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superstition, she disliked the Protestants, chiefly cerned in promoting the reforms of Peter the Great
because their principles were opposed to the abso- supported Catharine's claim to be his successor, and
lute despotism which she desired to maintain. Yet she was acknowledged Empress and sole Ruler of
she sought to rally the Protestant leaders around all the Russias. Under Menschikoff's direction,
the throne in order to serve as a counterpoise to the affairs of government went on well enough for
the Guises. This attempt having failed, and the a time; but the empress ere long began to yield to
civil war which ensued having ended in the peace the influence of a number of favourites, addicted
of Amboise, highly favourable to the Protestants, herself to drunkenness, and lived such a life as
she became alarmed at the increase of their power, could not fail to hurry her to the grave. She died
and entered into a secret treaty with Spain for the 17th May 1727. See PETER.
extirpation of heretics ; and subsequently into a Catharine II., Empress of Russia, was born
plot with the Guises, which resulted in the fearful

at Stettin in 1729. Her father, the Prince of Anhaltmassacre of St Bartholomew's Day. This event Zerbst, was a Prussian field-marshal, and governor brought the whole power of the state into the of Stettin. She received the name of Sophia hands of the queen-mother, who boasted of the Augusta ; but the Empress Elizabeth of Russia deed to Roman Catholic governments, and excused having selected her for the wife of her nephew and it to Protestant ones, for she now managed all the intended successor, Peter, she passed from the correspondence of the court. About this time she Lutheran to the Greek Church, and took (like succeeded, by gold and intrigues, in getting her

the Empress Catharine I.) the name of Catharina third son, afterwards Henry III., elected to the Alexievna. In 1745 her marriage took place, Polish throne. But her arbitrary and tyrannical She soon quarrelled with her husband, and administration roused the opposition of a Roman both of them lived a life of unrestrained vice. Catholic party, at the head of which was her own

Among his attendants was a Count Soltikoff, with fourth son, the Duke of Alençon.

It was very

whom her intimacy soon became scandalous; and generally believed that she was privy to the machina- Soltikoff was sent on an embassy abroad. But the tions that led to his death. When, after the death young Polish count, Stanislaus Poniatowski, almost of Charles IX., Henry III. returned from Poland to immediately supplied his place. After the death of be king of France, his mother still ruled the court, the Empress Elizabeth in 1761, Peter III. ascended and had the principal share in all the intrigues, the Russian throne ; but the conjugal differences treacheries, and political transactions of that became continually wider. Catharine was banished vretched time. Having betrayed all who trusted

to a separate abode; and them, she and her son found themselves at last for entertain the design of divorcing her, declaring her saken and abhorred by all. The League and the only son, Paul, illegitimate, and marrying his Guises had no more confidence in them than had mistress, Elizabeth Woronzoff

. The popular disthe Protestants and Henry of Navarre. Vexation

like to Peter, however, rapidly increased ; and at on this account preyed on the proud heart of the length, he being dethroned by a conspiracy, queen-mother in her last days; and amidst the Catharine was made empress. A few days afterconfusion and strife of parties, she died at Blois wards Peter was murdered (July 1762). What on 5th January 1589, unheeded and unlamented. participation his wife had in his murder has never Catharine de' Medici may fairly be regarded as a been well ascertained. representative woman of an age when the first prin Catharine now exerted herself to please the ciples of human conduct were hopelessly con people, and among other things, made a great founded by religious strife and the intrigues and show of regard for the outward forms of the Greek corruptions of courts. Virtue had given place Church, although her principles were, in reality, to luxury, extravagance, cunning sensuality, and those prevalent among the French philosophers of cruelty. She was only a prominent example of the 18th century. The government of the country qualities which the prevailing conditions of the was carried on with great energy; and her reign time tended to develop. See Reumont's Jugend was remarkable for the rapid increase of the Caterinas de' Medici (Berlin, 1854), T. A. Trollope's dominions and power of Russia. Not long after Girlhood of Catharine de' Medici (1856), Capefigue's her accession to the throne her influence secured Catherine de Médicis (Paris, 1856), and La Fer- the election of her former favourite, Stanislaus rière's Lettres de Catherine de Médicis (2 vols. Paris, Poniatowski, to the throne of Poland. In her own 1880-85).

