the Percy Society, and edited some appeared Bussy d'Ambois; a Tragedie; and The

of Dowland's songs for the former and several Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois followed in 1613.

rare collections for the latter. He published a These tragedies contain much inarticulate bombast intermingled with exalted poetry. Heavy and un

few papers in the Archeologia, contributed in

valuable notes to Hales and Furnivall's reprint dramatic though they were, they held the stage for

of the Percy Folio MS. (1867–68), and annotated many years by reason of their impassioned earnest

the first three volumes (1869–79) of the Ballad ness. Two other tragedies, The Conspiracie and Society edition of The Roxburghe Ballads (conTragedie of Charles, Duke of Byron (1608), are also tinued by his friend Mr Ebsworth). Mr Chappell of opinion that of all the Elizabethan dramatists published in 1874, the first volume of a History Chapman came nearest to Shakespeare in the l of Music. He died in London, 20th August 1888. descriptive and didactic, in passages which are

Chapra, a town in Bengal, on the Gogra, 1 less purely dramatic.' Chapman's other plays are

mile above its confluence with the Ganges. It is The May Day (1611), The Widow's Tears (1612), capital of the district of Saran. Pop. (1881) 51,670. and Cæsar and Pompey .(1631);

Two posthu

Chaptal, JEAN ANTOINE, COMTE DE CHANTEmous tragedies, published in 1654, Alphonsus and LOUP, French statesman and chemist, was born Revenge for Honour, bear his name, but their at Nogaret, Lozère, 4th June 1756, and studied at authorship is uncertain. The Ball, a comedy, and Montpellier, where in 1781 the states of LangueThe Tragedie of Chabot were published in 1639 as

doc founded for him a chair of Chemistry. A conthe joint work of Chapman and Shirley. Among siderable fortune left him by his uncle he devoted Chapman's non-dramatic works are "Enthymice

to the establishment of works for the manufacture Raptus (1609), Petrarch’s Seven Penitentiall of mineral acids, alum, soda, &c. He was made a Psalmes (1612), The Divine Poem of Muscus member of the Institute in 1798, and in 1800 Min(1616), and The Georgicks of Hesiod (1618).

ister of the Interior. He resigned in 1804, but in Chapman died in the parish of St Giles's in the 1811 was made a count by the emperor. During Fields, 12th May 1634. Wood describes him as a

the Hundred Days he was a minister of state and person of reverend aspect, religious and temperate, director of commerce and manufactures ; after the qualities rarely meeting in a poet.' A complete

Restoration he withdrew into private life, but was edition of Chapman's works in 3 vols., with an

admitted to the chamber of peers by Louis XVIII. essay by A. C. Swinburne, appeared in 1873-75.

in 1819. He died in Paris, 30th July 1832. Chapone, HESTER, authoress, daughter of Chapter. See BIBLE, Vol. II. p. 126. Thomas Mulso, was born at Twywell, Northamp

Chapter-house (Fr. salle capitulaire), the tonshire, 27th October 1727. She wrote a short building in which the monks and canons of monastic romance in her tenth year, and after her mother's establishments, and the dean and prebendaries death her attention was divided between house of cathedral and collegiate churches, meet for the hold duties and the study of French, Italian, management of the atfairs of their order or society Latin, music, and drawing. She wrote for the (see CATHEDRAL); Chapter-houses frequently exRambler (No. 10), Adventurer, and Gentleman's hibit the most elaborate architectural adornment,

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as, for example, those of York, Southwell, and at most ventured to remove these to the Monandria
Wells. The original stained-glass windows remain Monogynia, while De Jussieu regarded them as a
at York, and are of exquisite beauty. On the walls genus of Naiadaceae (q.v.), an order of monocoty-
of that of Westminster the original painting has ledonous aquatics with much reduced flowers. În
been discovered. Chapter-houses are of various similar opinions he was followed by De Candolle
forms: those at York and Westminster are and other eminent systematists : and it was not until
octagonal ; those at Oxford, Exeter, Canterbury, 1851 that a careful re-examination of their structure

and mode of reproduction by Thuret finally dis-
proved the phanerogamous view, and established
their cryptogamic nature. Since that time the
group has attracted great attention, and is now on
grounds of peculiar instructiveness, both morpho-
logical and physiological, one of the
classical forms usually presented to
the beginner, not only in crypto-
gamic botany, but general biology.