empire, however, discontentment was seriously Catharine I., wife of Peter the Great, and manifested, the hopes of the disaffected being Empress Russia. She was a peasant's daughter, centred in the young prince Ivan, who was forthand her original name was Martha Skavrouska. with murdered in the castle of Schlüsselburg. The date of her birth is about 1680. Being From that time the internal politics of Russia conleft an orphan, she was brought up chiefly by a sisted chiefly of court intrigues for the humiliation Lutheran pastor, Glück, in Marienburg, Livonia. of one favourite and the exaltation of another. In 1702 she married a Swedish dragoon, but Marien- The revolt of the Cossack Pugatcheff in 1773, burg being taken by the Russians in the same year, though for a time it looked serious, only served to she was made prisoner, and became the mistress of fortify her throne. The first partition of Poland in Prince Menschikoff. She then attracted the notice 1772, and the Turkish war which terminated in the of Peter the Great. In 1703 she went over to the peace of Kainardji in 1774, vastly increased the Greek Church, and took the name of Catharina empire. In 1787 she made a progress in her southern Alexievna. After being for some years the em- provinces through flourishing towns, villages, and peror's mistress, she was privately married to him festive scenes; but the whole was a sham, having in 1707 ; and the marriage was publicly avowed in been got up for the occasion by Potemkin to impress 1711. When Peter the Great and his army seemed Catharine with the prosperity of her empire. The entirely in the power of the Turkish army on the Turkish war which terminated in the peace of Jassy Pruth in 1711, Catharine, according to the common in 1792 had similar results, and also the war with account, managed by skilful bribery to procure the Sweden, which terminated in 1790.

The second deliverance of the Russians. Catharine was now and third partitions of Poland, and the incorporareceived into greater favour than ever, and was tion of Courland with Russia, completed the solemnly crowned in 1712. The story, however, triumphs of Catharine's reign. She also began a does not rest on sufficient evidence,

At anyrate

war with Persia, and cherished a scheme for the Catharine continued to enjoy her high position till overthrow of the British power in India ; but a the death of Peter in 1725. The new party con stroke of apoplexy cut her off, 17th November 1796.




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She was a woman of great ability, but she had in a the beginning of the 12th century. See CHINA ;
large measure the vices of the time and station in and Yule, Cathay and the Road Thither (Hakluyt
whịch she lived. Her gallantries were both liberal Society, 1866).
and systematic. She always had a paramour who
dwelt in her palace, and might be regarded as filling cart, a British general and diplomatist, son of the

Cathcart, WILLIAM SCHAW, first Earl Cathan acknowledged office of state, with large revenues

ninth Baron Cathcart of Cathcart, Renfrewshire, and fixed privileges. Of these Potemkin (q.v.) is

was born September 17, 1755. Educated at Eton best remembered. Yet distinguished authors flattered her ; and she invited to her court some of the and Glasgow, and admitted an advocate in 1773,

when he succeeded his father, he next year entered literati and philosophers of France. She professed the army, took a prominent part in the American the desire to model her rule on the enlightened

war, and fought with distinction in Flanders and theories of these men, and she did effect some real North Germany. In 1803 he was made commanderdition to profit much from liberal opinions, and the in-chief in Ireland. In 1805 he was engaged on a character of the empress was not elevated enough the land-forces co-operating with the fleet in the

diplomatic mission to Russia ; in 1807 commanded for a government on high and just principles.

attack on Copenhagen, and, for his services, was Catharine Archipelago. See ALEUTIAN made a British peer, with the title of viscount, and ISLANDS.

received a vote of thanks from both Houses of Catharine Howard. See HOWARD.

Parliament. Sent in 1812 as ambassador to St Catharine of Aragon, Queen of England, the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, and was present at

Petersburg, he accompanied the Czar Alexander in the first wife of Henry VIII., and fourth daughter the congresses of Chatillon and Vienna. In 1814 of Ferdinand and Isabella, king_and queen of

he was raised to the rank of earl ; and he died June Castile and Aragon, was born December 1485.

17, 1843.-His eldest son and successor, CHARLES She occupies a prominent place in English history, MURRAY, long known as Lord Greenock, was born not for what she herself was, but for what she was

in 1783, served in Spain and at Waterloo, afterthe occasion of-the Reformation. Married on 14th

wards acted in Canada, and was made a general. November 1501, when scarcely sixteen, to Arthur

He died 16th July 1859.—A younger son, SIR (1486-1502), Prince of Wales, son of Henry VII.,

GEORGE CATHCART, was born in 1794. Educated she was left a widow on 2d April, and on 25th at Eton and Elinburgh, he entered the army in June was betrothed to her brother-in-law Henry, as

1810, served with the Russians in the campaigns of yet a boy of only eleven years old. The pope's 1812 and 1813, and as aide-de-camp to the Duke of dispensation enabling such near relatives to marry | Wellington, was present at Quatre Bras and Waterwas obtained in 1504, and the marriage took place 100. After helping to suppress the Canadian rein June 1509, seven weeks after Henry's accession bellion of 1835, and after holding the post of deputyto the crown as Henry VIII. Between 1510 and

lieutenant of the Tower for five years, in 1852 he 1518 she bore him five children, one only of whom, the Princess Mary, survived ; but, though Henry the forces, and brought to a successful end the

was made governor at the Cape, with command of was very far from being a model husband, and though he had conceived a passion for Anne Boleyn 1854 in time to be sent out to the Crimea as general

He returned to England in

harassing Kaffir war. (q.v.) as early as 1522, he appears to have treated of division. His bravery here was conspicuous, Queen Catharine with all due respect, until 1527. marriage, and set about obtaining a divorce, which, British, and where he fell, shot through the heart. He now expressed doubts as to the legality of his especially in the battle of Inkermann (November

5), where the odds were so terribly against the all other means failing, was at length pronounced He was buried on the spot where he fell, which in by Cranmer in May '1533 (see HENRY VIII.).

his honour was named Cathcart's Hill. Cathcart Queen Catharine, who had offered a dignified pass

was the author of a very valuable work entitled ive resistance to all the proceedings, did not quit Commentaries on the War in Russia and Germany the kingdom, but took up her residence first at

in 1812-13 (Lond. 1850). See vol. v. of Kinglake's Ampthill

, in Bedfordshire, and afterwards at Kim Invasion of the Crimea. bolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, where she led an austere religious life until, on 7th January 1536, Cathe'dral, from a Greek word cathedra, she died, by poison said rumour, but most likely of signifying a seat. Thus, to speak ex cathedra, cancer of the heart. Queen Catharine's personal is to speak as from a seat of authority. The character was unimpeachable, and her disposition cathedral city is the seat of the bishop of the sweet and gentle.

diocese, and his throne is placed in the cathedral Catharine of Braganza. See CHARLES II. church, which is the parish church of the whole

diocese. The diocese was, in fact, anciently called Catharine Parr. See PARR.

parochia, until the application of this name to Cathartics (Gr. kathairā, I purify'), a name the smaller portions into which it was divided. originally for all medicines supposed to purify the Cathedrals vary in rank with the dignity of the see system from the matter of disease (materies morbi), to which they belong, and may be episcopal, archiwhich was generally presumed by the ancients to episcopal, metropolitan, or patriarchal. Anciently exist in all cases of fever and acute disease, and to only a cathedral was styled matrix ecclesia, but now require to be separated or thrown off by the differ- this title is applied to all churches, even parochial ent excretions of the body.. Ultimately the term only, which have other churches or chapels dependcathartics became limited in its signification to ent on them. When two cathedrals are found in remedies acting on the bowels, which are popularly the same town (as is sometimes the case), they are called Purgatives (9.v.)--a mere translation of the called 'con-cathedrals.'. In the Roman Church the Greek word. See also CONSTIPATION.