Commencing with the vegeta-
tive system, we find this apparently
consisting of a stem with regular
whorls of leaves arising at definite
points (nodes) of the stem. The
internodes, or distances between
these, are at first considerable ;
but as we approach the apex these
are shorter and shorter, and at
length we lose sight of them in
the crowded terminal bud. The
resemblance to a young shoot of
Equisetum is so far satisfactory,
and the mineral incrustation (in
some species so abundant as to
lead to the substitution of the
plant for scouring metal) appears
to confirm this. The incrustation,

Fig. 1. however, is calcareous, not silice Shoot of Chara.

Even under microscopic ex

amination we may at first sympathise with the Chapter-house, York,

old observers, and seem to see in the stem a

multicellular structure, even a cortex; nay, to Gloucester, &c. are parallelograms; Lichfield is an see under our very eyes the actual circulation of oblong octagon ; Lincoln, a decagon; and Worces

More careful scrutiny, however, enables ter a circle. In France the chapter-house is gener

us to repeat the work of later and more accurate ally square. They are always contiguous to the


We see that this movement is not the church, and are not generally placed to the west circulation of the sap in a stem, but a streaming of of the transepts. They sometimes open into the the protoplasm within what is simply a single church, or are entered by a passage, but are more enormous cell stretching from one node to the frequently in connection with the cloisters. In next (see CELL). The apparent cortex is a single some instances there are arches or windows between layer of cells the chapter-house and the cloisters to enable those covering this standing in the latter to hear what goes on in the internodal cell; chapter-house. A stone seat on a raised step gener

and the whole ally runs round the apartment. Chapter-houses vegetative were often used as places of sepulture, and have structure is unsometimes crypts under them, as at Wells and ravelled when Westminster.

we roughly dis

sect out the Chapultepec, a rock 2 miles SW. of the city of Mexico, rising to a height of 150 feet, and

terminal bud, crowned by a castle, which was erected by the

harden, stain

and imbed this Spanish viceroy in 1785 on the site of the palace of Montezuma.

in paraffin, and

thus cut a fine Char, a fish. See CHARR.

longitudinal Chara. The Characeæ or Stoneworts are a section (fig. 2). small group of common aquatic plants found grow. An apical cell ing in large tufts, or even covering large expanses is seen which on the bottoms of fresh-water ponds and shallow continually lakes, brackish or even salt-water lagoons, &c., and segments off a

Fig. 2.—Longitudinal Section of of which the systematic position has undergone the lower


the apical bud of Chara. most extraordinary and instructive vicissitudes. divides

(still The early botanists, with K. Bauhin, had no hesita- transversely to the axis) into two new ones ; and tion in describing them as horsetails (Equisetum). the lower of these henceforth steadily lengthens In 1719 Vaillant proposed for them a separate genus as the internodal cell, while the upper undergoes (Chara), while Linnaeus, although at first disposed repeated division, until a plate of nodal cells to regard them as Algæ, as their habitat suggests, is formed. In the simpler family (Nitella) the decided that the small red male reproductive body internode thus consists of a single naked cell: must be a stamen, and the larger green female one in the higher (Chara), this is inclosed by the a pistil, and accordingly placed them as flowering so-called cortex, a layer of smaller cells proceedplants among the Monació Nonandria.

His pupils ling from those of the upper and lower nodes ;


the sap.

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and itself showing a minor nodal and internodal | have been gigantic Characea (Spirangium) occur arrangement. In all cases, from the nodal cells from the Carboniferous to the Wealden, and ordithere divide off

, parallel to the outer surface of the nary Characea are abundant in the Tertiary strata. stem, a new set of apical cells, which proceed, like See Howes' Biological Atlas, and Sachs' Botany. the parent one, to form the leaves,' reproducing, Characin'ida. See SALMONIDÆ. that is to say, the stem structure, until they lose

Characteristic. See LOGARITHMS. the power of division, and end in a single enlarged vegetative cell. A branch may arise from a new

Character to Servant. The master is under formed apical cell cut off in the axil of the oldest

no legal obligation, either in England or in Scotleaf of any whorl, while the so-called roots, which land, to give a character to his servant, however fix the plant in the mud, are simply unicellular long, faithfully, or efficiently he niay have served hairs, lengthenings produced from the superficial him; but, if given, the character must be strictly cells of buried nodes.