establishment, suppression, or union of cathedrals Cathay is the name by which the Chinese em is reserved to the pope alone. A cathedral town pire was commonly known in Europe during has generally been understood to be entitled to medieval times-in connection with Marco Polo's the honours of a city, even although the town be travels, for example; and Kitai is still the Russian | not a borough incorporate ; but in the case of Manname for China. Cathay, originally Khitai, is chester the claim was disallowed by a court of law. derived from the Khitan, the earliest of the northern The distinction between cathedral and collegiate races known to have conquered China (possibly ! churches consists principally in the see of the akin to the Tunguses), who disappeared about i bishop being at the former. * The governing body

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of a cathedral is called the dean and chapter-i.e. mortally wounded by a musket-ball, and his troops
the dean and canons who meet for corporate pur- immediately dispersed. He was carried to st
poses in the chapter-house of the cathedral. The Florent, where he died twelve days later, July 11,
property of the cathedral vests in this body. In 1793. Cathelineau was a man of great simplicity
England they elect the bishop of the diocese on the and honesty of character, and his piety was such
issue of a congé d'élire from the crown, but as the that he was called the Saint of Anjou.
person to be elected is always named, and they
may be compelled by a mandamus to elect that

Catherine. See CATHARINE. person and no other, the election is merely a form.

Ca'theter (Gr. kathiēmi, ‘I thrust into') was a The bishop is 'visitor' of the dean and chapter,

name applied indifferently to all instruments for and the metropolitan is visitor of all cathedrals passing along mucous canals. In modern times, within his province ; while the crown holds that however, it has generally been reserved for tubular office during the vacancy of the archbishopric. In

rods through which fluids or air may pass, and England, all cathedrals are distinguished as being is now restricted to those used for emptying the either of the old or the new foundation. The urinary bladder, and those used for injecting air cathedrals of the old foundation are those which

or fluids into the Eustachian tube (Eustachian have from the first been served by secular canons ;

Catheter). The catheter for the former purpose those of the new foundation were originally is a very old surgical instrument. The ancients monastic churches, and served by monks. These made theirs of copper, which accumulated verwere dissolved at the Reformation, being then digris. In the 9th century silver was substituted refounded on the footing of the secular churches. by the Arabian surgeons as a cleanlier metal, and By the Act of 1840, all members of cathedrals,

is still used by all who are not obliged, for econom. except the dean, are styled canons. Their seat ical reasons, to have their catheters made of in the cathedral is called their stall. They are

German silver or pewter. The urinary catheter no longer called prebendaries in most cathedrals, for the male varies in length from 10 to 11 inches ; but this title is retained in the cathedrals of York, the female catheter need not be more than 4 or 5 London, Wells, Chichester, Exeter, Hereford,

inches. The form is a matter of less importance, Lichfield, St Davids, and St Asaph. In two but most surgeons prefer an instrument straight to cathedrals, Lincoln and Salisbury, both titles are

within the last few inches of its length ; the latter used simultaneously, and the holders are styled should be curved into the segment of a small circle. and prebendaries.' In all these cases,

Others, however, use a double curve, and indeed however, the prebendaries rank below the canons nearly every surgeon has a peculiar fancy in this residentiary, and save for their slender prebends, respect.

Flexible catheters are made of gum are on almost the same footing as the 'honorary elastic (see BOUGIES), which may be used either canons' of recent institution, who have no share in alone or supported on a wire. Many other materials the cathedral revenues or government. At St have been proposed, but vulcanised india-rubber is Davids the first cursal prebend' vests in the

the only one generally in use. The Eustachian crown, and the sovereign is senior prebendary of catheter is generally made of metal or vulcanite, 6 that cathedral. The French kings enjoyed similar

or 7 inches in length, with the last inch or less privileges in six chapters, and the German emperor slightly curved. It is introduced into the Euswas ex officio canon of St Peter's at Rome. Canons

tachian tube along the floor of the nose, and air must reside three months in each year. The Act of or fluid may be forced along it by an india-rubber 1840 allows to the canons of Durham, Manchester, bag which can be attached to it. "See, under EAR, St Paul's, and Westminster, an income of £1000 Diseases of the Ear, vol. iv. p. 158. per annum ; to those of every other cathedral in Ca'thode. See ANODE, England, £500. The bishop was always considered of common right to have the patronage of canonries, only name recognised by those often termed 'Irving

Catholic and Apostolic Church is the but formerly there were exceptions. Now, the ites-a name which they repudiate as implying appointment to all canonries is vested either in that they are sectarians and followers of a man. the bishop or in the crown. Where the bishop is In the winter of 1829-30 the Rev. Edward Irving patron, he 'collates, and the dean and chapter (q.v.), then a minister of the Scotch Church, induct,' by placing the new canon in a stall in the Regent Square, London, delivered a series of church. The crown appoints by letters-patent, and lectures on spiritual gifts, in which he maintained the canon is installed without collation. Honorary that those which we are in the habit of calling canons have no emoluments, but rank after the extraordinary' or 'miraculous' were not meant canons residentiary. Minor canons, of whom there

to be confined to the primitive church, but to be are from two to six in each cathedral, perform the continued through the whole period of the present daily choral services. The cathedral service is the dispensation. About the same time, as if to con; usual Church of England service intoned, with an

firm the views of the great preacher, there occurred anthem and the psalms chanted. For the general at Port-Glasgow, in the west of Scotland, and else, plan of cathedral buildings, see CHURCH. The where, certain strange phenomena. It was alleged 34 English and Welsh cathedrals are noticed under that miraculous acts of healing had happened, and their respective cities. A pro-cathedral is a church

that the gift of tongues had returned.

After that temporarily serves as a cathedral. See Dean what seemed to be a sufficient investigation on the Goulburn's Cathedral System (1871).

part of some of the members of Mr Irving's church, Cathelineau, JACQUES, leader of the Vendeans it was concluded that the manifestations were in their obstinate resistance to the French Republic, genuine. Similar manifestations shortly after was born of humble parentage at Pin-en-Mauge, occurred in his own church, which were also proLower Anjou, in 1759. But a poor linen-merchant nounced to be genuine. They were held to be of at the outbreak of the Revolution in the spring of two kinds : lst, speaking in tongues, and 2d, pro1793, he put himself at the head of a handful of phesying. As the former bore no resemblance to stubborn recruits, and soon became famous for the any language with which men were conversant, it courage and success of his exploits, the greatest of was believed to be strictly an unknown tongue,' which was the storming of Cholet. Spite of his the Holy Ghost using the tongue of man as a sign own modesty, the supreme command was forced in a manner which neither his own intellect could upon him after the victory of Saumur. He immedi. dictate, nor that of any other man comprehend.' ately determined to make an attack upon Nantes, | The latter, 'prophesying,' consisted chiefly of 'exand managed to penetrate into the town, but was hortations to holiness, light upon Scripture, open


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ings of prophecy, and explanations of symbols. In are services daily at 6 o'clock A. M. and 5 P.M. ; 1831 Irving was deposed from his office for heresy prayers at 9 A.M. and 3 P.M.; the litany every by the Church of Scotland, but meanwhile the Wednesday and Friday; and the eucharist is celetruths of which he was so eminent an exponent | brated every Lord's Day, or, where there are clergy had been assuming a more definite shape. He died enough, daily. The liturgy, dating from 1842, is in 1834. It was not till July 1835 that the Catholic mainly based on those of the Greek, Roman and and Apostolic Church took definite ecclesiastical Anglican liturgies, with additional prayers. Lights shape. With this organisation Irving had no con and incense are used; and the vestments (surcern, nor had he anticipated it.