true, or, at all events, in accordance with the

master's belief, otherwise he may be exposed to an The apparently very complex and characteristic reproductive organs arise also at the nodes of the action of damages, either by the servant whom he stem or leaves, in positions and numbers varying

has calumniated, or by a subsequent employer with the species. Commencing with the female whom he has deceived. If true, however, the fact (fig. 3a), which arises in the position of a branch,

of its being prejudicial will expose the master to we find this to

no risk. In order to justify the giving of a bad be obviously a

character, however, it must, in general, be asked shortened and

for by the servant, as the master is not entitled modified one.

needlessly to publish the servant's defects. Where Its apical celi asked, it will lie with the servant to prove its falseforms only an

hood, not with the master to prove its truth. The internode and

case of the servant being known by the master to node, then ceases

have committed a felony while in his service, is, division, and be- however, an exception to this rule, as, in a case so comes enlarged

extreme, the master is at liberty to warn others and filled with a

against taking him into their employment. Even store of starch though strictly true, the character, if prejudicial, and other re

must not be more so than the circumstances render material necessary. Acts of petty dishonesty, such as are to form an egg

too common among servants, will not warrant the cell ; while the

master in branding him as thief. The safe course, cover or arche

in such a case, is to state the offence, and not to gonium inclosing

describe it by a general epithet, which may convey this is readily

an erroneous impression of its magnitude. to be

It is probable that, partly from thoughtless goodFig. 3.- Node, bearing reproductive


nature, and partly from a selfish desire to get rid of organs:

tion of the fami

a bad servant in the most comfortable manner, false a, Mature; b, developing. The upper liar cortex. In

characters are given in favour of servants very the male appa

much more frequently than to their prejudice. It

ratus, or anther is desirable that masters and mistresses should have idium, the branch structure is further modified: its in view that they may render themselves liable in apical cell similarly remains all but sessile, forming reparation of any damage which can be shown to only a short node and internode ; but segmentation be the direct result

of thus inflicting on a stranger now begins, thus recalling the behaviour of a nodal

a wrong which is unquestionably within the reach cell—with which, in having below it an internodal,

of the law. and not as in the case of the egg-cell, a nodal cell

By an Act of 1816, personating a master, and thus (fig. 36), it so far corresponds. Eight quadraut- giving a false character to a servant, or asserting like cells are formed, but these now segment off

in writing that a servant has been hired, contrary to new cells in the interior of the spherical mass, and truth; and any person offering himself as a servant, in the growth and development of these the nodal pretending to have served where he has not served; and internodal alternation of ordinary vegetative

or producing a false certificate, or altering a certifigrowth can still be traced. Soon, however, a num.

cate, or pretending not to have been in any former ber of long segmented filaments are developed, and service, &c., are offences at common

law, punishable the protoplasm of these undergoes rejuvenescence,

on conviction before two justices with a fine of £20. and becomes modified into a ciliated spermatozoid.

Charade, or 'syllable-puzzle' as the Germans When the reproductive organs are ripe, this arche- call it, is an amusement which consists in dividing gonium is easily broken, and its filaments spread

a word of one or more syllables into its component free in the water ; the spermatozoids escape in a

syllables, or into its component letters, predicating myriad, and some reach the egg-cell of the arche something of each ; and then, having reunited the gonium by means of a small opening, which is left whole, and predicated something of that also, the by the all but incomplete upgrowth of the cortical reader or listener is asked to guess the word. As a cells which form the wall of the archegoniun. specimen of the charade depending upon syllables After a period of rest, the fertilised ovum germin

we adduce the following: ates, producing, however, not directly a new Chara My first is ploughed for various reasons, and grain is freplant, but a simple filament of cells called a pro- quently buried in it to little purpose. My second is neither

riches nor honours, yet the former would generally be given for embryo, of which one cell segments into a node,

it, and the latter are often tasteless without it. My whole and the oldest cell of this becomes the growing applies equally to spring, summer, autumn, anul winter; and point of the new plant.

both fish and flesh, praise and censure, mirth and melancholy, The affinities and systematic position of the group

are the better for being in it. thus still afford ground for discussion, although now

As a specimen of the second class of charades, within narrower limits than formerly; some syste- we take the following happy example from the matists regarding them as a somewhat aberrant French : group of Algæ, while others insist on their resem Quatre membres sont tout mon bien,

Mon dernier vaut mon tout, et mon tout ne vaut rien. blance to the archegoniate cryptogams (see VEGETABLE KINGDOM). The fruits of what seem to 1 The word is zero. It is composed of four letters, of


in each case is the female.

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Ans. Sea-son.

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