plice, alb, cope, chasuble, and stole) are similar The organisation comprises a fourfold ministry to those of the Roman communion. The Catholic (Ezek. i. and Eph. iv.)-1st, Apostle ;' 28, and Apostolic Church has established itself not

Prophet ; ' 3d, 'Evangelist; and 4th, Pastor.' only in the United Kingdom and its colonies, but
The apostles are invested with spiritual preroga on the Continent and in the United States.
tives ; they alone can minister the Holy Ghost by See the Liturgy of the Divine Offices, and The
the laying on of hands, directly or by delegation ; Purpose of God in Creation and Redemption (

through them the mysteries of God are unfolded to ed. 1888). Miller's History and Doctrines of
the church; and they decide on matters of order and Irvingism (1878) is not authoritative, but contains
discipline. Nothing that occurs in any church in much matter of interest.
the way of prophetic utterance' can be authorita-

Catholic Church. The term catholic litertively explained save by, them; and the various ally signifies universal. The phrase Catholic 'angels of the churches are bound to bring all Church is therefore equivalent to ‘universal church,' such utterances under their cognisance. The func. and cannot properly be applied to any particular sect tion of the prophet' has been already indicated. The work of an evangelist' consists in declaring

or body, such as the Roman, Anglican, Genevan,

Reformed, Lutheran, or Presbyterian, all of which the truths of the gospel, and bringing home to form merely portions more or less pure of the the church generally the principles taught by. church universal.' It occurs for the first time in the apostles. The office of the 'pastor' is that of pseudo-Ignatian Epistle to the Smyrnæans. It was ministering to the help and comfort of the vari- first employed from about 160 A.D. to mark the ous members of the flock. The 'angel' of the

difference between the orthodox universal' ChrisCatholic Apostolic congregation corresponds in a tian church and the various sects of the Gnostic limited sense to the bishop of other Christian heretics; though, afterwards, it served also to denominations ; but he has only the rank of angel

distinguish the all-embracing Christian church pastor in the universal church. The ministers of

from the religious exclusiveness of the pre-Christian each full congregation comprise an angel, with a

ages, in which the church was restricted to a single four-fold ministry (consisting of elders, prophets, nation. The formal principle of the Catholic evangelists, and pastors), and a ministry of deacons to give diaconal instruction and to take charge of Vincentius of Lerinum (434 A.D.), “Quod ubique,

Church is thus expressed in the famous canon of temporal matters

. The ministry is supported by tithes , the people giving a tenth of their income quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est"

i.e. the marks of the Catholic Church are unifor the support of the priesthood. The ordinary versality, antiquity, and unity. The name has been affairs of the church are managed by the angel in retained by the Church of Rome, which claims & council of deacons, or if needful, of priests and to be the visible successor the primitive one; deacons. The whole organisation is based on the and although Protestant divines have been careful types of the Mosaic tabernacle, in which the constitution of the Christian church is held to have consider essentially changed by the corrupt accre,

to deny its applicability to a church which they been shadowed forth.

tions of centuries, yet the term Catholic is still used The congregation of this communion do not arro

by the populace of almost every Protestant country gate to themselves the title of the Catholic Apos

as synonymous with Roman Catholic, so that from tolic Church. There is but one church built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets; the

their minds all conception of the literal meaning

of the word has vanished. For an account of the members of it throughout the world are not bap- Church of Rome, see article ROMAN CATHOLIC tised into any section-Greek, Roman, Protestant, CHURCH. established, or non-established--but into the Eternal Trinity. A community of them holding the

Catholic Creditor, in the law of Scotland, views above indicated regard themselves as

is one whose debt is secured over several or the congregation of the Catholic and Apostolic Church

whole subjects belonging to the debtor-e.g. over assembling at a given place.

two or more heritable estates. Questions of diffiThe Catholic and Apostolic Church does not differ culty arise where one of these subjects is also from other Christian bodies in regard to the com

burdened with other securities, but the other is mon doctrines of the Christian religion ; it only burdened only with the catholic security. In such accepts, in what it considers to be a fuller and more

circumstances the catholic creditor is bound so to real sense, the phenomena of Christian life. It

exercise his right as not unnece

ecessarily to injure the believes that the wonder, mystery, and miracle securities of the other creditors

. Thus, if he draw of the apostolic times were not accidental, but his whole debt from that subject on which there are essential to the divinely instituted church are other burdens postponed to his security, he must of God, and expressive of its supernatural life, assign to the postponed creditors his security over whereby a people are preparing for the second the unburdened subject. advent of Christ, the hope of which is held in Catholic Emancipation. After the Reinstant expectation. It is held that the end of formation, both in England and in Scotland, this dispensation has two phases—the gathering of Roman Catholics were subjected to many penal a first-fruits, and the subsequent great harvest, regulations and restrictions. As late as 1786 the of which it is the earnest. The doctrine of Symbol law of England, which was actually enforced ism is firmly maintained, of which the most marked in 1764-65-made it felony in a foreign Catholic feature regards the mystical presence of the Lord priest, and high treason in one who was a native under the elements of bread and wine, duly con- of the kingdom, to teach the doctrines or perform secrated by the words of the institution and the divine service according to the rites of his church. presence of the Holy Ghost. Both transubstantia- Catholics were debarred from acquiring land by tion and consubstantiation are repudiated. There I purchase. Persons educated abroad in the Catholic




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faith were declared incapable of succeeding to real tion of saints, and the sacrifice of the mass. In property, and their estates were forfeited to the the early part of this century many measures next Protestant heir. A son or other nearest rela were proposed for the removal of these disqualifition being a Protestant, was empowered to take cations, and in 1813 and succeeding years one possession of the estate of his Catholic father or bill after another for this end was thrown out. other kinsman during his life.

A Catholic was Fox, Grenville, Canning, Castlereagh, and Burdett disqualified from undertaking the guardianship were among those who made efforts in the direceven of Catholic children. Catholics were excluded tion of emancipation. Meanwhile, the agitation from the legal profession, and it was presumed on the subject among the Catholics themselves that a Protestant lawyer who married a Catholic greatly increased, and in 1824 it assumed an organhad adopted the faith of his wife. It was a capital ised shape by the formation of the Roman Cathooffence for a Catholic priest to celebrate a marriage lic Association' in Ireland, with its systematic between a Protestant and Catholic. Such was the collections for the Catholic rent.' The Duke of state of the law, not only in England but in Ireland, Wellington, who for a long time felt great repug. where the large majority of the population adhered nance to admit the Catholic claims, was at last to the old faith. În Scotland, also, Catholics were brought to the conviction that the security of the prohibited from purchasing or taking by succession empire would be imperilled by further resisting landed property. The inexpediency and irrational- them, and in 1829 a measure was introduced by the ity of imposing fetters of this description on persons duke's ministry for Catholic emancipation. An not suspected of disloyalty, and from whom danger act having been first passed for the suppression was no longer apprehended, began about 1778 to of the Roman Catholic Association—which had occupy the attention of liberal-minded statesmen ; already voted its own dissolution-the celebrated and in 1780 Sir George Saville introduced a bill for Roman Catholic Relief Bill was introduced by the repeal of some of the most severe disqualifica- Peel in the House of Commons on the 5th of tions in the case of such Catholics as would submit March, and after passing both Houses, received the to a proposed test. This test included an oath of royal assent on the 13th April. By this act (10 allegiance to the sovereign, and abjuration of the Geo. IV. chap. 7) an oath is substituted for the Pretender, a declaration of disbelief in the several oaths of allegiance, supremacy, and abjuration, doctrines, that it is lawful to put individuals to on taking which_Catholics may sit and vote in death on pretence of their being heretics ; that no either House of Parliament, and be admitted to faith is to be kept with heretics; that princes ex most other offices from which they were before communicated may be deposed or put to death; excluded. They, however, continue to be excluded and that the pope is entitled to any temporal juris- from the offices of Guardian and Justice or Regent diction within the realm. The bill, from the opera of the United Kingdom, Lord Chancellor, Lord tion of which Scotland was exempted, eventually Keeper, or Lord Commissioner of the Great Seal of passed into law.

An attempt which had been Great Britain or Ireland, and Lord High Commismade at the same time to obtain a like measure of sioner to the General Assembly of the Church of relief for the Catholics of Scotland, was defeated by Scotland. As members of corporations they could an outburst of religious fanaticism. The populace not vote in the disposal of church property or of Edinburgh, stirred up by a body called "The patronage. But the public use of their insignia of Committee for the Protestant Interest, attacked office, and of episcopal titles

and names, was denied and set fire to the Catholic chapel and the them; the extension of monachism was prohibited; houses of the clergy and of such persons as were and it was enacted that the number of Jesuits suspected to be favourable to Catholic relief. The should not be increased, and that they should frenzy spread to England, where a Protestant henceforth be subject to registration. By the Association' had been formed to oppose the resolu- Acts 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 Vict., most of the acts tions of the legislature (see GORDON, LORD still in force against Catholics were removed ; 30 GEORGE). In 1791 a bill was passed affording and 31 Vict. removed a still remaining disability, further relief to such Catholics as would sign a the office of Chancellor of Ireland being thrown protest against the temporal power of the pope, open ; though a Catholic priest may not sit in the and his authority to release from civil obligations ; House of Commons. For the prohibition (ultiand in the following year, by the statute 33 Geo. mately repealed ) against the assumption of ecclesiasIII. chap. 44, the most highly penal of the restric- tical titles in respect of places in the United King. tions bearing on the Scottish Catholics were re dom, see ECCLESIASTICAL TITLES ASSUMPTION moved without opposition, a form of oath and ACT. See also O'CONNELL, ABJURATION, ALLEGIdeclaration being prescribed, on taking ich they ANCE; and the History of Catholic Emancipation, could freely purchase or inherit landed property. by W. J. Amherst, S.J. (2 vols. 1886). Endeavours were made at the same time by the

Catholic Epistles, the name given, according Irish parliament to get rid of the more important to Clemens Alexandrinus and Origen, to certain disqualifications, and place Ireland on an equality epistles addressed not to particular churches or in point of religious freedom with England. In individuals, but either to the church universal or 1780 Grattan carried his resolution that the king to a large and indefinite circle of readers. Originand parliament of Ireland

could alone make laws ally the Catholic Epistles comprised only the first that would bind the Irish, and separation from epistle of John and the first of Peter, but at least England was urged as the alternative with repeal as early as the 3d century, and especially after the of the disqualifying statutes. The agitation culminated in the Irish rebellion of 1798 ; the union of of James, of Jude, the 2d of Peter, and the 2d and

time of Eusebius, they included also the Epistles 1800 followed, which was partly carried by means 3d of John. These seven thus constituted the of virtual pledges given by Pitt-pledges which Catholic Epistles, although the genuineness and Pitt was unable to redeem owing to the king's authenticity of the last-mentioned five were not scruples about his coronation oath, and Pitt re

universally acknowledged; but the designation signed. Meantime, in England, Catholics con

commended itself as supplying a convenient distinued subject to many minor disabilities which tinction of these letters from the fourteen bearing the above-mentioned acts failed to remove. They the name of Paul ; and this very incorporation with were excluded from sitting in parliament, and epistles whose canonicity was not questioned, natufrom enjoying numerous offices, franchises, and rally had the effect of confirming their authority, civil rights, by the requirement of signing the so that in a short time the entire seven came to be declaration against transubstantiation, the invoca- I considered a portion of the canon.

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